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 in transition
Developing Countries
Asia and 
the Pacific/
Far East 
and Oceania
Latin America
and the
Near East 
North Africa
Albania Albania Angola American Samoa Anguilla Afghanistan
Andorra    Benin Bangladesh Antigua
and Barbuda
Armenia Armenia Botswana Bhutan Argentina Bahrain
Australia   Burkina Faso British Virgin 
Aruba  Cyprus
Austria   Burundi Brunei 
Bahamas Egypt
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Cameroon Cambodia Barbados Gaza Strip
Belarus Belarus Cape Verde China Belize Iran, Islamic Rep.
Belgium/Luxembourg   Central African Rep.  Cocos Islands Bermuda Iraq
Bosnia and 
Bosnia and
Chad Cook Islands Bolivia Jordan
Bulgaria Bulgaria Comoros East Timor Brazil Kwait
Canada   Congo Fiji Cayman Islans Lebanon
Croatia Croatia Cote d'Ivorie French Polinesia Chile Libyan Arab
Czech Republic Czech Republic Democratic Republic 
of the Congo
Guam Colombia Morocco
Denmark   Djibouti India Costa Rica Oman
Estonia Estonia Equatorial 
Indonesia Cuba Qatar
Faerohe Islands   Eritrea Kiribati Dominica Saudi Arabia
Finland   Ethiopia Korea, dem. 
People's Rep.
Dominican Rep. Sirian Arab rep.
France   Gabon Korea, rep.  Ecuador Tunisia
Georgia Georgia Gambia Lao People's
Dem. Rep.
El Salvador Turkey
Germany   Ghana Macau Falkland
Arab Emirates
Gibraltar   Guinea Malaysia French 
West Bank
Greece   Guinea Bissau Maldives Grenada Yemen
Greenland   Kenya Marshall Islands Guadeloupe  
Hungary Hungary Lesotho Micronesia, 
Fed. States
Iceland   Liberia Mongolia Guyana  
Ireland   Madagascar Myanmar Haiti  
Israel   Malawi Nauru Honduras  
Italy   Mali  Nepal Jamaica  
Japan   Mauritania New Caledonia Martinique  
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Mauritius Niue Mexico  
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Mozambique Norfolk Islands Montserrat  
Latvia Latvia Namibia Northen Mariana 
Lichtenstein   Niger Pakistan Nicaragua  
Lithuania Lithuania Nigeria Palau Panama  
Malta   Réunion Papua 
New Guinea
Monaco   Rwanda Philippines Peru  
Netherlands   Saint Helena Samoa Puerto Rico  
New Zeland   Sao Tome
and Principe
Singapore Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Norway   Senegal Solomon 
Saint Lucia  
Poland Poland Seychelles Sri Lanka Saint Vincent
and the 
Portugal   Sierra Leone Tahiwan 
of China
of Moldova
of Moldova
Somalia Thailand Trinidad 
and Tobago
Romania Romania Sudan Tokelau Turks and 
Caicos Islands
Swaziland Tonga United States
Virgin Islands
San Marino

United Republic 
of Tanzania
Wallis and 
Futuna Islands
Saint Pierre
and Miquelon
  Zambia Tuvalu    
South Africa   Zimbabwe      
Tajikistan Tajikistan        
The Former
Republic of
The Former
Republic of
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan        
Ukraine Ukraine        
United Kingdom          
United States          
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan        
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia        


Special Chapter

In addition to the usual review of the recent world food and agricultural situation, each issue of this report since 1957 has included one or more special studies on problems of longer-term interest. Special chapters in earlier issues have covered the following subjects:

1957 Factors influencing the trend of food consumption
Postwar changes in some institutional factors affecting agriculture

1958 Food and agricultural developments in Africa south of the Sahara
 The growth of forest industries and their impact on the world’s forests

1959 Agricultural incomes and levels of living in countries at different stages of economic development
 Some general problems of agricultural development in less-developed countries in the light of postwar experience

1960 Programming for agricultural development

1961 Land reform and institutional change
 Agricultural extension, education and research in Africa, Asia and Latin America

1962 The role of forest industries in the attack on economic underdevelopment
 The livestock industry in less-developed countries

1963 Basic factors affecting the growth of productivity in agriculture
 Fertilizer use: spearhead of agricultural development

1964 Protein nutrition: needs and prospects
 Synthetics and their effects on agricultural trade

1966 Agriculture and industrialization
 Rice in the world food economy

1967 Incentives and disincentives for farmers in developing countries
 The management of fishery resources

1968 Raising agricultural productivity in developing countries through technological improvement
Improved storage and its contribution to world food supplies

1969 Agricultural marketing improvement programmes: some lessons from recent experience
 Modernizing institutions to promote forestry development

1970 Agriculture at the threshold of the Second Development Decade

1971 Water pollution and its effects on living aquatic resources and fisheries

1972 Education and training for development
 Accelerating agricultural research in the developing countries

1973 Agricultural employment in developing countries

1974 Population, food supply and agricultural development

1975 The Second United Nations Development Decade: mid-term review and appraisal

1976 Energy and agriculture

1977 The state of natural resources and the human environment for food and agriculture

1978 Problems and strategies in developing regions

1979 Forestry and rural development

1980 Marine fisheries in the new era of national jurisdiction

1981 Rural poverty in developing countries and means of poverty alleviation

1982 Livestock production: a world perspective

1983 Women in developing agriculture

1984 Urbanization, agriculture and food systems

1985 Energy use in agricultural production
 Environmental trends in food and agriculture
 Agricultural marketing and development

1986 Financing agricultural development

1987-88 Changing priorities for agricultural science and technology in developing countries

1989 Sustainable development and natural resource management

1990 Structural adjustment and agriculture

1991 Agricultural policies and issues: lessons from the 1980s and prospects for the 1990s

1992 Marine fisheries and the law of the sea: a decade of change

1993 Water policies and agriculture

1994 Forest development and policy dilemmas

1995 Agricultural trade: entering a new era?

1996 Food security: some macroeconomic dimensions

1997 The agroprocessing industry and economic development



FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic
Development Series



1 Searching for common ground – European Union enlargement and agricultural policy
 (K. Hathaway and D. Hathaway, eds, 1997)
2 Agricultural and rural development policy in Latin America – New directions and new
 challenges (A. de Janvry, N. Key and E. Sadoulet, 1997)
3 Food security strategies – The Asian experience (P. Timmer, 1997)
4 Guidelines for the integration of sustainable agriculture and rural development into
 agricultural policies (J.B. Hardaker, 1997)

In preparation

• Farm/non-farm linkages and income diversification in the developing countries: case studies in Africa and Latin America (T. Reardon and K. Stamoulis, eds)

• The role of agriculture in the transition to a market economy (K. Stamoulis and K. Frohberg, eds)

FAO Economic and Social Development Papers


65 Agricultural stabilization and structural adjustment policies in developing countries (A.H. Sarris, 1987)
66 Agricultural issues in structural adjustment programs (R.D. Norton, 1987)
84 Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance (P.L. Scandizzo, 1989)
90 The impact of stabilization and structural adjustment policies on the rural sector – case-studies of Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, Liberia, Zambia and Morocco (P. Salin and E.-M. Claassen, 1991)
95 Guidelines for monitoring the impact of structural adjustment programmes on the agricultural sector (A.H. Sarris, 1990)
96 The effects of trade and exchange rate policies on production incentives in agriculture (C. Kirkpatrick and D. Diakosavvas, 1990)
98 Institutional changes in agricultural products and input markets and their impact on agricultural performance (A. Thomson, 1991)
99 Agricultural labour markets and structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa (L.D. Smith, 1991)
100 Structural adjustment and household welfare in rural areas – a micro-economic perspective (R. Gaiha, 1991)
103 The impact of structural adjustment on smallholders (J.-M. Boussard, 1992)
104 Structural adjustment policy sequencing in sub-Saharan Africa (L.D. Smith and N. Spooner, 1991)
105 The role of public and private agents in the food and agricultural sectors of developing countries (L.D. Smith and A. Thomson, 1991)
107 Land reform and structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa: controversies and guidelines  (J.-Ph. Platteau, 1992). French version: Réforme agraire et ajustement structurel en Afrique subsaharienne: controverses et orientations
110 Agricultural sustainability: definition and implications for agricultural and trade policy (T. Young, 1992)
115 Design of poverty alleviation strategy in rural areas (R. Gaiha, 1993)
121 Policies for sustainable development: four essays (A. Markandya, 1994)
124 Structural adjustment and agriculture: African and Asian experiences (A. de Janvry and E. Sadoulet, 1994)
125 Transition and price stabilization policies in East European agriculture (E.-M. Claassen, 1994)
128 Agricultural taxation under structural adjustment (A.H. Sarris, 1994)
131 Trade patterns, cooperation and growth (P.L. Scandizzo, 1995)
132 The economics of international agreements for the protection of environmental and agricultural services (S. Barrett, 1996)
133 Implications of regional trade arrangements for agricultural trade (T. Josling, 1997)
134 Rural informal credit markets and the effectiveness of policy reform (A.H. Sarris, 1996)
135 International dynamics of national sugar policies (T.C. Earley and D.W. Westfall, 1996)
136 Growth theories, old and new, and the role of agriculture in economic development (N.S. Stern, 1996)
138 Economic development and environmental policy (S. Barrett, 1997)
139 Population pressure and management of natural resources. An economic analysis of traditional management of small-scale fishing (J.-M. Baland and J.-Ph. Platteau, 1996)
141 Economies in transition – Hungary and Poland (D.G. Johnson, 1997)
142 The political economy of the Common Market in milk and dairy products in the European Union (R.E. Williams, 1997)

• Halting degradation of natural resources. Is there a role for rural communities? (J.-M. Baland
 and J.-Ph. Platteau, 1996). Published by Oxford University Press

* Note: Up to 1996, these papers were published by the former Policy Analysis Division.

In preparation

• Growth, trade and agriculture: an investigative survey (P.L. Scandizzo and M. Spinedi)
• Rural poverty, risk and development (M. Fafchamps)

To obtain the publications listed, please contact:

Sales and Marketing Group, Information Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel.: (39 06) 57051
Fax: (39 06) 5705 3360
Instructions for use

instruction for use

As in the past years, The State of Food and Agriculture 1998 includes a computer diskette containing time series data for about 150 countries and the necessary software, FAOSTAT TS, to access and display these data.


FAOSTAT TS software provides quick and easy access to structured annual time series databases. Even inexperienced computer users can use FAOSTAT TS, which does not require spreadsheet, graphics or database programs. FAOSTAT TS is fully menu-driven, so there are no commands to learn. Users can browse through and print graphs and tables, plot multiple-line graphs, fit trend lines and export data for use in other programs. FAOSTAT TS is trilingual (English, French, Spanish) and uses a standard menu format.
FAOSTAT TS software is in the public domain and may be freely distributed. The data files accompanying the software, however, are under FAO copyright, and users must attribute FAO as the source. FAO may provide only very limited support to users of this software and the accompanying data and cannot assist users who modify the software or data files. FAO disclaims all warrants of fitness for the software or data for a particular use.

Technical requirements

FAOSTAT TS software requires an IBM or compatible PC with a hard disk, DOS 3.0 or later version, 300 KB of available RAM and graphics capability. Graphics support is provided for all common graphics adapters (VGA, EGA, MCGA, CGA and Hercules monochrome).
FAOSTAT TS will print graphs on Epson dot matrix, Hewlett-Packard and compatible laser printers. To use FAOSTAT TS with other printers, users can enable their own graphics printing utility before starting the program. One such utility is GRAPHICS.COM in DOS 2.0 or later version.
Because of its use of DOS graphics modes, if FAOSTAT TS is run under MS-Windows or OS/2, it should be set to run in a full screen DOS session.


Before running FAOSTAT TS you must install the software and data files on your hard disk. Installation is automated through the INSTALL.BAT utility on the diskette.
• To install from drive A: to drive C:
- Insert the diskette in drive A:
- Type A: and press ENTER.
- Type INSTALL C: and press ENTER.
- Press any key.
A C:\SOFA98 directory is created and, after installation, you will already be in this directory.


• To start the FAOSTAT TS software, if you are not already in the C:\SOFA98 directory (as after installation):
- Change to this directory by typing CD\SOFA98 and pressing ENTER.
- From the command prompt in the SOFA98 directory, type SOFA98 and press ENTER.
A graphics title screen will be displayed, followed by the main menu screen.
If FAOSTAT TS does not start, graphs do not display correctly or the menus are difficult to read, your computer may not be compatible with the default functions of FAOSTAT TS. The use of a command-line option may help. You may try to start FAOSTAT TS with the -E parameter (by typing SOFA98-E) to disable its use of expanded memory. You may also force the use of a particular graphics or text mode by typing its name as a parameter (e.g. -EGA would force the use of EGA mode graphics).

Language choices

The initial default language for FAOSTAT TS is English. To change the default language to French or Spanish:
- Go to the FILE menu.
- Select LANGUAGE using the ARROW key (arrow down) and pressing ENTER.
- Select your choice of language and press ENTER.
The language selected will remain the default language until another is selected.

Navigating the menus

The main menu bar consists of FILE, DATA, GRAPH, TABLE and HELP menus. Most menu options are disabled until you open a data file. Navigate the menus by using the ARROW keys (arrows up, arrows down, arrows left, arrows right) and make a selection by highlighting an item and pressing ENTER. To back out of a selection, press the ESC key.
• If you have a mouse, menu items can be selected with the mouse cursor. The left mouse button selects an item and the right mouse button acts as the ESC key.
After you have made a menu selection, the menu will redraw and highlight a possible next choice.
• Several short-cut keys are available throughout the program:

Key           Action

F1              HELP: Displays context-sensitive help text.

ESC           ESCAPE: Backs out of the current menu choice or exits the current graph or table.

ALT+N      NOTES: Displays text notes associated with the current data file, if the text file is available. This text may be edited. Notes will not appear while a graph is displayed.

ALT+X,      ALT+Q EXIT: Exits FAOSTAT TS immediately, without prompting.


• You will see context-sensitive help displayed at the bottom of each screen. Press F1 for more extensive help on a highlighted option.
• Select HELP from the main menu to access the help information. Introductory information on the software, help topics and an “About” summary screen are available from the HELP menu.
• The HELP menu options call up the same windows obtained by pressing the F1 key at any of the menu screens:
- FAOSTAT TS displays the top-level help page.
- TOPICS lists the help contents.
- ABOUT shows summary program information.

Opening a data file

• To display a list of FAOSTAT TS data files:
- Go to the FILE menu.
- Select OPEN.
All of the FAOSTAT TS data files in the current directory are displayed. Initially, only SOFA98 will be present. Other FAOSTAT PC data files, version 3.0, can be used with FAOSTAT TS.
• Use the ARROW keys to highlight the file you wish to view and press ENTER to select it. Files are shown with the date of their last revision. You can also highlight your choice by typing the first letters of the file name. The current search string will appear in the lower left corner of the list.
• You can change the default data drive and directory from the file list by selecting the directory or drive of your choice.
If a current data file is open, loading in a new file will return FAOSTAT TS to its defaults (time trend, no trend line, no user-specified units or scalar). Only one file can be loaded at a time.
Once you have made a file selection, all the menu selections are activated.

Selecting a data series

• Use the DATA menu to select or modify a data series or to fit a statistical trend.
• Select a data series by choosing the name of a country and a data element from scrolling menus. The first entry displays a list of country names, the second entry displays a list of data item names and the third displays a list of data element names.
If you type the first letters of a name in a list, the menu selection bar will jump to the matching name. For example:
- Type NEW to skip to New Zealand.
- Press ENTER to select the highlighted name

Displaying graphs and graph options

The GRAPH menu allows you to view the data in chart form. You can display time trends and table or column profiles. Options under the GRAPH menu change the data series shown as well as its display.
For example, to show a plot of the data selected:
- Go to the GRAPH menu.
- Select DISPLAY.
Many options to modify, save or print a graph are available only while the graph is on-screen. Remember to use the F1 help key for a reminder of your options.
Graph action keys. You have several options when a graph is displayed:
• Press ESC to exit the graph and return to the main menu.
• Press F1 for help on the graph action keys. The help box lists the choices available while a graph is on-screen. You must exit the help box before making a selection.
• Press the ARROW and (arrow up, arrow down) PAGEUP, PAGEDOWN keys to change the series displayed.
• The plus key (+) allows you to add from one to three additional series to the one displayed. Press the MINUS key (-) to remove a series. To create a multiline chart:
- Display an initial series.
- Press the + key to add subsequent series to the chart.
• Press A to display a table of the axis data with statistics. Press T to show a table of the fitted trend data, the residuals and fit statistics (if a trend line is selected, see below).
• The INS key permits you to insert text directly on the graph. While inserting text, press F1 for help on your text options. You can type small or large, horizontal or vertical text.
• To print a graph, press P and select your choice of printer from the menu. The print output is only a screen dump of the display, so the quality is limited.
• To save a graph for later printing or viewing, press S. The graph image will be saved in the common PCX bitmap format. You can use the PRINTPCX program or other software to view or print multiple images later. PRINTPCX also permits you to convert colour PCX images into black and white images suitable for inclusion in a word processing document.

Fitting trend lines

• To fit a statistical function to a data series, select FIT from the DATA menu. The options under FIT allow you to select the type of function, data year limits to include in the fit and a final projection year for a statistical forecast.
• By fitting a trend line (selecting the option under FIT) with a projection (selecting PROJECTION under FIT), a statistical forecast can be plotted. Use the + key to add a new data series to the graph, which can be made with only a few key strokes.

Charting profiles

The options under the GRAPH menu allow you to change the year span or style of the graph display (options LIMITS and STYLE, respectively), or to switch from a time trend to a table or column data profile (VIEWPOINT). The VIEWPOINT option is an easy means to compare data for a particular year.


• If you want to change from a time series display to a country or item profile display for a given year, select VIEWPOINT from the GRAPH menu. Select DISPLAY from the GRAPH menu, and the profile will be drawn. The initial profile display is for the last year of historical data. To change the year, use the ARROW (arrow up, arrow down) keys. Press F1 for help.
• For a tables profile (profile of data across countries), you can either choose the tables to be displayed or let FAOSTAT TS select the top members and array them in order.
A limit of 50 items can appear in one profile. By selecting TOP MEMBERS instead of SELECTED MEMBERS, FAOSTAT TS will sort the values in the file and display a ranking of table or column values.

Viewing tables

• The TABLE menu allows you to look at data in a tabular format and to define subset tables that may be saved and imported into other software packages.
- Go to the TABLE menu.
- Select BROWSE DATA to view individual data tables from the current file.
• When viewing tables, a help bar appears at the bottom of the screen. Press PAGEUP or PAGEDOWN to change the table displayed or press ALT+1 or ALT+2 to choose from a list of tables. Use the ARROW keys (arrow up, arrow down, arrow left, arrow right) to scroll the columns and rows.

Series data

• The SERIES DATA option under the TABLE menu displays the last data series selected, including summary statistics. This is the series used to plot a graph. To change the series, you must make a new choice from the DATA menu.
• The SERIES DATA screen can also be displayed while you are in a graph by pressing the letter A. If more than one series has been plotted, only the last series is shown. The range of years used for the series and statistics can be adjusted through the LIMITS option under the GRAPH menu.
• To view country or item profile lists and statistics, select VIEWPOINT from the GRAPH. You can quickly see a list of the tables with the greatest values (for example, countries with the highest commodity consumption) by choosing a table profile from VIEWPOINT and selecting the TOPMEMBERS option. Then select SERIES DATA from the TABLE menu to view the list, or select DISPLAY from the GRAPH menu to plot a chart.

Trend data

• If the FIT option has been selected (from the DATA menu) for a time trend, then the values composing the trend can be displayed with the TREND DATA option. Summary statistics for the original series and for the trend as well as residual values are included. The list scrolls with the ARROW keys, and you can toggle between the axis and trend data with the A and T keys.

Exporting data

• The EXPORT option under the FILE menu allows you to export FAOSTAT TS data into other file formats or to create custom tables for viewing or printing. By selecting EXPORT, you will jump into another set of menus.
• To select the tables and columns you want to view or save, go to the DATA menu. You must mark your choice of options with the + key. To undo all your selections quickly, select RESET MARKS.
• To arrange, view, save or print data, go to the options under EXPORT (in the FILE menu):
- FAO TABLE creates a table with data from the last four available years.
- VIEW displays a temporary text file of the data selected. It is a convenient way to view a subset of the tables and columns in a FAOSTAT TS file and can also be used to see the effects of the ORIENTATION or LAYOUT selections before using the SAVE or PRINT option.
- SAVE displays a list of file formats to let you save your data choices in a file. You will be prompted for a file name. If you need to export FAOSTAT TS data for use with other software, use this menu item. The WK1 and DBF file format selections are not affected by the LAYOUT options (see below).
- PRINT prints your current table and column selections. Many printers cannot print more than five columns of FAOSTAT TS data. Select VIEW to check the table width before printing.
- LAYOUT allows you to display years across rows or down columns. The default direction is down columns.
• To get back to the main FAOSTAT TS menu or to clear your selections and create more tables, go to the RETURN option.

Making notes

• To read or edit textual information on the current data file, select NOTES from the FILE menu. You can also call up the Notes box by pressing ALT+N at any of the menus. The option NOTES allows you to read or edit text associated with the data file.

DOS shell and exit

The DOS SHELL option under the FILE menu returns you to the DOS prompt temporarily but keeps FAOSTAT TS in memory. This is not the normal way to exit the program. It is useful if you need to execute a DOS command and would like to return to the same data file. The data file itself is dropped from memory and reloaded on return, so default values will be in effect.


• To exit FAOSTAT TS:
- Go to the FILE menu .
- Select EXIT.
The Alt+X or Alt+Q key combinations are short cuts to exit the program from almost any screen.

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