Alfarhan, A. & Ghazanafar, S. 1997. Conservation of medicinal plants on the Arabian Peninsula: two case studies (Salvadora persica and Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera). Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 15-16.

Amaranthus, M.P. Commercially important edible mushroom across spatial temporal scales: a case study of the American Matsutake. Portland, OR, USA, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. (in press)

Anon. 1997. Cat’s claw – a curiosity or a cure-all? (Uncaria tomentosa of Central and South America used as an anti-inflammatory by Ashanika Indians in Peru.) TRAFFIC Bull., 16(3): 87.

Atay, S. 1997. A survey of the medicinal plant trade in Turkey. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 9.

Ayala, A. & Bird, M. 1997. Brosimum alicastrum – the riches of ramon trees in Mexico. Agroforestry Today, 9(2): 26-27.

Ayedoun, M.A., Sohounhloue, D.K., Menut, C., Lamaty, G. & Bessiere, J.M. 1997. Composition chimique des huiles essentielles de deux espèces de Cymbopogon du Bénin exploitable industriellement. Bulletin africain Bioressources-Energie-Développement-Environnement, July 1997, p. 4-6.

Balick, M.J. & Cox, P.A. 1997. Plants, people, and culture: the science of ethnobotany. New York, USA, Scientific American Library.

Bizimana, N. 1994. Traditional veterinary practice in Africa. Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH.

Blench, R. 1997. Aspects of resource conflict in semi-arid Africa. ODI Natural Perspectives No.16. London, ODI.

Bloock, A. 1997. TRAFFIC Europe project on the exploitation of indigenous European medicinal plants. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 8-9.

Bodero, A. & Robadue, D. 1997. Ecuador working toward a national strategy for mangrove management. Intercoast Network (Special edition), 1: 27-28, 30.

Bodmer, R., Eisenberg, J. & Redford, K. 1997. Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammals. Conservation Biology, 11(2): 460-466.




Extension for sustainable forest management is an ongoing process taking place in a range of institutional and social settings. Often, the design and creation of new extension service is a luxury that organizations cannot afford. On the contrary, small-scale refinements and means to overcome daily obstacles are needed. A Trouble-shooter’s guide to forestry extension problems is meant as a practical aid to resolving common problems encountered in working together with local people and promoting sustainable forest management. The audience for such a guide includes field-level forestry extension workers and managers, village leaders and village extension workers, and others involved in natural resource extension programmes. It should be useful to a range of organizations from governmental services to NGOs and from local associations to international donors. ... Solutions to most extension problems must be found locally, by systematic problem solving, tapping local knowledge and skills and the application of local knowledge and expertise. (From the Preface by Mr H. El-Lakany, Assistant Director-General, FAO Forestry Department.)

To obtain copies of the guide, which is available in hard copy and electronic versions, please contact Forestry Extension Officer, Forest Conservation, Research and Education Service (FORC), Forestry Department, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
Fax: (+39 6) 570 55137;

Bolton, M., ed. 1997. Conservation and the use of wildlife resources. London, Chapman and Hall. 296 pp.

Brown, K. 1997. Plain tales from the grasslands: extraction, value and utilization of biomass in Royal Bardia National Park. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6(1): 59-74.

Bukreev, S. & Lukarevski, V. 1997. The perplexities of hunting for profit: case study, Turkmenistan. Russian Conservation News, 11: 37-39.

Campbell, B., ed. 1996. The miombo in transition. Woodlands and welfare in Africa. Bogor, Indonesia, CIFOR. 266 pp.

Cannon, P. 1997. Strategies for rapid assessment of fungal diversity. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6(5): 669-680.

Chan, F. & Dionglay, M. 1996. Utilization of giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seed flour as plywood glue extender. FPRDI Journal, 22(2): 1-14.

Clay, J. 1997. Market opportunities for addressing the environmental and social impacts of wild-captured and pond-produced shrimp. Intercoast Network (Special edition), 1: 18.

Cook, G. 1997. Ecotourism at Baikal: a review of recent reports. Russian Conservation News, 11: 18-20.

Coones, O.T. & Burt, G.J. 1997. Indigenous market-oriented agroforestry: dissecting local diversity in western Amazonia. Agroforestry Systems, 37(1): 27-44.

Coronel, R. 1996. Pili nut. Canarium ovatum Engl. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 6. Gatersleben, Germany/Rome, Italy, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

Cunningham, A.B. 1996. People, park and plant use. Recommendations for multiple-use zones and development alternatives around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. People and Plants Working Paper No. 4. Paris, UNESCO.

Cunningham, A. 1997a. The "Top 50" listings and the Medicinal Plants Action Plan. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 5-7.

Cunningham, A. 1997b. Identification guide for Prunus africana: bark and products in international trade. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 18-20.

Cunningham, M. 1997. Review of trade structure and elaboration of an identification guide for Prunus africana. Unpublished report for BfN, Betty’s Bay. 41 pp.

Dawson, I. 1997. Prunus africana: how agroforestry can help save an endangered medicinal tree. Agroforestry Today, 9(2): 15-17.

De Jong, W. 1997. Uña de gato: fortune and fate of a Peruvian forest resource. CIFOR News, 14.

Dennis, F. 1997. UK medicinal plant trade study. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 9.

Desarrollo Forestal Campesino. 1997a. Manejo de bosques nativos andinos. Metodología para la planificación participativa. Documento de trabajo No. 6. INEFAN/FAO-Países Bajos. Quito, Ecuador.

Desarrollo Forestal Campesino. 1997b. Alternativas técnicas para manejar sustentablemente los bosques nativos andinos. INEFAN/FAO-Países Bajos. Quito, Ecuador.

Dicum, G., ed. 1995. Local heritage in the changing tropics: innovative strategies for natural resource management and control. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin Series No. 98. New Haven, CT, USA, Yale University.

Difazio, S.P., Vance, N.C. & Wilson, M.V. Reproductive potential and growth of pacific yew under a range of overstory conditions. Can. J. For. Res. (in press)

Dove, M. 1996a. Process versus product in Bornean augury: a traditional knowledge system’s solution to the problem of knowing. In E. Roy & K. Fukui, eds. Redefining nature, ecology culture and domestication. Oxford, UK and Washington, DC, Berg Publishers.

Dove, M. 1996b. Rice-eating rubber and people-eating governments: peasant versus state critiques of rubber development in colonial Borneo. Ethnohistory, 43:(1): 33-63.

Dove, M. & Kammen, D.M. 1997. The epistemology of sustainable resource use: managing forest products, swiddens and high-yielding variety crops. Human Org., 56(1): 91-101.

Dutfield, G. & Ghate, U. 1997. Implementing article 8(j) of the CBD through peoples’ biodiversity registers. Bull. Working Group on Traditional Resource Rights, 4: 14-16.

Eaton, D. & Sarch, M.T. 1997. The economic importance of wild resources in Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Nigeria. CREED Working Paper Series No. 13. London, Collaborative Research in the Economics of Environment and Development.

Edwards. 1996. Non-timber forest products from Nepal: aspects of the trade in medicinal and aromatic plants. Kathmandu, Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Forest Research and Survey Centre. 134 pp.

Emperaire, L. 1996. La forêt en jeu: l’extractivisme en Amazonie centrale. Paris, ORSTOM/UNESCO.

Everett, Y. 1997. Building capacity for a sustainable non-timber forest products industry in the Trinity bioregion: lessons drawn from international models. Rural Development Forestry Network Paper No. 20a. London, ODI.

FAO/PNUMA. 1996. Estudios de caso de especies vegetales para las zonas áridas y semiáridas de Chile y México. Santiago, Chile, FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. 143 pp.

FAO/RAP. 1997a. Proceedings of the First Asian Symposium on Industrial Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Bangkok, Thailand, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Publication 1997/5.

FAO/RAP. 1997b. Proceedings of the Regional Expert Consultation on the Asian Network on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Bangkok, Thailand, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Publication 1997/6.

Freese, C. 1997. The commercial, consumptive uses of wild species: implications for biodiversity conservation. Washington, DC, WWF.

Freese, C., ed. 1997. Harvesting wild species. Implications for biodiversity. Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Johns Hopkins University Press. 704 pp.

Fundación Sabiduría Indígena & Brij Kothari. 1997. Compensating indigenous peoples for their intellectual contribution. Human Org., 56(2): 127-137.

Fusun Ertug-Yaras. 1997. An ethnoarchaeological study of subsistence and plant gathering in central Anatolia. Washington University. UMI reference: AAT 9730941. 768 pp. (Ph.D. thesis)

Giron, M., Garcia, C. & San Pablo, M. 1996. Efficacy of elemi (Canarium spp.) oil against wood-destroying organisms. FPRDI Journal, 22(2): 49-53.

Hall, J.B., Aebischer, D.P., Tomlison, H.F., Osei-Amaning, E. & Hindle, J.R. 1996. Vitellaria paradoxa: a monograph. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication No. 8. Bangor, UK, University of Wales.

Hammer, M. & Bean, A. 1997. Madagascar’s "forgotten" periwinkle (Catharantus coriaceus). Plant Talk, 9: 30-31

Hegde, R., Suryaprakash, S., Achoth, L. & Bawa, K.S. 1996. Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 1. Contribution to rural income. Econ. Bot., 50(3): 243-251; 12 ref.

Heller, J. 1996. Physic nut: Jatropha curcas L. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 1. Gatersleben, Germany/Rome, Italy, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

Hersch-Martinez, P. 1997. Medicinal plants and regional traders in Mexico: physiographic differences and conservational challenge. Econ. Bot., 51(2): 107-120.

Hidayat, S. 1997. Medicinal plant conservation activities at Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 12-13.

Hladik, C.M., Hladik, A., Pagezy, H., Linares, O.F., Koppert, G.J.A. & Froment, A., eds. 1996. L’alimentation en forêt tropicale: interactions bioculturelles et perspectives de développement. Vol. 1. Les ressources alimentaires: production et consommation. Vol. 2. Bases culturelles des choix alimentaires et stratégies de développement. Paris, UNESCO.

Hong-Jen, C. 1997. Strategies for regulating medicinal use of protected animals in Taiwan. TRAFFIC Bull., 16(3): 117-120.

Hosford, D., Pilz, D., Molina, R. & Amaranthus, M. 1997. Ecology and management of the commercially harvested American matsutake mushroom. General technical report PNW 412. Portland, OR, USA, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

IIED. 1997. Valuing the hidden harvest: methodological approaches for local-level valuation of wild resources. Sustainable Agriculture Research Series Vol. 3, No. 4. London, IIED. 71 pp.

IIED & HNWCP. 1997. Local level assessment of the economic importance of wild resources in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Nigeria. Hidden Harvest Project, Research Series Vol. 3, No. 3. London, IIED.

IUCN. 1997. Non-timber forest products from the tropical forests of Africa: a bibliography. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Netherlands Committee for IUCN.

Jain, S.K., ed. 1997. Contribution to Indian ethnobotany. 3rd ed. India, Jodhpur Scientific Publishers. 322 pp.

Johnson, L. 1997. The role of community in ecotourism – the impact of tourism and possible alternatives from one community’s perspective: Paeng Daeng Village, Chiang Dao. Asia-Pacific Community Forestry Newsletter, 10(1): 15, 18, 24.

Kant, S. 1997. Integration of biodiversity conservation in tropical forest and economic development of local communities. J. Sustainable Forestry, 4: 1-2; 33-61; 73 ref.

Kasparek, M., Groeger, A. & Schippmann, U. 1996. Directory for medicinal plants conservation. Networks, organizations, projects, information sources. Bonn, Germany, German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation and IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. 156 pp.

Kepe, T. 1997. Communities, entitlements and nature reserves: the case of Wild Coast, South Africa. IDS Bull., 28(4).

Khasa, P.D. & Dancik, B.P. 1997a. Managing for biodiversity in tropical forests. J. Sustainable Forestry, 4(1/2): 1-31.

Khasa, P.D. & Dancik, B.P. 1997b. Sustaining tropical forest biodiversity. J. Sustainable Forestry, 5(1/2): 217-234.

Lämås, T. 1996. Forest management planning for biodiversity and timber production. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden. (dissertation)

Lambert, J., Srivastava, J. & Vietmayer, N. 1997. Medicinal plants: rescuing a global heritage. World Bank Technical Paper. Washington, DC, World Bank.

Lange, D. 1997a. Trade in botanical drugs in Bulgaria. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 13-14.

Lange, D. 1997b. Trade figures for botanical drugs worldwide. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 16-17.

Lange, D. & Schippmann, U. 1997. Trade survey of medicinal plants in Germany. A contribution to international plant species conservation. Münster, Germany, Bundesamt für Natürschutz.

Laurance, W. 1997. Effects of logging on wildlife in the tropics. Conservation Biology, 11(2): 311-312.

Leimar, L. 1997. Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand. Human Org., 56(2).

Lewis, D. & Alpert, P. 1997. Trophy hunting and wildlife conservation in Zambia. Conservation Biology, 11(1): 59-68.

Love, T. & Jones, E. (in review). Mushroom harvesters as managers? excluding local knowledge and the paradigm crisis of temperate forestry.

Mabille, Y. 1997. NTFP and agroforestry: agricultural prospects for non-timber forest products. Gate, 2: 38-43 (April-June).

Mahapatra, A. & Mitchell, C.P. 1997. Sustainable development of non-timber forest products: implication for forest management in India. Forest Ecology and Management, 94(1-3): 15-29.

Malek-Zedah, E. & Miller, J.A. 1996. The ecotourism equation: measuring the impacts. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin Series No. 99. New Haven, CT, USA, Yale University.

Masood, E. 1997. Medicinal plants threatened by over-use. Nature, 385(6617): 670.

McLain, R. & Jones, E. 1997. The importance of redefining "community" for sustainable natural resource management: the case of mushroom harvesting in the USA. International Institute for Environment and Development. Sustainable Agriculture Gatekeeper Series No. 68. London, IIED.

McLaren, D. 1997. Rethinking tourism and ecotravel: the paving of paradise and how you can stop it. West Hartford, CT, USA, Kumarian Press.

Mehra, R., Alcott, M. & Baling, N. 1996. Women and mangroves: an experiment in conservation and income. Intercoast Network, 28: 9-10. (Cogtong Bay Mangrove Management Project, the Philippines)

Melynk, M. & Bell, J. 1996. The direct-use values of tropical moist forest foods: the Hottuja (Piaroa) Amerindians of Venezuela. Ambio, 25(7): 468-472.



Essential oils are aromatic, volatile extractives from plants (leaves, flowers, fruit, bark and wood usually obtained by the technologically simple process of steam distillation. They are used as flavours, fragrances and for medicinal or health purposes. Although many of the components of essential oils can be produced synthetically, a market preference for natural products has ensured not only the survival of the industry but provided it with a steady growth rate. Prospects for the future also look good as living standards rise and especially in Asia with a culture of utilizing natural products.

Various Melaleuca species have provided the basis for major industries, e.g. Australian tea tree oil, cajuput oil (Indonesia) and niaouli oil (New Caledonia). The Indonesian cajuput oil industry, which is based on the leaf oils of both natural and planted stands of M. cajuputi is described as an example of the successful use of tropical melaleuca for oil production.

The study hoped to identify some new or interesting oils in the species screened that might have commercial potential, so as to increase the range of options available to would-be essential oil producers in tropical environments.

Predicting which of the oils highlighted in this report could be the basis of new industries, and in what localities production would be feasible, is difficult. Any new development must be market-driven, so inputs are now required from industry to identify possible oils of commerce. Once suitable oils are identified, the next step of evaluating the performance of the source species in a range of environments can proceed. (From J.J. Brophy & J.C. Doran. 1996. Essential oils of Asteromyrtus, Callistemon and Melaleuca species. [Preface.] ACIAR Monograph No. 40. 144 pp.)

Millat-e-Mustafa, Md., Fazlul Hoque, A.K., Kalam Azad, Md. A. & Uddin Ahmed Farid. 1997. Plant resources of the traditional homegardens in Bangladesh. J. Sustainable Forestry, 5(3/4): 153-168.

Molina, R., Vance, N., Weigand, J., Pilz, D. & Amaranthus, M. 1997. Special forest products: integrating social, economic, and biological considerations into adaptive ecosystem management. In K. Kohm & J. Franklin, eds. Creating a forestry for the 21st century, p. 315-336. Washington, DC, Island Press.

Mood, J. 1996. The native gingers of Sabah. Bull. Heliconia Soc. Int., 8(3/4): 1-8. (Conservation areas for ginger conservation)

Murali, K.S., Uma Shankar, Shaanker, R.U., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Bawa, K.S. & Shankar, U. 1996. Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 2. Impact of NTFP extraction on regeneration, population structure and species composition. Econ. Bot., 50(3): 252-269; 21 ref.

Mutchnick, P. & McCarthy, B. 1997. An ethnobotanical analysis of the tree species common to the subtropical moist forests of the Petén, Guatemala. Econ. Bot., 51(2): 158-183.

Padoch, C. & Peluso, N.L., eds. People, forests, conservation and development. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Oxford University press.

Palm, M. & Chapela, I., eds. 1997. Mycology in sustainable development: expanding concepts, vanishing borders. Cardiff, UK, Cardiff Academic Press.

Papadopulos, V. & Gordon, A. 1997. Non-timber tree products: a partial inventory of products available in the Mount Cameroon area. NRI Socio-economic Series No. 11. Chatham, UK, Natural Resources Institute.

Patel, D.P., Verma, V.D., Lokhnatan, T.R., Bhatt, K.C. & Mishra, J.B. 1997. Simarouba glauca: a non-traditional oil source. Ind. F., 47(1): 7-10.

Posey, D. 1997. Indigenous knowledge, biodiversity and international rights, a case study. Commonw. For. Rev., 76(1): 53-60.

Prakash, S. 1997. Poverty and environment linkages in mountains and uplands: reflections on the "poverty trap" thesis. CREED Working Paper Series No. 12. London, Collaborative Research in the Economics of Environment and Development.

Pratibha Bhatnagar. 1996. Leaves from the forest: a case study of Bahuinia vahii in Madhya Pradesh. Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development, 34 Tagore Nagar, Modi Colony, Jabalpur 482008 (M.P.), India.

Rai, S.C. & Sundriyal, R.C. 1997. Tourism and biodiversity conservation: the Sikkim Himalaya. Ambio, 26(4): 235-242.

Ram Prasad, Shukla, P.K. & Pratibha Bhatnagar. 1996. Leaves from the forest: a case study of Diospyros melanoxylon (tendu leaves) in Madhya Pradesh. Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development, 34 Tagore Nagar, Modi Colony, Jabalpur 482008 (M.P.), India.

Resor, J. 1997. Debt-for-nature swaps: a decade of experience and new directions for the future. Unasylva, 48(188): 15-22.

Richards, M. 1997. Missing a moving target? Colonist technology development on the Amazon frontier. London, ODI.

Robbins, C. 1997. US medicinal plant trade studies. TRAFFIC Bull., 16(3): 121-125.

Robin, N. & Roberts, S., eds. 1997. Unlocking trade opportunities. Case studies of export success from developing countries. London, International Institute for Environment and Development for the UN Department of Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development.

Ruiz Pérez, M. & Arnold, J.E.M., eds. 1996. Current issues in non-timber forest products research. Indonesia, CIFOR.

Rural Research. Bush foods. Special feature. Rural Research, 172 (Spring 1996). A CSIRO quarterly.

Saenger, P., Sankare, Y., Baglo, M., Isebor, C., Armah, A. & Nganje, M. 1997. The Gulf of Guinea project: managing mangroves to protect biodiversity in West Africa. Intercoast Network (Special edition), 1: 30.

Schippmann, U., compiler. 1997. Medicinal plant conservation bibliography. Vol. 1. Bonn, Germany, IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. 61 pp.

Secretaría Pro Tempore – Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica. 1997. Procesamiento a pequeña escala de frutas y hortalizas amazonicas nativas e introducidas. Manual técnico. SPT-TCA 52. Lima, Peru. 214 pp.

Sharma, A. 1997. In situ conservation of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert of India. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 10.

Shiva, M.P. & Mathur, R.B. 1996. Standard NTFP classification and documentation manual. Khanna Bandhu, 7 Tilak Road, Dehra Dun, India. 40 pp.

Shiva, M.P. & Mathur, R.B. 1997. Ready Reckoner/Monograph No. 2. Agaves. Khanna Bandhu, 7 Tilak Road, Dehra Dun, India. 22 pp.

Shiva, M.P., Mathur, R.B., Sarin, Y.K. & Tangri, R. 1997. Ready Reckoner/Monograph No. 1. Aleurites fordii. Khanna Bandhu, 7 Tilak Road, Dehra Dun, India. 20 pp.

Siddiqui, N. 1997. Management of resources in the Sundarbans mangroves of Bangladesh. Intercoast Network (Special edition), 1: 22-23.

Silbaugh, J.M. & Betters, D.T. 1997. Biodiversity values and measures applied to forest management. J. Sustainable Forestry, 5(1/2): 235-24.

Silou, T. & Avouompo, E. 1997. Perspectives de production de l’huile de safou (Dacryodes edulis). Bulletin africain Bioressources-Energie-Développement-Environnement, July 1997, p. 7-13.

Sizer, N. 1996. Profit without plunder. Reaping revenue from Guyana’s tropical forests without destroying them. Washington, DC, WRI.

Statz, J. 1997. Non-timber forest products: a key to sustainable tropical forest management? Gate, 2: 4-11 (April-June).

Taylor, D. 1997. Saving the forest for the trees: alternative products from woodlands. Env., 39(1).

Templin Richards, R. 1997. What the natives know: wild mushrooms and forest health. J. For., 95(9).

Tshiamala-Tshibangu, N., Essimbi, E.P. & Ndjigba, J.D. 1997. Utilisation des produits forestiers non-ligneux au Cameroun. Cas du projet forestier de Korup. Nature et Faune, 13(2): 3-20.

Uma Shankar, Murali, K.S., Shaanker, R.U., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Bawa, K.S. & Shankar, U. 1996. Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 3. Productivity, extraction and prospects of sustainable harvest of amla Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceae). Econ. Bot., 50(3): 270-279; 14 ref.

USDA. 1996a. Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report No. 371. Washington, DC, United States Department of Agriculture.

USDA. 1996b. Conservation and development of non-timber forest products in the Pacific Northwest: an annotated bibliography. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report No. 375. Washington, DC, United States Department of Agriculture.

Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. 1997. Non-timber forest products of East Kalimantan. Potentials for sustainable forest use. Tropenbos Series No. 16. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Tropenbos Foundation. 102 pp.

Vance, N. & Thomas, J., eds. 1997. Special forest products: biodiversity meets the marketplace. Report GTR-WO-63. Washington, DC, USDA-Forest Service.

Vogel, J. 1996. The successful use of economic instruments to foster sustainable use of biodiversity. Six case studies from Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC, Biodiversity Support Program, WWF.

Vorhies, F. 1997. Environmental economics explained. Part 1. How economic valuation can help pay for conservation. Plant Talk, 9: 28-29.

Walter, S. 1997. The situation of Prunus africana in Madagascar, 1997. Medicinal Plant Conservation, 3: 14-15.

Waters, J.R., McKelvey, K.S., Luoma, D.L. & Zabel, C.J. 1997. Truffle production in old-growth and mature fir stands in northeastern California. Forest Ecology and Management, 96(1-2): 155-166.

Weber, J. 1997. Peach palm. Bequeathing a legacy of genetic wealth to resource-poor farmers. Agroforestry Today, 9(2): 23-25.

Wickramasinghe, A., Perez Ruiz, M. & Blockhus, J. 1996. Non-timber forest product gathering in Ritigala Forest (Sri Lanka): household strategies and community differentiation. Human Ecol., 24(4).

Wild, R.G. & Mutebi, J. 1996. Conservation through community use of plant resources. Establishing collaborative management at Bwindi Impenetrable and Mgahinga Gorilla National Parks, Uganda. People and Plants Working Paper No. 5. Paris, UNESCO.

Wood Sheldon, J., Balick, J. & Laird, S. 1997. Medicinal plants: Can utilization and conservation coexist? Advances in Economic Botany, 12.

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