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APPENDIX TABLE 11

RURAL NON-FARM INCOME: STUDIES REVIEWED

 
 Region/Country
Year
Source2

AFRICA
   
Botswana
1974/75
1985/86
Valentine (1993)

Burkina Faso 
1978/79
1981-85
Barrett et al. (1982)
Reardon et al. (1994)
Ethiopia
1989/90
Webb & Reardon (1992)
Gambia
1985/86
von Braun, Puetz & Wenn (1989)
Kenya
1974/75
1987/89
1984
Collier and Lal (1984)
Francis and Hoddinot (1993)
Livingstone (1991)
Lesotho
1976
Low (1986)
Malawi
1990/91
Peters (1992)
Mali
1988/89
Sundberg (1989)
Mozambique
1991
Tschirley & Weber (1994)
Namibia
1992/93
Keyler (1996)
Niger
1989/90
Hopkins & Reardon (1993) 
Nigeria
1966/67
1974/75
Norman (1973)
Matlon (1979)
Rwanda
1991
Reardon & Clay (1998) 
Senegal
1988/90
Kelly et al. (1993)
South Africa
1982/86
Nattrass & Nattrass (1990)
Sudan
1988
Teklu, von Braun & Zaki (1991)
United Rep. of Tanzania
1980
Collier et al. (1990)
Zimbabwe
1988/89
Chopak (1991)

ASIA
   
Bangladesh
1987
1963
1973
1976
1982
Hossain (1994)
Oshima (1986)


Hossain (1987)
China
1988
1979-1986
1992
Lin (1994)
Jiang &Luo (1987)
FAO (1992)
India
n.a.
1987
1975/76-1979/80
1981
1957/58
1962/63
1974/75
1983/84
1968/69
1969/70
1970/71
1975/76
Chadha (1986)
Ramasamy, Paramasivam & Kandaswamy (1994)
Walker, Singh & Binswanger (1983)
Ahmed (1995/96)
Lanjouw & Stern (1993)



Hazell & Haggblade (1991)



Indonesia
1987
n.a
1977
1983
Jatileksono (1994)
Hafid (1979)
Kasryno (1986)
Japan
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1978
Oshima (1986)






Saith (1986)
Malaysia
1974
1973
1979
1980
1981
Shand (1986)
Oshima (1986)

Shand (1986)

Nepal
1987
Uphadhyaya & Thapa (1994)
Pakistan
1968
1986/89
1980/81
1979/80
1986/89
Anderson & Leiserson (1980)
 Adams (1994)
 Ahmed (1995/96)
 Arif, Ahmed & Jannison (1982)
 Garcia & Alderman (1993)
Philippines
1985
n.a.
1970
1984/85
1974
1987
1985
1966
1986
1990
1994
David, Cordova & Otsuka (1994)
 Abedullah (1993)
 Balagot (1974)
 Bouis & Haddad (1990)
 Hayami et al. (1990)

Ranis & Stewart (1993)
Estudillo & Otsuka (1997)



Republic of Korea
1996
1980/81
Choi (1997)
Ahmed (1995/96)
Sri Lanka
1963
1978
Oshima (1986)

Taiwan Province of China
1966
1970
1975
1980
Oshima (1986)



Thailand
1973
1979
1987
1972
Oshima (1986)


Isvilinonda & Wattanutchariya  (1994)
Anderson & Leiserson (1980)
Viet Nam
1992/93
1993/94
Government of Viet Nam (1994)
Wiens (1997)

LATIN AMERICA
   
Argentina
1996
Wiens (1997)
Ecuador
1995
Lanjouw (1997)
El Salvador
1995
n.a.
Lopez (1997)
FUSADES (1996)
Mexico
1984
1989
1994
1986
1984
de Janvry et al. (1995)
  de Janvry, Gordillo de Anda & 
  Sadoulet (1997)
  IFAD (1991)
  de Janvry et al. (1995)
Peru
1984
Figueroa (1987)

1  Sources are cited in full in Appendix Table References, p.346.
Note: n.a. = not applicable.
2 An expanded version of this table, elaborating on statistical data used in the chapter, is included in the diskette accompanying this publication (see the Excel file directory RNF-DATA).
 
 

APPENDIX TABLE 21

RURAL NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT: STUDIES REVIEWED

 
 Region/Country
Year
Source2

ASIA
   
Bangladesh
1979/81
1983/84
1984/85
1990/91
Islam (1984)
 Varma & Kuhmar (1996)


India
1981
Islam (1984)
Indonesia
1976
1980
1985
1992
1980
1980/81
1980
1971
1976
1982
Tambunan (1997)



Kasryno (1986)
  Kasryno (1986)
  Islam (1984)
  Kasryno (1986)


Malaysia
1980
Islam (1984)
Pakistan
1979/81
1979/81
Islam (1984)
 Arif, Ahmed & Jannison (1982)
Philippines
1982
Islam (1984)
Sri Lanka
1979/81
Islam (1984)
Thailand
1979/81
Islam (1984)

LATIN AMERICA
   
Bolivia
1976
1988
Klein (1992)
Brazil
1970
1980
1981
1990
1995

Graziano da Silva (1995)

Graziano da Silva & Eduardo 

  del Grossi (1997)
Chile
1970
1982
Klein (1992)

Colombia
1964
1973
Klein (1992)

Costa Rica
1973
1984
Klein (1992)

Cuba
1970
1981
Klein (1992)

Ecuador
1995
1974
1990
1982
Lanjouw (1997)
Klein (1992)


de Janvry & Glikman (1991)
El Salvador
1971
1975
Klein (1992)

Guatemala
1980
1964
1973
1989
CEPAL (1985)
  Klein (1992)


Weller (1997)
Haiti
1971
1982
Klein (1992)

Honduras
1974
1988
Klein (1992)

Mexico
1970
1980
Klein (1992)


Nicaragua
1950
1971
Klein (1992)

Panama
1970
1980
1989
Klein (1992)

Weller (1997)
Paraguay
1972
1982
Klein (1992)

Peru
n.a.
1972
1981
Escobal & Valdivia (1997)
  Klein (1992)

Uruguay
1975
1985
  Klein (1992)

Venezuela
1971
1981
1982
Klein (1992)


FUSADES (1996)

1  An expanded version of this table, elaborating on statistical data used in the chapter, is included in the diskette accompanying this publication (see the Excel file directory RNF-DATA).
2 Sources are cited in full in Appendix Table References, p. 346.
Note: n.a. = not applicable.
 
 
 
 

APPENDIX TABLE 31

RURAL NON-FARM HOUSEHOLD INCOME OVER INCOME OR LAND STRATA: STUDIES REVIEWED

 
 Region/Country
Year
Source2

AFRICA
   
Botswana
1985/86
Valentine (1993)
Burkina Faso 
1981-85
Reardon et al. (1994)
Ethiopia
1989/90
Webb & Reardon (1992)
Gambia
1985/86
von Braun, Puetz & Webb (1989)
Kenya
1974/75
Collier and Lal (1984)
Lesotho
1976
Low (1986)
Mozambique
1991
Tschirley & Weber (1994)
Niger
1989/90
Hopkins & Reardon (1993) 
Rwanda
1991
Reardon & Clay (1998) 
Senegal
1988/90
Kelly et al. (1993)

ASIA
   
India
n.a.
1957/58
1962/63
1974/75
1983/84
1968/69
1970/71
1975/76-1979/80
Chadha (1986)
Lanjouw & Stern (1993)



Hazell & Haggblade (1991)

Walker, Singh & Binswanger (1983)
Indonesia
n.a
 Hafid (1979)
Japan
1978
Saith (1986)
Pakistan
1968
1986/89
1986/89
1979/80
Anderson & Leiserson (1980)
 Adams (1994)
   Garcia & Alderman (1993)
Arif, Ahmed & Jannison (1982)
Philippines
1984/85
1972
 Bouis & Haddad (1990)
Anderson & Leiserson (1980)
Republic of Korea
1970
1996
Choi (1997)

Viet Nam
1992/93
Government of Viet Nam (1994)

LATIN AMERICA
   
Argentina
1996
Wiens (1997)
Ecuador
1995
Lanjouw (1997)
El Salvador
1995
Lopez (1997)
Mexico
1984
1989
1994
1986
1984
de Janvry et al. (1995)
  de Janvry, Gordillo de Anda & 
  Sadoulet (1997)
Marsh In the Janvry et al. (1995)
    de Janvry et al. (1995)

1  1 An expanded version of this table, elaborating on statistical data used in the chapter, is included in the diskette accompanying this publication (see the Excel file directory RNF-DATA).
2 Sources are cited in full in Appendix Table References, p. 346.
Note: n.a. = not applicable.
 
 

APPENDIX TABLE REFERENCES


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Ahmed, M.U. 1995/96. Development of rural non-farm activities: a dynamic approach to poverty alleviation in rural Asia. Regional Development Studies, 2(Winter): 1-22.
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FUSADES. 1996. Encuesta de desarrollo rural. El Salvador.
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Graziano da Silva, J. & Eduardo Del Grossi, M. 1997. A evolução de emprego não agricola no meio rural brasileiro, 1992-1995. Revista Indicadores Econômicos de Fundação de Economia e Estatística (Porto Alegre), 25: 105-126.
Hafid, A. 1979. An economic analysis of institutional changes: the case of the rice harvesting system in Java. Los Baños, University of the Philippines. (Ph.D. Dissertation)
Hayami, Y., Kikuchi, M., Bambo, L. & Marciano, E. 1990. Transformation of a Laguna village in the two decades of the green revolution. Research Paper Report No. 142. Los Baños, IRRI.
Hazell, P.B.R. & Haggblade, S. 1991. Rural-urban growth linkages in India. India Journal of Agricultural Economics, 46(4): 515-529.
Hopkins, J. & Reardon, T. 1993. Agricultural price policy reform impacts and food aid targeting in Niger. Washington, DC, IFPRI. (mimeo)
Hossain, M. 1987. The assault that failed: a profile of absolute poverty in six villages of Bangladesh. Geneva, UNRISD.
Hossain, M. 1994. Production environments, modern variety adoption and income distribution in Bangladesh. In C. David & K. Otsuka, eds. Modern rice technology and income distribution in Asia. Los Baños, IRRI.
IFAD. 1991. Proyecto de apoyo a pequeños agricultores de la zona semi-árida de los estados de Falcón y Lara, República de Venezuela. Encuesta socioeconómica, estudio de base. Rome.
Islam, R. 1984. Rural industrialisation and employment in Asia: issues and evidence. In R. Islam, ed. Strategies for alleviating poverty in rural Asia. Los Baños, IRRI.
Isvilinonda, S. & Wattanutchariya, S. 1994. Modern variety adoption, factor-price differential and income distribution in Thailand. In C. David & K. Otsuka, eds. Modern rice technology and income distribution in Asia. Los Baños, IRRI.
Jatileksono, T. 1994. Varietal improvements, productivity change and income distribution: the case of Lampung, Indonesia. In C. David & K. Otsuka, eds. Modern rice technology and income distribution in Asia. Los Baños, IRRI.
Jiang, J. & Luo, X. 1987. Changes in the income of Chinese peasants since 1978. In J. Longworth, ed. China’s rural development miracle: with international comparisons. Brisbane, Australia, University of Queensland Press.
Kasryno, F. 1986. Structural changes in rural employment and agricultural wage in Indonesia. In Y.-B. Choe & F.C. Lo, eds. Rural industrialization and non-farm activities of Asian farmers. Seoul, Korea Rural Economics Institute.
Kelly, V., Reardon, T., Diagana, B., Gaye, M. and McNeilly, L. 1993. Final Report of IFPRI/ISRA Project on Consumption and Supply Impacts of Agricultural Price Policies in Senegal. Washington, DC, IFPRI. (mimeo)
Keyler, S. 1996. Economics of the Namibian Millet Subsector. East Lansing, USA, Michigan State University. (Ph.D. Dissertation)
Klein, E. 1992. El empleo rural no agricola en America Latina. Report No. 364. Santiago de Chile, PREALC.
Lanjouw, P. 1997. Rural non-agricultural employment and poverty in Latin America: evidence from Ecuador and El Salvador. In R. Lopez & A. Valdes, eds. Rural poverty in Latin America: analytics, new empirical evidence and policy.  Washington, DC, World Bank.
Lanjouw, P. & Stern, N. 1993. Markets, opportunities and changes in inequality in Palanpur 1957-1984. In A. Braverman, K. Hoff & J. Stiglitz, eds. The economics of rural organization: theory, practice and policy. New York, Oxford University Press.
Lin, J.Y. 1994. The nature and impact of hybrid rice in China. In C. David & K. Otsuka, eds. Modern rice technology and income distribution in Asia. Los Baños, IRRI.
Livingstone, I. 1991. A reassessment of Kenya's rural and urban informal sector. World Development Report, 19(6): 651-670.
Lopez, R. 1997. Rural poverty in El Salvador: a quantitative analysis. In R. Lopez & A. Valdes, eds. Rural poverty in Latin America: analytics, new empirical evidence, and policy. Washington, DC, World Bank.
Low, A. 1986. Agricultural development in southern Africa: farm household economics and the food crisis. London, James Curry.
Matlon, P. 1979. Income distribution among farmers in northern Nigeria. African Rural Economy Paper Report No. 18. East Lansing, USA, Michigan State University.
Nattrass, N. & Nattrass, J. 1990. The homelands and rural development. Development Southern Africa, 7(October): 517-534.
Norman, D. 1973. Economic analysis of agricultural production and labour utilization among the Hausa in the north of Nigeria. African Rural Employment Paper Report No. 4. East Lansing, USA, Michigan State University.
Oshima, H. 1986. Levels and trends of farm families’ non-agricultural incomes at different stages of monsoon development. In Y.-B. Choe & F.C. Lo, eds. Rural industrialization and non-farm activities of Asian famers. Seoul, Korea Rural Economics Institute.
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Ramasamy, C., Paramasivam, P. & Kandaswamy, A. 1994. Irrigation quality, modern variety adoption and income distribution: the case of Tamil Nadu in India. In C. David & K. Otsuka, eds. Modern rice technology and income distribution in Asia. Los Baños, IRRI.
Ranis, G. & Stewart, F. 1993. Rural non-agricultural activities in development. Journal of Development Economics, 40: 75-101.
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Reardon, T., Fall, A., Kelly, V., Delgado, C., Matlon, P., Hopkins, J. & Badiane, O. 1994. Is income diversification agriculture-led in the West African semi-arid tropics? The nature, causes, effects, distribution and production linkages of off-farm activities. In A. Atsain, S. Wangwe & A.G. Drabek, eds. Economic policy experience in Africa: what have we learned? Nairobi, African Economic Research Consortium.
Reardon, T. & Taylor, J.E. 1996. Agroclimatic shock, income inequality and poverty: evidence from Burkina Faso. World Development, 24(4): 901-914.
Saith, A. 1986. Contrasting experiences in rural industrialisation: are the East Asian successes transferable? In R. Islam, ed. Rural industrialisation and employment in Asia. New Delhi, ILO-ARTEP.
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Sundberg, S. 1989. OHV Food Consumption and Expenditure Survey: preliminary results on income sources in the OHV. Research Report. East Lansing, USA, Michigan State University.
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Valentine, T.R. 1993. Drought, transfer entitlements and income distribution: the Botswana experience. World Development, 21(1): 109-126.
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Notes


1 Throughout this chapter “farm activity” will be used synonymously with “agriculture” and “non-farm activity” synonymously with “non-agricultural activity”.

2 Farm households are defined as rural households that carry out some farming activities.

3 The distinction between “push” and “pull” factors is not always precise. Indeed, when considering the relative “merits” of the two sectors, “pull” and “push” factors are interchangeable. In some cases, however (e.g. the risk motive or credit/cash constraints), the distinction is clearer: the risk of farming and lack of insurance and credit markets may “push” farm households to devote some of their productive resources to RNF activities, which produce a more stable income even though the returns expected from the farm activity are higher on average (i.e. when averaged over several periods).

4 Agroclimatic zones are characterized by common rainfall patterns, soil characteristics, sunlight and temperature, and hence by a common potential for agriculture.

5 See note 2.

6 Data on non-farm income shares are based exclusively on survey case studies, while the data on non-farm employment shares are based on a combination of occupation censuses and survey data from Asia and Latin America.

7 A complete documentation of the statistical data used in the analysis can be found in spreadsheet format on the accompanying diskette, which also includes a set of international agricultural time series.  The Excel files containing these data are located in the directory RNF-DATA.

8 The coefficient of variation is a statistical indicator of the degree to which the various observations in a sample are dispersed around its mean. The smaller the coefficient of variation, the closer the observations on the whole are to the mean; the larger the coefficient of variation, the more they are dispersed around the mean value of the sample.

9 S. Haggblade, P. Hazell and J. Brown. 1989. Farm-non-farm linkages in rural sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 17(8): 1173-1201.

10 Further reasons why it is difficult to make a comparison between the two sources are: i) the employment shares are derived from official aggregate statistics, while the income shares have been derived from selected case studies; ii) official employment statistics tend to include both rural towns and the countryside while the case study income information mainly refers to the countryside.

11 T. Reardon, A. Fall, V. Kelly, C. Delgado, P. Matlon, J. Hopkins and O. Badiane. 1994. Is income diversification agriculture-led in the West African semi-arid tropics? The nature, causes, effects, distribution and production linkages of off-farm activities. In A. Atsain, S. Wangwe and A.G. Drabek, eds. Economic policy experience in Africa: what have we learned?, p. 207-230. Nairobi, African Economic Research Consortium.

12 K. Otsuka. 1998. Rural industrialization in East Asia. In Y. Hayami and M. Aoki, eds. The institutional foundation of East Asian economic development. London, Macmillan.

13 Details on the methodology and findings can be found in A. Klein. 1992. El empleo rural no agricola en América Latina. Report No. 364. Santiago, PREALC.

14 Ibid.

15 D. Mead. 1994. The contribution of small enterprises to employment growth in southern and eastern Africa. World Development, 22(12): 1881-1894.

16 K. Otsuka, op. cit., note 12.

17 J.A. Schaffner. 1993. Rural labor legislation and permanent agricultural employment in northeastern Brazil. World Development, 21(5): 705-719.

18 See R. Adams. 1996. Remittances, income distribution and rural asset accumulation. Research Report No. 17. Washington, DC, IFPRI.

19 X. Milicevic and J. Berdegue. 1998. Non-farm employment linked directly and indirectly to the agro-industrial boom: the horticultural belt of central Chile. Paper presented at the III Simposio Latinoamericano de Investigación y Extensión en Sistemas Agropecuarios, 19-21 August 1998, Lima, RIMISP.

20 E. Francis and J. Hoddinott. 1993. Migration and differentiation in western Kenya: a tale of two sub-locations. Journal of Development Studies, 30(1): 115-145.

21 L. Daniels. 1995. Entry, exit and growth among small-scale enterprises in Zimbabwe. Michigan State University, East Lansing,  USA. (Ph.D. Dissertation)

22 This comparison could be made in the case of household studies reported from Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, the Sudan and Zimbabwe.

23 C. Liedholm and D. Mead. 1987. Small-scale industries in developing countries: empirical evidence and policy implications. Report No. 9. Department of Agricultural Economics. Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA; and D. Mead. 1994. The contribution of small enterprises to employment growth in southern and eastern Africa. World Development, 22(12): 1881-1984.

24 The latter argument dates back to the British economist David Ricardo whose model reflected circumstances in nineteenth-century United Kingdom but is still widely applicable in developing country agriculture today. In Ricardo’s model, rising food costs (driven by rising farm production costs from diminishing returns to labour, i.e. declining factor productivity) drive up the subsistence wage, hence the market wage, which drives down profits and investment and growth in the non-farm economy. By contrast, “cheap food” was an important factor – and agricultural success a preliminary condition – in the East Asian rural industrialization from the 1950s (A. Saith. 1986. Contrasting experiences in rural industrialization: are the East Asian successes transferable? In R. Islam, ed. Rural industrialization and employment in Asia. New Delhi, ILO). The converse also holds – high food costs have been a drag on African industrialization, whether rural or urban (M. Lipton and M. Lipton. 1993. Creating rural livelihoods: some lessons for South Africa from experience elsewhere. World Development, 21(9): 1515-1548).

25 R. Ahmed and M. Hossain. 1990. Developmental impact of rural infrastructure in Bangladesh. Research Report No. 83. Washington, DC, IFPRI.

26 H. Oshima. 1986. Levels and trends of farm families’ non-agricultural incomes at different stages of monsoon development. In Y.B. Choe and F.C. Lo, eds. Rural industrialization and non-farm activities of Asian farmers. Seoul, Korea Rural Economics Institute.

27 Y.B. Choe. 1986. M-cycle hypothesis, non-farm activities and rural industrialization in the Asian monsoon economy. In Choe and Lo, op. cit., note 26.

28 See M.U. Ahmed and N. Rustagi. 1987. Marketing and price incentives in African and Asian countries: a comparison. In E. Elz, ed. Agricultural marketing strategy and pricing policy. Washington, DC, World Bank.

29 Reardon et al., op. cit., note 11.

30 Saith, op. cit., note 24.

31 J. Dione, J.-C. Le Vallée, J. Staatz, J. Tefft, M. Yade, A. Chohin and B. Kante. 1997. Lessons from the impact of the devaluation of the CFA franc on agri-food subsectors in West Africa. Policy Brief. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.

32 P. Collier and D. Lal. 1984.  Why poor people get rich: Kenya 1960-79. World Development, 12(10): 1007-1018.

33 R. H. J. Adams. 1994. Non-farm income and inequality in rural Pakistan: a decomposition analysis. Journal of Development Studies, 31(1): 110-133.

34 J.E. Taylor and A. Yunez-Naude. 1998. Selectivity and the returns to schooling in a diversified rural economy. University of California at Davis, Davis, USA. (mimeo)

35 P. Lanjouw and N. Stern. 1993. Markets, opportunities and changes in inequality in Palanpur, 1957-1984. In A. Braverman, K. Hoff and J. Stiglitz, eds. The economics of rural organization: theory, practice and policy. New York, Oxford University Press.

36 J.P. Estudillo and K. Otsuka. 1998. Green revolution, human capital and off-farm employment: changing sources of income among farm households in central Luzon, 1966-94. Economic Development and Cultural Change (forthcoming).

37  For the purpose of this chapter, agro-industrial activities are defined as the collective set of production linkage activities, i.e. farm input provision and agroprocessing and distribution.

38 J. von Braun and R. Pandya-Lorch. 1991. Income sources of malnourished people in rural areas: microlevel information and policy implications. Working Paper No. 5. Washington, DC, IFPRI.

39 A. de Janvry, G. Gordillo de Anda and E. Sadoulet. 1997. Mexico’s second agrarian reform: household and community responses, 1990-1994. La Jolla, Center for US-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego, USA.

40 M.U. Ahmed. 1995/96. Development of rural non-farm activities: a dynamic approach to poverty alleviation in rural Asia. Regional Development Studies, 2(winter): 1-22.

41 T. Reardon. 1997. Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa. World Development, 25(5): 735-748.

42 The Gini coefficient is a statistical indicator that measures the extent to which the actual income distribution diverges from a hypothetical perfectly equal distribution. The larger the Gini coefficient is, the more unequal income distribution is.

43 In this case, in a comparison of Gini coefficients, the coefficient for total income is higher when non-farm income is included than when it is not or, if using the Gini decomposition approach, marginal changes in non-farm income – when all other factors are constant – increase the Gini coefficient.

44 T. Reardon and J.E. Taylor. 1996. Agroclimatic shock, income inequality and poverty: evidence from Burkina Faso. World Development, 24(4): 901-914.

45 Op. cit., note 35.

46 Op. cit., note 44.

47 G.K. Chadha.  1986. Off-farm economic structure of agriculturally growing regions: a study of Indian Punjab. In R.T. Shand, ed. Off-farm employment in the development of rural Asia. Canberra, National Centre for Development Studies, Australian National University.

48 A. Narongchai. 1981. Rural off-farm employment in Thailand. Bangkok, Industrial Management Company, Ltd.

49 For a report on Mexico, see J.E. Taylor. 1992. Remittances and inequality reconsidered: direct, indirect and intertemporal effects. Journal of Policy Modeling, 14(2): 187-208; for a report on Africa, see T. Reardon, E. Crawford and V. Kelly. 1994b. Links between nonfarm income and farm investments in African households: adding the capital market perspective. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76(5): 1172-1176.

50 Francis and Hoddinott, op. cit., note 20.

51 C. André and J.-P. Platteau. 1998. Land tenure under unbearable stress: Rwanda caught in the Malthusian trap. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 34(1).

52 Estudillo and Otsuka, op. cit., note 36.

53 In some countries, an infrastructural instrument that has been used, with mixed results, to effect RNF company starts and the relocation of businesses to rural areas is the establishment of industrial parks or districts (such as in South Africa and the Republic of Korea and in some developed countries, such as Italy).

54 For a further discussion, see V. Kelly, J. Hopkins, T. Reardon and E. Crawford. 1995. Improving the measurement and analysis of African agricultural productivity: promoting complementarities between micro and macro data. MSU International Development Paper No. 16. East Lansing, USA, Michigan State University.

55 The assessment of such effects for different agro-industries and products is the subject of a current FAO project on farm/non-farm linkages.

56 A. Schejtman. 1996. Agroindustria: alcances conceptuales para una política de estimulo a su articulación. LC/R Report No. 1660. Santiago de Chile, CEPAL.

57 Ibid.

58 For the case of West Africa, see N.N. Dembele and K. Savadogo. 1996. The need to link soil fertility management to input/output market development in West Africa: key issues. Paper presented at the International Fertilizer Development Center Seminar, 19-22 November, Lomé, Togo.

59 FAO. 1996. Ciudades intermedias y desarrollo rural: el caso de Zamora, Michoacán (Mexico). By F. Rello. Santiago de Chile, FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean.

60 Op. cit., note 24
 

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