Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study: Regional Study on Wood Energy Today and Tomorrow in Asia













Table of Contents


ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY SECTOR OUTLOOK STUDY

WORKING PAPER SERIES

Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/34

by

REGIONAL WOOD ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN ASIA

GCP/RAS/154/NET

Forestry Policy and Planning Division, Rome
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok

November 1997

The Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study is being undertaken under the auspices of the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission.

This report comes under Workplan Number 26.3.

The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) alone and do not imply any opinion on the part of the FAO. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

This publication is being released under the Outlook Study Working Paper series in parallel with publication by the FAO Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia, Bangkok, Thailand. The RWEDP series number is Field Document No. 50, October 1997. The original RWEDP publication has maps and other illustrations excluded from this version.

Copies can be obtained from: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok, Thailand. Tel: 66-2-280 2760, Fax: 66-2-280 0760, E-mail: RWEDP@field.fao.org.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


INFORMATION NOTE ON ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY SECTOR OUTLOOK STUDY

FOREWORD

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Purpose of the Study
Wood Energy Today

Role of Woodfuels
Sources of Woodfuels
The "Fuelwood Gap Theory" Rejected
Consumption of Woodfuels
Substitution
Environmental Aspects
Social Aspects
Data Availability
Prices
Policies

Wood Energy Tomorrow

Trends in Demand
Prices
Trends in Supply Potential
Outlook for the Demand-Supply Balance
Supply Policies

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions
Recommendations

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Characteristics of Woodfuel
1.2. Policy Areas
1.3. The Present Study

2. MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT WOOD ENERGY

3. THE "FUELWOOD GAP THEORY" REJECTED

3.1. Doom Scenario Nepal
3.2. Sources of Fuelwood
3.3. Oversupply of Yields from Deforestation
3.4. Pakistan Household Energy Strategy Study (World Bank/ESMAP and UNDP, 1993)
3.5. Case Study: Cebu, Philippines
3.6. Land-use Conversion
3.7. Quotes

4. SELECTED WOOD ENERGY DATA

4.1. Energy Balances in RWEDP Member-countries
4.2. Sources of Woodfuels
4.3. Woodfuels and Employment
4.4. Woodfuel Use and Value of Woodfuels
4.5. Share of Woodfuel in Total Roundwood Production
4.6. Forest and Wood Processing Residues
4.7. Agro-residues as a Source of Energy

5. WOOD ENERGY CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

5.1. Macro Analysis of Wood Energy Consumption

5.1.1. Population Trends
5.1.2. Economic Growth and Income Patterns
5.1.3. Total Energy Consumption Trends
5.1.4. Wood Energy Consumption Trends
5.1.5. Constraints on Macro Analysis

5.2. Sectoral Analysis of Wood Energy Consumption
5.3. Wood Energy Consumption in the Household Sector
5.4. Consumption in Fuelwood-gathering Households

5.4.1. Effects of Population Size
5.4.2. Effects of Income Levels
5.4.3. Access Constraints
5.4.4. Prospects for Fuelwood-gathering Households

5.5. Consumption of Traded Woodfuels

5.5.1. Household Consumption Patterns
5.5.2. Impacts of Urbanization
5.5.3. Urban Poverty and Woodfuel Consumption
5.5.4. Impacts of Changing Social Norms
5.5.5. Household-based Livelihood Activities
5.5.6. Use in Industries and Enterprises
5.5.7. Modern Applications of Wood Energy
5.5.8. Prospects for Traded Woodfuels

6. WOODFUEL SUPPLY POLICIES

6.1. Current Issues

6.1.1. Supply Sources and Sustainability
6.1.2. Traded Versus Non-traded Supply
6.1.3. Wood Energy, Poverty and Rural Employment
6.1.4. Environmental Implications of Woodfuel Use
6.1.5. Availability, Accessibility and Affordability
6.1.6. Woodfuel as a By-product

6.2. Prospects

6.2.1. Aspects of Supply Enhancement
6.2.2. Strategies for Supply Enhancement
6.2.3. Recommendations

7. ESTIMATES OF WOOD ENERGY CONSUMPTION

7.1. Consumption Patterns

7.1.1. Woodfuel as a Commodity
7.1.2. Consumer Groups
7.1.3. Amounts Consumed

7.2. Dynamics of Consumption

7.2.1. Consumer Options
7.2.2. Site-specificity
7.2.3. Macro-level Factors: Population, GNP, Prices

7.3. Consumption Data

7.3.1. Databases
7.3.2. Best Estimates

7.4. Consumption Outlook

7.4.1. Projections

8. SUPPLY & CONSUMPTION OUTLOOK

8.1. Country Balances
8.2. Notes on the Detailed Woodfuel Tables

9. IMPLICATIONS OF WOODFUEL USE FOR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

9.1. CO2 Emissions
9.2. Example: Benefits of Wood Energy Development
9.3. Global Environmental Policy

10. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

10.1. Conclusions
10.2. Recommendations

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEXES

ANNEX 1 - WOOD & BIOMASS ENERGY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

A1.1. Introduction
A1.2. Analysis of Available Data Base Systems and Definitions Used with Regard to Woodfuels and Other Biomass Energy Sources

A1.2.1. FAO Forest Products Yearbook
A1.2.2. United Nations
A1.2.3. IEA Energy Statistics
A1.2.4. Other Sources Including EDP-Asia

A1.3. "Best" Estimate for Wood/biomass Energy Use
A1.4. Outlook for the Near Future
A1.5. Conclusions

ANNEX 2 - TABLE: CORRELATION BETWEEN FAO-PUBLISHED DATA FOR TOTAL FUELWOOD PRODUCTION AND POPULATION IN RWEDP MEMBER COUNTRIES 1964-1994
ANNEX 3 - REFERENCES

LIST OF WORKING PAPERS ALREADY RELEASED