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PART 5
Fisheries activities of country groupings

ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS


The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967 with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration. At present, its members are Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam.

In 1992, the ASEAN heads of government adopted the Singapore Declaration and the Framework Agreement on Enhancing ASEAN Economic Cooperation, which included a decision to establish the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) within 15 years. It is now expected that the free trade area will be established by the year 2003. Member countries are gradually implementing the provisions of the Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Scheme, which is the main instrument of AFTA.

TABLE 7
ASEAN: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

679

852

1 050

1 193

Percentage of world total

16.0

11.9

11.2

7.6

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

234

326

592

715

Percentage of world total

8.6

7.1

9.7

6.6

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

984

923

939

1 058

Percentage of world total

16.9

14.8

15.0

14.0

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

6 680

7 878

9 405

10 390

Percentage of world total

9.3

9.6

11.8

11.9

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

8 576

9 980

11 986

13 357

Percentage of world total

10.1

9.9

11.8

11.0

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

471

1 142

1 904

2 072

Percentage of world total

2.7

3.2

4.2

3.6

Total exports (US$ million)

1 320

3 446

5 777

7 703

Percentage of world total

8.1

10.8

14.4

14.7

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

The ASEAN Ministerial Understanding on Fisheries Cooperation, signed in Singapore on 22 October 1983, identified areas subject to cooperative action among member countries. The areas identified included: the management and conservation of fishery resources; the transfer of technology to improve the socio-economic status of fishers; raising aquaculture production and fish farmers' incomes; production and marketing; post-harvest technology; the promotion of fish marketing and trade; and the promotion of a common understanding on regional and international matters in fisheries.

The 15th meeting of ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry, held in Bandar Sri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, 28 to 30 October 1993, agreed on a medium-term programme of action for ASEAN cooperation in food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry. The programme is aimed at strengthening food security in the region and is compatible with the Ministerial Understanding on Fisheries Cooperation.

COOPERATION WITH FAO

There is no formal cooperation between ASEAN and FAO in the area of fisheries. However, member countries of ASEAN and its fisheries group do cooperate closely with FAO through the FAO Regional Office in Bangkok.

 

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CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY AND COMMON MARKET

The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas on 4 July 1973, with the principal purpose of enhancing, through cooperation, the economic, social and cultural development of the people of member countries. CARICOM's members are Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago.

TABLE 8
CARICOM: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

0

2

3

4

Percentage of world total

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

0

0

0

1

Percentage of world total

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

1

2

2

2

Percentage of world total

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

72

82

98

102

Percentage of world total

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

74

86

103

108

Percentage of world total

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

55

57

52

84

Percentage of world total

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

Total exports (US$ million)

51

80

105

140

Percentage of world total

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

In fisheries, CARICOM aims to "promote the development of the fisheries subsector in member states with a view to optimal exploitation of their resources on a sustainable basis". It intends to do this by strengthening the legal and institutional framework, in part through the formulation and implementation of a common CARICOM Fisheries Policy and a CARICOM Regional Fisheries Mechanism.

The CARICOM Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management Program (CFRAMP) was initiated in 1991 with joint funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and 12 participating member countries of CARICOM. The primary goal of CFRAMP is "to promote the management and conservation of the fisheries resources of the CARICOM countries and to permit the exploitation of these on the basis of sustainable yield". The four major components of CFRAMP are the enhancement of national fisheries management capabilities, training, resource assessment and the establishment of a permanent regional fisheries mechanism, which on completion will be the successor to CFRAMP.

COOPERATION WITH FAO

CARICOM and FAO have cooperated closely over the past decades on various aspects of fisheries, including policy and legal matters. FAO has provided specific technical assistance to CFRAMP since its inception in 1991 and, over the past two years, the two have collaborated in implementing joint technical activities through the Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission (WECAFC). Such activities have included training in stock assessment and the assessment of major fish stocks (e.g. spiny lobster, penaeid shrimps) in the WECAFC region.

 

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COMMON MARKET FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA

The treaty establishing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) was signed on 5 November 1993 in Kampala, Uganda, and was notified on 8 December 1994 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Its member countries are Angola, Burundi, the Comoros, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, the Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The aims and objectives of COMESA are to:

To enable COMESA to sustain member countries' development efforts, structural and institutional weaknesses in member states should be removed and resources pooled.

TABLE 9
COMESA: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

28

56

70

79

Percentage of world total

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.5

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

0

0

3

10

Percentage of world total

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

1 025

1 268

1 271

1 251

Percentage of world total

17.6

20.3

20.3

16.6

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

205

340

627

605

Percentage of world total

0.3

0.4

0.8

0.7

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

1 258

1 664

1 970

1 945

Percentage of world total

1.5

1.7

1.9

1.6

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

205

208

188

307

Percentage of world total

1.2

0.6

0.4

0.5

Total exports (US$ million)

38

94

144

501

Percentage of world total

0.2

0.3

0.4

1.0

FISHERIES: PURPOSES AND ACTIVITIES

Article 130 of the treaty establishing COMESA contains the following explicit objectives and activities with regard to fisheries:

The agenda is overarching and its implementation will have an impact on fisheries and aquaculture in terms of the investments, production, trade and fish consumption of member states. COMESA aims to deepen and broaden the integration process among member states through the adoption of comprehensive trade liberalization measures, such as the complete elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade; the free movement of capital, labour, goods and the right of establishment; standardized taxation rates (including value-added tax and excise duties); promoting the adoption of a single currency and the establishment of a monetary union; and the adoption of a common external tariff (CET).

COOPERATION WITH FAO

The COMESA secretariat has entered into arrangements with FAO in the specialized field of agriculture and fisheries.

 

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COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was established in December 1991. It is a voluntary association consisting of the following states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The main purpose of the Commonwealth is to develop and strengthen cooperation and to serve the cause of peace and security.

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

To date, no common fisheries policy among countries of the CIS has been elaborated. Coordination is achieved through bilateral and multilateral agreements among the member countries, which can be divided into two groups: i) states that have inland water fisheries and aquaculture activities only (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan); and ii) states that have a well-developed distant-water fisheries sector (Russian Federation, Ukraine and - to a certain extent - Georgia).

Most CIS countries have concentrated on the restructuring of their fleets and on the processing and marketing sectors under structural adjustment schemes.

TABLE 10
CIS: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

...

307

219

99

Percentage of world total

...

4.3

2.3

0.6

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

...

0

1

2

Percentage of world total

...

0.0

0.0

0.0

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

...

679

437

310

Percentage of world total

...

10.9

7.0

4.1

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

...

8 952

5 706

4 852

Percentage of world total

...

10.9

7.1

5.6

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

...

9 939

6 363

5 263

Percentage of world total

...

9.9

6.3

4.3

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

...

0

35

500

Percentage of world total

...

0.0

0.1

0.9

Total exports (US$ million)

...

0

826

1 877

Percentage of world total

...

0.0

2.1

3.6

Note: ... = data not available.

COOPERATION WITH FAO

To date there is no agreed policy within the CIS countries concerning their cooperation with FAO. Each state acts independently in fisheries matters.

 

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ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES

The treaty establishing the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) came into force in June 1975. At present, the following countries adhere to the treaty: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, the Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.

The ECOWAS treaty specifies the Community's objective as being the promotion of cooperation and development in all fields of economic activity. Cooperation in the development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries is one of its primary aims. The first stage in this cooperation entails the harmonization of internal and external policies, the second stage envisages the adoption of a common agricultural policy.

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

Based on the recommendations of the Industry, Agriculture and Natural Resources Commission at its meeting in Cotonou, Benin, in April 1980, ECOWAS organized a conference of experts in Dakar, Senegal, to develop national policies to ensure better management and surveillance of waters under the jurisdiction of its member states and also to ensure the conservation of fisheries resources in the region. Several recommendations were made concerning research, surveillance, the harmonization of fishing agreements and legislation, trade in fish and fishery products, data collection, etc. Since then, member countries have made progress in implementing such recommendations.

TABLE 11
ECOWAS: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

7

11

17

19

Percentage of world total

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

0

0

1

0

Percentage of world total

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

314

333

331

395

Percentage of world total

5.4

5.3

5.3

5.2

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

877

995

1 228

1 272

Percentage of world total

1.2

1.2

1.5

1.5

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

1 198

1 340

1 577

1 687

Percentage of world total

1.4

1.3

1.6

1.4

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

280

343

358

336

Percentage of world total

1.6

1.0

0.8

0.6

Total exports (US$ million)

323

505

499

842

Percentage of world total

2.0

1.6

1.2

1.6

COOPERATION WITH FAO

ECOWAS' formal relationship with FAO is based on an exchange of letters between the Director-General of FAO and the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS. A Cooperation Agreement was established with FAO in December 1984, since which time FAO has been cooperating with the Community in various fields. However, as an organization, ECOWAS is not a member of any of the FAO statutory bodies.

In the mid-1990s, at the request of ECOWAS, FAO carried out a study entitled Economic development of fisheries, which made special reference to aspects of fisheries by foreign vessels off West Africa. In its conclusions, the study emphasized the necessity and the opportunities for regional cooperation in support of fisheries management and regional food security. Furthermore, FAO regional fisheries projects have been cooperating with ECOWAS member states, especially in promoting fisheries management in the artisanal subsector.

 

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EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

The Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957. In 1993, the Treaty of Maastricht established the European Union (EU) as a broader framework which retained the EEC, now the European Community (EC), as a legal entity. The aims of the EC include the abolition of restrictive trading practices and the free movement of capital and labour within the union. A single market with free movement of goods and capital was established in January 1993. The following countries are members of the EC: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

TABLE 12
EC: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

154

198

227

251

Percentage of world total

3.6

2.8

2.4

1.6

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

622

713

685

907

Percentage of world total

23.0

15.6

11.2

8.4

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

122

111

103

123

Percentage of world total

2.1

1.8

1.6

1.6

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

6 797

7 040

6 563

6 319

Percentage of world total

9.5

8.5

8.2

7.3

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

7 696

8 061

7 577

7 599

Percentage of world total

9.1

8.0

7.4

6.3

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

5 363

12 261

17 270

19 352

Percentage of world total

31.2

34.8

38.2

34.0

Total exports (US$ million)

3 117

6 400

8 580

11 015

Percentage of world total

19.2

20.1

21.4

21.0

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) of the EC came into existence in 1983, although the first elements of this policy had already been introduced in 1970. Since then, it has been developed and adjusted continuously in accordance with international developments and changes within the EC itself. The CFP covers access to resources, the conservation of fish stocks and the monitoring of fishing activities as well as the marketing of fishery products and research.

The main objective of the CFP is the sustainable conservation and management of the resource. Within this framework, an important element is the structural policy, the main components of which are the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG) and PESCA. Since 1993, these structural measures have been integrated into the EC's system of structural funds. PESCA has been designed to strengthen, develop and diversify the economies of regions dependent on fishing. The FIFG can help finance: i) adjustments in fishing effort; ii) fleet withdrawal and modernization of vessels; iii) investment in aquaculture; iv) fishing port facilities and the processing and marketing of products; v) other measures such as the promotion of new outlets for products, the management of fishing quotas by a producers' organization or temporary withdrawals, etc.

In 1997, within the framework of the Multi-Annual Guidance Programme (MAGP IV), targets for fleet capacity reductions were agreed for each EC member state. Targets were expressed as a reduction in tonnage volume (in GRT) and engine power (in kW).

In 1998, the implementation of the CFP entailed the following main measures:

COOPERATION WITH FAO

The EC is a full member of FAO. The EC is also a member of most FAO regional fisheries bodies and participates in the work of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee (EIFAC) and the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF).

In the course of 1998, the EC provided funds to FAO for the formulation and negotiation of international agreements and plans of action for improved global management of fishing capacity, shark fisheries and incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries.

 

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LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

The Latin American Economic System (LAES) is a regional intergovernmental organization that groups 27 Latin American and Caribbean countries: Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. LAES was established on 17 October 1975 by the Panama Convention.

The objectives of LAES are to promote a system for consultation and coordination aiming to achieve consensus in the form of joint positions and common strategies for the region on economic issues. The common strategies may be for individual countries or groups of countries. LAES also serves to promote cooperation and integration among the countries of the region.

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

The Action Committees of LAES are flexible cooperation mechanisms and are set up when more than two member states voice their interest in promoting joint programmes and projects in specific areas. These committees are dissolved once their objectives are fulfilled, otherwise they may become Permanent Bodies of the System.

TABLE 13
LAES: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

43

60

99

141

Percentage of world total

1.0

0.8

1.1

0.9

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

82

150

247

422

Percentage of world total

3.0

3.3

4.0

3.9

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

434

497

467

463

Percentage of world total

7.5

7.9

7.5

6.1

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

11 481

15 722

17 413

21 066

Percentage of world total

16.0

19.1

21.8

24.2

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

12 040

16 430

18 226

22 091

Percentage of world total

14.2

16.4

17.9

18.3

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

269

358

472

1 039

Percentage of world total

1.6

1.0

1.0

1.8

Total exports (US$ million)

2 118

3 139

4 243

6 615

Percentage of world total

13.1

9.9

10.6

12.6

COOPERATION WITH FAO

There is a long record of cooperation in technical activities between FAO and LAES. Initially, the forum for this cooperation was the Action Committee of Sea and Fresh-water Products. When this action committee was dissolved, the Latin American Organization for Fisheries Development (OLDEPESCA) was established, and this independent body has now become the centre of cooperation. FAO usually attends the annual OLDEPESCA conferences of Fisheries Ministers.

 

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LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES

The League of Arab States, more generally known as the Arab League, was founded in March 1945. It comprises Algeria, Bahrain, the Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, the Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

The broad objectives of the Arab League are to develop cooperation and strengthen complementarity among the member states in economical, cultural scientific, social and military fields. To do so, the League has set up several specialized agencies. Those of interest to FAO are: the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (Khartoum, the Sudan); the Arab Centre for the Study of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (Damascus, the Syrian Arab Republic); the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (Kuwait); the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (Tunis, Tunisia); the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (Khartoum, the Sudan); the Arab Academy for Science and Maritime Transport (Alexandria, Egypt); and the Inter-Arab Investment Guarantee Corporation (Kuwait).

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

The League of Arab States has no subsidiary body or institution that deals exclusively with fisheries matters.

TABLE 14
League of Arab States: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

34

63

75

84

Percentage of world total

0.8

0.9

0.8

0.5

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

0

1

4

10

Percentage of world total

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

Fisheries production

       

Inland production (`000 tonnes)

164

222

210

237

Percentage of world total

2.8

3.5

3.4

3.1

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

1 065

1 364

1 319

1 472

Percentage of world total

1.5

1.7

1.7

1.7

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

1 263

1 650

1 608

1 803

Percentage of world total

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.5

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

284

248

261

359

Percentage of world total

1.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

Total exports (US$ million)

385

833

900

1 152

Percentage of world total

2.4

2.6

2.2

2.2

COOPERATION WITH FAO

FAO has participated in several meetings organized by subsidiary bodies of the Arab League. The Organization has attended and partly sponsored meetings of the Arab Federation of Fish Producers (AFFP), which is a subsidiary of the Council for Arab Economic Union. In 1998, FAO was represented at the Conference on the Development of Marine Fisheries in the Arab World, organized by the Council.

 

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NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT

Canada, Mexico and the United States of America are members of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA´s main aims are to: contribute to the expansion of world trade; create, expand and secure markets for the goods produced in their territories; reduce distortions to trade; create new employment opportunities and improve working conditions and living standards in their respective territories; and address related environmental and conservation issues

Because of the extent of NAFTA´s market, it is a trading block with a global reach. It is also innovative, as it establishes linkages between economies with different levels of economic development. Current discussions envisage the linking of existing subregional integration schemes, of which NAFTA is one, into a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

FISHERIES: PURPOSES AND ACTIVITIES

NAFTA does not carry out any specific activities concerned with fisheries.

TABLE 15
NAFTA: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

201

254

304

312

Percentage of world total

4.7

3.5

3.2

2.0

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

190

198

214

229

Percentage of world total

7.0

4.3

3.5

2.1

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

218

269

239

190

Percentage of world total

3.8

4.3

3.8

2.5

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

6 793

8 287

7 432

7 134

Percentage of world total

9.5

10.1

9.3

8.2

Fishery and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

7 402

9 008

8 188

7 865

Percentage of world total

8.8

9.0

8.0

6.5

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

4 084

6 021

6 785

8 321

Percentage of world total

23.8

17.1

15.0

14.6

Total exports (US$ million)

2 712

5 087

5 985

6 178

Percentage of world total

16.7

16.0

14.9

11.8

COOPERATION WITH FAO

To date, there is no cooperation between NAFTA and FAO on fisheries matters. NAFTA member countries deal individually with FAO in this field.

 

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SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established in 1985 by the heads of state and government of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC's main goal is to accelerate economic and social development in member states through joint action in certain agreed areas of cooperation. To achieve this objective, SAARC seeks to:

TABLE 16
SAARC: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

631

1 045

1 605

2 103

Percentage of world total

14.8

14.6

17.1

13.5

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

10

21

42

91

Percentage of world total

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.8

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

1 152

1 006

963

1 415

Percentage of world total

19.8

16.1

15.4

18.7

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

2 440

2 611

3 450

3 831

Percentage of world total

3.4

3.2

4.3

4.4

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Total ('000 tonnes)

4 232

4 683

6 060

7 441

Percentage of world total

5.0

4.7

6.0

6.1

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

26

38

61

76

Percentage of world total

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Total exports (US$ million)

529

765

1 012

1 490

Percentage of world total

3.3

2.4

2.5

2.8

FISHERIES: PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES

The Integrated Programme of Action is the key component of SAARC´s activities. It now includes 11 areas of cooperation, each covered by a Technical Committee: Agriculture; Communications; Education; Culture and Sports; Environment and Meteorology; Health and Population Activities; Prevention of Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse; Rural Development, Science and Technology; Tourism; Transport; and Women in Development. SAARC also has a Technical Committee on Aquaculture.

COOPERATION WITH FAO

SAARC does not cooperate formally with FAO in fisheries or aquaculture.

 

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SOUTH PACIFIC FORUM

The South Pacific Forum (SPF), consisting of heads of government, was established in 1971. It provides an opportunity to discuss a wide variety of South Pacific and international concerns and issues common to members, including the promotion of a free trade area in the South Pacific region. In 1998, the members of the SPF and its affiliated agencies were: Australia, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The SPF has a secretariat (Forum Secretariat) which promotes regional cooperation among members on important economic issues.

TABLE 17
SPF: fisheries and aquaculture production and trade

 

1984

1988

1992

1996

Aquaculture production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

1

2

2

3

Percentage of world total

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

19

39

66

95

Percentage of world total

0.7

0.9

1.1

0.9

Fisheries production

       

Inland production ('000 tonnes)

19

22

23

19

Percentage of world total

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.3

Marine production ('000 tonnes)

475

595

819

748

Percentage of world total

1.0

0.2

1.0

0.9

Fisheries and aquaculture production

       

Combined total ('000 tonnes)

513

658

910

865

Percentage of world total

0.6

0.7

0.9

0.7

Trade in fishery commodities

       

Total imports (US$ million)

306

415

482

584

Percentage of world total

1.8

1.2

1.1

1.0

Total exports (US$ million)

671

1 095

1 372

1 711

Percentage of world total

1.8

1.2

1.1

1.0

FISHERIES: PURPOSE AND ACTIVITIES

The South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA), established as a specialized agency by the SPF in 1977, facilitates and coordinates cooperation and mutual assistance among members of the Forum in fisheries policy matters while seeking to secure the maximum benefits from the region's living marine resources for Pacific Islanders. The SPF, the Forum Secretariat and the FFA maintain close working relations with important intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. The FFA is mandated by its Convention, inter alia, to collect, analyse, evaluate and disseminate relevant information to members. Within its mandate, the FFA facilitated the coordination of its members in negotiating the Multilateral Treaty on Fisheries between the Governments of Certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America.

The FFA has brought important economic and social benefits to its members. The small developing island states have benefited in particular through regional cooperation and the adoption of regional minimum standards. Regionally agreed measures to limit fishing effort (e.g. in the purse seine tuna fishery) have also been of tangible benefit to FFA member countries.

COOPERATION WITH FAO

The FFA has formal relations with FAO and the two agencies cooperate on a range of technical issues, including such matters as joint training exercises and exchanges of technical information. FAO participates in the annual FFC meeting as an observer. In close cooperation with the FFA and its members as well as the DWFNs, FAO also participates as an observer in the Multilateral High Level Conference on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Central and Western Pacific (MHLC).

The FAO Subregional Office for the Pacific is expected to participate in the Marine Sector Working Group of the South Pacific Organizations Coordinating Committee, which is being convened by the Forum Secretariat and its members (comprising relevant Pacific regional organizations). The Working Group was established to facilitate the coordination of activities in the development of a regional strategy for the marine sector.

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