COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES USED FOR STATISTICAL PURPOSES
||Iran, Islamic Rep.
||Central African Rep.
of the Congo
||Sirian Arab rep.
In addition to the usual review of the recent world food and agricultural
situation, each issue of this report since 1957 has included one or more
special studies on problems of longer-term interest. Special chapters in
earlier issues have covered the following subjects:
1957 Factors influencing the trend of food consumption
Postwar changes in some institutional factors affecting agriculture
1958 Food and agricultural developments in Africa south of the
The growth of forest industries and their impact on the worlds
1959 Agricultural incomes and levels of living in countries at
different stages of economic development
Some general problems of agricultural development in less-developed
countries in the light of postwar experience
1960 Programming for agricultural development
1961 Land reform and institutional change
Agricultural extension, education and research in Africa, Asia
and Latin America
1962 The role of forest industries in the attack on economic
The livestock industry in less-developed countries
1963 Basic factors affecting the growth of productivity in agriculture
Fertilizer use: spearhead of agricultural development
1964 Protein nutrition: needs and prospects
Synthetics and their effects on agricultural trade
1966 Agriculture and industrialization
Rice in the world food economy
1967 Incentives and disincentives for farmers in developing countries
The management of fishery resources
1968 Raising agricultural productivity in developing countries
through technological improvement
Improved storage and its contribution to world food supplies
1969 Agricultural marketing improvement programmes: some lessons
from recent experience
Modernizing institutions to promote forestry development
1970 Agriculture at the threshold of the Second Development Decade
1971 Water pollution and its effects on living aquatic resources
1972 Education and training for development
Accelerating agricultural research in the developing countries
1973 Agricultural employment in developing countries
1974 Population, food supply and agricultural development
1975 The Second United Nations Development Decade: mid-term review
1976 Energy and agriculture
1977 The state of natural resources and the human environment
for food and agriculture
1978 Problems and strategies in developing regions
1979 Forestry and rural development
1980 Marine fisheries in the new era of national jurisdiction
1981 Rural poverty in developing countries and means of poverty
1982 Livestock production: a world perspective
1983 Women in developing agriculture
1984 Urbanization, agriculture and food systems
1985 Energy use in agricultural production
Environmental trends in food and agriculture
Agricultural marketing and development
1986 Financing agricultural development
1987-88 Changing priorities for agricultural science and technology
in developing countries
1989 Sustainable development and natural resource management
1990 Structural adjustment and agriculture
1991 Agricultural policies and issues: lessons from the 1980s
and prospects for the 1990s
1992 Marine fisheries and the law of the sea: a decade of change
1993 Water policies and agriculture
1994 Forest development and policy dilemmas
1995 Agricultural trade: entering a new era?
1996 Food security: some macroeconomic dimensions
1997 The agroprocessing industry and economic development
FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic
AGRICULTURE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS DIVISION
AND POLICY ASSISTANCE DIVISION
1 Searching for common ground European Union enlargement and agricultural
(K. Hathaway and D. Hathaway, eds, 1997)
2 Agricultural and rural development policy in Latin America
New directions and new
challenges (A. de Janvry, N. Key and E. Sadoulet, 1997)
3 Food security strategies The Asian experience (P. Timmer,
4 Guidelines for the integration of sustainable agriculture
and rural development into
agricultural policies (J.B. Hardaker, 1997)
Farm/non-farm linkages and income diversification in the developing countries:
case studies in Africa and Latin America (T. Reardon and K. Stamoulis,
The role of agriculture in the transition to a market economy (K.
Stamoulis and K. Frohberg, eds)
FAO Economic and Social Development Papers
AGRICULTURE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS DIVISION*
65 Agricultural stabilization and structural adjustment policies
in developing countries (A.H. Sarris, 1987)
66 Agricultural issues in structural adjustment programs (R.D.
84 Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation
and policy relevance (P.L. Scandizzo, 1989)
90 The impact of stabilization and structural adjustment policies
on the rural sector case-studies of Côte dIvoire, Senegal, Liberia,
Zambia and Morocco (P. Salin and E.-M. Claassen, 1991)
95 Guidelines for monitoring the impact of structural adjustment
programmes on the agricultural sector (A.H. Sarris, 1990)
96 The effects of trade and exchange rate policies on production
incentives in agriculture (C. Kirkpatrick and D. Diakosavvas, 1990)
98 Institutional changes in agricultural products and input
markets and their impact on agricultural performance (A. Thomson, 1991)
99 Agricultural labour markets and structural adjustment in
sub-Saharan Africa (L.D. Smith, 1991)
100 Structural adjustment and household welfare in rural areas
a micro-economic perspective (R. Gaiha, 1991)
103 The impact of structural adjustment on smallholders (J.-M.
104 Structural adjustment policy sequencing in sub-Saharan Africa
(L.D. Smith and N. Spooner, 1991)
105 The role of public and private agents in the food and agricultural
sectors of developing countries (L.D. Smith and A. Thomson, 1991)
107 Land reform and structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa:
controversies and guidelines (J.-Ph. Platteau, 1992). French version:
Réforme agraire et ajustement structurel en Afrique subsaharienne:
controverses et orientations
110 Agricultural sustainability: definition and implications
for agricultural and trade policy (T. Young, 1992)
115 Design of poverty alleviation strategy in rural areas (R.
121 Policies for sustainable development: four essays (A. Markandya,
124 Structural adjustment and agriculture: African and Asian
experiences (A. de Janvry and E. Sadoulet, 1994)
125 Transition and price stabilization policies in East European
agriculture (E.-M. Claassen, 1994)
128 Agricultural taxation under structural adjustment (A.H.
131 Trade patterns, cooperation and growth (P.L. Scandizzo,
132 The economics of international agreements for the protection
of environmental and agricultural services (S. Barrett, 1996)
133 Implications of regional trade arrangements for agricultural
trade (T. Josling, 1997)
134 Rural informal credit markets and the effectiveness of policy
reform (A.H. Sarris, 1996)
135 International dynamics of national sugar policies (T.C.
Earley and D.W. Westfall, 1996)
136 Growth theories, old and new, and the role of agriculture
in economic development (N.S. Stern, 1996)
138 Economic development and environmental policy (S. Barrett,
139 Population pressure and management of natural resources.
An economic analysis of traditional management of small-scale fishing (J.-M.
Baland and J.-Ph. Platteau, 1996)
141 Economies in transition Hungary and Poland (D.G. Johnson,
142 The political economy of the Common Market in milk and dairy
products in the European Union (R.E. Williams, 1997)
Halting degradation of natural resources. Is there a role for rural
communities? (J.-M. Baland
and J.-Ph. Platteau, 1996). Published by Oxford University Press
* Note: Up to 1996, these papers were published by the former Policy
Growth, trade and agriculture: an investigative survey (P.L. Scandizzo
and M. Spinedi)
Rural poverty, risk and development (M. Fafchamps)
To obtain the publications listed, please contact:
Sales and Marketing Group, Information Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel.: (39 06) 57051
Fax: (39 06) 5705 3360
TIME SERIES FOR SOFA98 DISKETTE
Instructions for use
TIME SERIES FOR SOFA '98 DISKETTE
instruction for use
As in the past years, The State of Food and Agriculture 1998
includes a computer diskette containing time series data for about 150
countries and the necessary software, FAOSTAT TS, to access and display
FAOSTAT TS software provides quick and easy access to structured annual
time series databases. Even inexperienced computer users can use FAOSTAT
TS, which does not require spreadsheet, graphics or database programs.
FAOSTAT TS is fully menu-driven, so there are no commands to learn. Users
can browse through and print graphs and tables, plot multiple-line graphs,
fit trend lines and export data for use in other programs. FAOSTAT TS is
trilingual (English, French, Spanish) and uses a standard menu format.
FAOSTAT TS software is in the public domain and may be freely distributed.
The data files accompanying the software, however, are under FAO copyright,
and users must attribute FAO as the source. FAO may provide only very limited
support to users of this software and the accompanying data and cannot
assist users who modify the software or data files. FAO disclaims all warrants
of fitness for the software or data for a particular use.
FAOSTAT TS software requires an IBM or compatible PC with a hard disk,
DOS 3.0 or later version, 300 KB of available RAM and graphics capability.
Graphics support is provided for all common graphics adapters (VGA, EGA,
MCGA, CGA and Hercules monochrome).
FAOSTAT TS will print graphs on Epson dot matrix, Hewlett-Packard and
compatible laser printers. To use FAOSTAT TS with other printers, users
can enable their own graphics printing utility before starting the program.
One such utility is GRAPHICS.COM in DOS 2.0 or later version.
Because of its use of DOS graphics modes, if FAOSTAT TS is run under
MS-Windows or OS/2, it should be set to run in a full screen DOS session.
Before running FAOSTAT TS you must install the software and data files
on your hard disk. Installation is automated through the INSTALL.BAT utility
on the diskette.
To install from drive A: to drive C:
- Insert the diskette in drive A:
- Type A: and press ENTER.
- Type INSTALL C: and press ENTER.
- Press any key.
A C:\SOFA98 directory is created and, after installation, you will
already be in this directory.
Entering FAOSTAT TS
To start the FAOSTAT TS software, if you are not already in the C:\SOFA98
directory (as after installation):
- Change to this directory by typing CD\SOFA98 and pressing
- From the command prompt in the SOFA98 directory, type SOFA98
and press ENTER.
A graphics title screen will be displayed, followed by the main menu
If FAOSTAT TS does not start, graphs do not display correctly or the
menus are difficult to read, your computer may not be compatible with the
default functions of FAOSTAT TS. The use of a command-line option may help.
You may try to start FAOSTAT TS with the -E parameter (by typing SOFA98-E)
to disable its use of expanded memory. You may also force the use of a
particular graphics or text mode by typing its name as a parameter (e.g.
-EGA would force the use of EGA mode graphics).
The initial default language for FAOSTAT TS is English. To change the default
language to French or Spanish:
- Go to the FILE menu.
- Select LANGUAGE using the ARROW key (arrow down) and
- Select your choice of language and press ENTER.
The language selected will remain the default language until another
Navigating the menus
The main menu bar consists of FILE, DATA, GRAPH, TABLE and HELP menus.
Most menu options are disabled until you open a data file. Navigate the
menus by using the ARROW keys (arrows up, arrows down, arrows left, arrows
right) and make a selection by highlighting an item and pressing ENTER.
To back out of a selection, press the ESC key.
If you have a mouse, menu items can be selected with the mouse cursor.
The left mouse button selects an item and the right mouse button acts as
the ESC key.
After you have made a menu selection, the menu will redraw and highlight
a possible next choice.
Several short-cut keys are available throughout the program:
HELP: Displays context-sensitive help text.
Backs out of the current menu choice or exits the current graph or table.
ALT+N NOTES: Displays text notes associated
with the current data file, if the text file is available. This text may
be edited. Notes will not appear while a graph is displayed.
ALT+X, ALT+Q EXIT: Exits FAOSTAT TS immediately,
You will see context-sensitive help displayed at the bottom of each screen.
Press F1 for more extensive help on a highlighted option.
Select HELP from the main menu to access the help information.
Introductory information on the software, help topics and an About summary
screen are available from the HELP menu.
The HELP menu options call up the same windows obtained by
pressing the F1 key at any of the menu screens:
- FAOSTAT TS displays the top-level help page.
- TOPICS lists the help contents.
- ABOUT shows summary program information.
Opening a data file
To display a list of FAOSTAT TS data files:
- Go to the FILE menu.
- Select OPEN.
All of the FAOSTAT TS data files in the current directory are displayed.
Initially, only SOFA98 will be present. Other FAOSTAT PC data files, version
3.0, can be used with FAOSTAT TS.
Use the ARROW keys to highlight the file you wish to view
and press ENTER to select it. Files are shown with the date of their
last revision. You can also highlight your choice by typing the first letters
of the file name. The current search string will appear in the lower left
corner of the list.
You can change the default data drive and directory from the file
list by selecting the directory or drive of your choice.
If a current data file is open, loading in a new file will return FAOSTAT
TS to its defaults (time trend, no trend line, no user-specified units
or scalar). Only one file can be loaded at a time.
Once you have made a file selection, all the menu selections are activated.
Selecting a data series
Use the DATA menu to select or modify a data series or to fit
a statistical trend.
Select a data series by choosing the name of a country and a data
element from scrolling menus. The first entry displays a list of country
names, the second entry displays a list of data item names and the third
displays a list of data element names.
If you type the first letters of a name in a list, the menu selection
bar will jump to the matching name. For example:
- Type NEW to skip to New Zealand.
- Press ENTER to select the highlighted name
Displaying graphs and graph options
The GRAPH menu allows you to view the data in chart form. You can
display time trends and table or column profiles. Options under the GRAPH
menu change the data series shown as well as its display.
For example, to show a plot of the data selected:
- Go to the GRAPH menu.
- Select DISPLAY.
Many options to modify, save or print a graph are available only while
the graph is on-screen. Remember to use the F1 help key for a reminder
of your options.
Graph action keys. You have several options when a graph is
Press ESC to exit the graph and return to the main menu.
Press F1 for help on the graph action keys. The help box lists
the choices available while a graph is on-screen. You must exit the help
box before making a selection.
Press the ARROW and (arrow up, arrow down) PAGEUP,
keys to change the series displayed.
The plus key (+) allows you to add from one to three additional series
to the one displayed. Press the MINUS key (-) to remove a series.
To create a multiline chart:
- Display an initial series.
- Press the + key to add subsequent series to the chart.
Press A to display a table of the axis data with statistics.
Press T to show a table of the fitted trend data, the residuals and fit
statistics (if a trend line is selected, see below).
The INS key permits you to insert text directly on the graph.
While inserting text, press F1 for help on your text options. You
can type small or large, horizontal or vertical text.
To print a graph, press P and select your choice of printer
from the menu. The print output is only a screen dump of the display, so
the quality is limited.
To save a graph for later printing or viewing, press S. The
graph image will be saved in the common PCX bitmap format. You can use
the PRINTPCX program or other software to view or print multiple images
later. PRINTPCX also permits you to convert colour PCX images into black
and white images suitable for inclusion in a word processing document.
Fitting trend lines
To fit a statistical function to a data series, select FIT from
the DATA menu. The options under FIT allow you to select
the type of function, data year limits to include in the fit and a final
projection year for a statistical forecast.
By fitting a trend line (selecting the option under FIT) with
a projection (selecting PROJECTION under FIT), a statistical
forecast can be plotted. Use the + key to add a new data series to the
graph, which can be made with only a few key strokes.
The options under the GRAPH menu allow you to change the year span
or style of the graph display (options LIMITS and STYLE,
respectively), or to switch from a time trend to a table or column data
profile (VIEWPOINT). The VIEWPOINT option is an easy means
to compare data for a particular year.
If you want to change from a time series display to a country or item
profile display for a given year, select VIEWPOINT from the GRAPH
menu. Select DISPLAY from the GRAPH menu, and the profile
will be drawn. The initial profile display is for the last year of historical
data. To change the year, use the ARROW (arrow up, arrow down) keys. Press
For a tables profile (profile of data across countries), you can
either choose the tables to be displayed or let FAOSTAT TS select the top
members and array them in order.
A limit of 50 items can appear in one profile. By selecting TOP
MEMBERS instead of SELECTED MEMBERS, FAOSTAT TS will sort the
values in the file and display a ranking of table or column values.
The TABLE menu allows you to look at data in a tabular format
and to define subset tables that may be saved and imported into other software
- Go to the TABLE menu.
- Select BROWSE DATA to view individual data tables from the
When viewing tables, a help bar appears at the bottom of the screen.
Press PAGEUP or PAGEDOWN to change the table displayed or
press ALT+1 or ALT+2 to choose from a list of tables. Use
the ARROW keys (arrow up, arrow down, arrow left, arrow right) to scroll
the columns and rows.
The SERIES DATA option under the TABLE menu displays the
last data series selected, including summary statistics. This is the series
used to plot a graph. To change the series, you must make a new choice
from the DATA menu.
The SERIES DATA screen can also be displayed while you are
in a graph by pressing the letter A. If more than one series has
been plotted, only the last series is shown. The range of years used for
the series and statistics can be adjusted through the LIMITS option
under the GRAPH menu.
To view country or item profile lists and statistics, select VIEWPOINT
from the GRAPH. You can quickly see a list of the tables with the
greatest values (for example, countries with the highest commodity consumption)
by choosing a table profile from VIEWPOINT and selecting the TOPMEMBERS
option. Then select SERIES DATA from the TABLE menu to view
the list, or select DISPLAY from the GRAPH menu to plot a
If the FIT option has been selected (from the DATA menu)
for a time trend, then the values composing the trend can be displayed
with the TREND DATA option. Summary statistics for the original
series and for the trend as well as residual values are included. The list
scrolls with the ARROW keys, and you can toggle between the axis
and trend data with the A and T keys.
The EXPORT option under the FILE menu allows you to export
FAOSTAT TS data into other file formats or to create custom tables for
viewing or printing. By selecting EXPORT, you will jump into another
set of menus.
To select the tables and columns you want to view or save, go to
the DATA menu. You must mark your choice of options with the + key.
To undo all your selections quickly, select RESET MARKS.
To arrange, view, save or print data, go to the options under EXPORT
(in the FILE menu):
- FAO TABLE creates a table with data from the last four available
- VIEW displays a temporary text file of the data selected.
It is a convenient way to view a subset of the tables and columns in a
FAOSTAT TS file and can also be used to see the effects of the ORIENTATION
or LAYOUT selections before using the SAVE or PRINT
- SAVE displays a list of file formats to let you save your
data choices in a file. You will be prompted for a file name. If you need
to export FAOSTAT TS data for use with other software, use this menu item.
The WK1 and DBF file format selections are not affected by the LAYOUT
options (see below).
- PRINT prints your current table and column selections. Many
printers cannot print more than five columns of FAOSTAT TS data. Select
to check the table width before printing.
- LAYOUT allows you to display years across rows or down columns.
The default direction is down columns.
To get back to the main FAOSTAT TS menu or to clear your selections
and create more tables, go to the RETURN option.
To read or edit textual information on the current data file, select
from the FILE menu. You can also call up the Notes box by pressing
at any of the menus. The option NOTES allows you to read or edit
text associated with the data file.
DOS shell and exit
The DOS SHELL option under the FILE menu returns you to the
DOS prompt temporarily but keeps FAOSTAT TS in memory. This is not the
normal way to exit the program. It is useful if you need to execute a DOS
command and would like to return to the same data file. The data file itself
is dropped from memory and reloaded on return, so default values will be
Exiting FAOSTAT TS
To exit FAOSTAT TS:
- Go to the FILE menu .
- Select EXIT.
The Alt+X or Alt+Q key combinations are short cuts to exit the program
from almost any screen.