Previous PageTable Of Contents



Annex A. List of selected projects or initiatives elicited during group interviews and regional consultations held in March 1994

Project or initiative(site)


Assessment of the project

Initiator/contact person or group

Landless People s Development Bank (Dolores. Quezon; San Pablo)

This was a social credit-cum-savings scheme a la Grameen Bank. After an 8-step training seminar, prospective fund members, many of whom were women, were organized into groups of 5, with three groups forming a center. The group monitored the activities and collected the savings and loan repayments of its members. In Dolores. loans supported the upland women's economic projects like sewing, hog fattening, and farm produce trading. In San Pablo, the women members were farm-produce traders who sold their goods in Manila.

In Dolores, the women say that their group and project enabled them not only to run their houses, but also to open their own businesses. In San Pablo, the women did not only gain access to capital, but also gained confidence in running their own organization. Men who were initially skeptical about their (women's) success have recently indicated interest in forming a similar credit-savings group. Members of another women's group, however, found the CARD system onerous. Pressured to meet their repayment schedule, the women involved in the LPDF were said to have been forced to accept laundry jobs to come up with the money.

Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, San Pablo City

Day care center/ kindergarten (different sitio in Barangay San Isidro)

This involved the teaching of reading, counting, writing. And socializing to children of peasants, and doubled as a day care center. It was run by a woman who has at least a high school education. RIC paid her a stipend out of donations solicited by the group. In addition to donations, RIC provided free paper and pencils to the children. RIC was also involved in feeding program of DSWD

RIC leaders claim that the center's did not only educate the children of poor families, but they also give the mothers time for work or rest.

Mrs. Hilaria Alfelor, RIC president, San Isidro, Libmanan, Camarines Sur

Partnership of land owners and workers (PLOW) (Negros Occidental; Hacienda Catalina, Talisay)

This was concerned with crop diversification. A turnover of a large tract of sugar plantation land to a workers' cooperative was undertaken. Part of the land turned over was cultivated communally by the cooperative members; the other pan was distributed among the individual worker-families. The plantation owner continued to operate another pan of the plantation.

Women said that because Hacienda Catalina grew food crops as well as sugarcane for export, the workers, the plantation owners, and their respective families did not go hungry during the sugar crisis of the early 1980s. Work continued in the hacienda. With PLOW, women and men were able to raise their own food, making them less dependent on the plantation, especially during the "dead" months of sugarcane production.

Mr. and Mrs. Javellana. Bacolod City; Mr. Ed Locsin. President, Chito Foundation, Bacold City

Community-level gender sensitivity sessions (Cagayan de Oro and Manolo Fortich)

This focused on conducting discussions on gender issues with couples as participants. Lectures or inputs during the activity were minimal. Instead, emphasis was placed on couples' experiences vis-a-vis gender roles and sexual relations, and on working out the issues with the participants.

In Kitam-is, Manolo Fortich, the women claimed that the men who went to the session cut down on their drinking, thus minimizing quarrels and wife beating. Some men also began doing more housework. The women said that the sessions freed them from some of their worries with their husbands.

Technology Outreach and Community Help (TOUCH) Foundation Cagayan de Oro City

Pilot Provincial Agricultural Extension Project (Agricultural planning with women and men) Regions 5 and 10

This mainly involved the preparation of baran gay or village agricultural sector action plans that would be included in the municipal plan and that would serve as a basis for designing extension inputs and activities by agricultural technicians.

The women recognized two benefits from their project involvement: learning about planning and feeling confident that they would benefit from assistance that would come out of the plans. However, they noted that the planning and the research activities were too time-intensive and sometimes conflicted with their domestic and Other responsibilities

Mr. Terry Quinlan, Team Leader, PPAEP Technical Assistance Team, Cagayan de Oro City

Annex B. Future strategic goals and objectives and corresponding financial requirements pertinent to women in agriculture 1




Required Funding


Inequality in the sharing of power and decisionmaking at all levels

    Share power equally
    Strengthen the factors promoting full participation of women in the power and structure at all levels of society and eliminate the factors preventing it

Conduct leadership and assertive training
Prepare and reproduce training materials

Training Fund:

Schools and universities


Increase land ownership rights among women
Disseminate information among concerned agencies
Inform concerned women and men Strategy:
Activate women's organizations in all municipalities and cities Activities:
Identify women's groups
Develop project/program proposals
Organize development teams program/project

Project fund:


Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote the advancement of women

Build gender-responsive institutions
Establish and strengthen mechanisms in government and NGOs for the advancement of women

Set up regional mechanism for women; strengthen structures/ mechanisms in line agencies
Implement RA7192
Draft administrative guidelines

Line agencies, P30M; LGUs, P97.5M

Office of the President


Study government operational systems and analyze these vis-a-vis gender-responsive development
Incorporate criteria into program/project approval and review process

R&D fund:

Public administration Schools Line agencies

Lack of awareness of and commitment to internationally and nationally recognized women's rights

Promote women's rights
Raise general consciousness on women's rights
Eliminate all forms of discrimination against women

Revise sexist textbooks
Review textbooks/educational materials for gender biases

Research fund, P1.5M Seminar/ workshops, P1.1M



Disseminate information and raise the consciousness on women's rights, responsibilities and opportunities in the home and in the workplace
Reproduce materials
Organize fora in barangays

Printing, P0.3M



Overcome poverty
To eliminate the factors that accentuate poverty among women and which prevent them from overcoming the circumstances that place them in that category

Increase number of women entrepreneurs
Identify potential entrepreneurs
Organize business development centers

Technical assistance fund: P75M



Increase productivity and income from sub- contracting industries like garments, processing, and crafts
Conduct industry study on incomes
Identify productivity improvement measures

Equipment loan fund: P75M



Provide basic services in every barangay (potable water, electricity, communications systems)
Identify target barangays and needs

Infrastructure fund: P750M



Guarantee protection of Filipino producers, entrepreneurs, industries and markets
Review tariffs and taxes on imports vis-a-vis local products
Develop quality and quantities of local products and services

R&D fund: P0.5M Project Development fund: P5M



Produce and market green charcoal as an alternative to fuel wood, organic fertilizers. bio- pesticides, laundry soaps
Repeal structural adjustment conditionally (re: import of agro-chemicals and harmful ingredients)
Ensure the representation of women, indigenous people and Muslims in the
Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA) Board and make FPA Board functional
Ban pesticides and industrial and household agro-chemicals that are environmentally destructive and/or banned in their countries of origin

Working and Equipment Funding, P11.5 M Project Development Fund. P10 M



Organize community-based environmental groups who can undertake planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and environmental impact assessment
Develop training programs
Conduct regional and provincial training

Project Fund, P0.5 M Training Fund, P7.5M



Implement a program on diversified and organic or bio dynamic farming
Develop organic and multiple cropping
Conduct farmers' fore

Project Fund, P0.1 M Printing. P0.25 M



Provide primary importance on food security over export-oriented cash-crop production
Evaluate export crop and food production
Propose policy/program recommendations

R&D Fund, P0.5 M



Respect indigenous agricultural and fishing technologies
Conduct an inventory of various types of technologies, and document and evaluate this
Disseminate information

R&D Fund, P7.5M

DA, agricultural schools, fisheries schools, indigenous groups


Improve situation of beneficiaries of natural resource management projects
Review benefits of programs/projects
Recommend steps to increase access to the use of natural resources and extension services

Project review and monitoring, P0.2 M



Ensure conservation of prime agricultural land sand stop indiscriminate land conversion through women power
Legislate laws banning conversion of prime agricultural lands into mono crop plantations, industrial estates and tourism purposes
Consult peasant organizations, women, indigenous people and ethnic minorities in the review, Planning implementation, monitoring and evaluation

Planning Grant, P5 M



Protect the ownership right of women by indicating their name in the CLOA, EP, TCT, CLT and other forms of ownership titles
Review guidelines and forms
Recommend revisions and guidelines

Project Fund, P0.15 M


Inequitable access to and participation in economic structures and processes

Empower women economically
Enhance women's economic productivity

Strategy :
Recognize the contribution of unpaid women workers in the home and in the informal sector to the economy
Develop data collection and management system and integrate this into present census operations, analyze data and present reports

Research Fund, P1.5 M



Promote balanced industrialization which meets basic needs while promoting Philippine participation in the global economy
Identify and develop food production and processing industries as well as potential investors
Extend marketing and export facilitation

Under existing Livelihood Development Funds


Continue to monitor structural adjustment programs, GATT, NAFTA, APEC and their effects on women
Incorporate women impact analysis into program/project development processes

R&D Fund, P0.15M


Inequitable access to employment and other means to maximize awareness of women s rights and the use of their employed capacities

Have full employment and job alternatives
Enable women to be gainfully and

Increase access to employment opportunities
Promote employment alternatives covering both wage and self employment


Facilitate local employment
Strengthen self-employment promotion and facilitation programs with technical assistance and facilities
Have safety nets for workers made vulnerable not only by calamities or by their marginalized circumstances. but also by necessary structural adjustments in the economy
Promote remunerative off-farm employment to enhance income-generating capacity and productivity


Have stronger support for the implementation of inter-sectoral and inter-agency development plans for women
Promote women's participation in unions, especially at the decision-making level
Provide more solid guarantees for women's equal access to employment Institutionalize training on non-traditional skills for women


Effects on women of continuing national and international armed or other kinds of conflict

Involve women in the peace process
Promote women's role in achieving and maintaining peace

Protect displace women and children affected by national and international conflicts
Organize rescue relocation teams
Provide therapy for trauma

Project Fund: P50M


1 This list has been culled from The Philippine Country Report on Women, 1986-1995, prepared by the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women for the Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women. to be held in Beijing, China on September 1995.

Annex C. Issues and strategies identified during regional group interviews and consultative meetings held in March 1994

Subsector and issue or concern


Future strategy

Activities 1

Sites where identified

Fanning (outside plantations)

Lack of capital for non- farming venture (such as home-based industries or trading)

Improve women's earnings from their own enterprise

Put up factory in the barangay as an alternative to individual, home-based work

Conduct feasibility study re. supply of materials, skills in the barangay, and markets
Prepare proposal for funding workers to safeguard discipline and work quality

Dolores, Quezon; San Pablo, Laguna; Magsaysay, Misamis Oriental: Libmanan, Camarines Sur


Increase capital for farm trading

Contact additional or new suppliers
Prepare proposal for funding


Support to women often limited to small-budget income-generating projects(IGPs) and agricultural activities

Improve access of women to development resources

Increase the scale of funding or assistance for women

Involve women in designing and preparing project proposals
Conduct required financial, technical, and management training larger scale projects

Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon; Magsaysay, Misamis Oriental; Mindanao consultation (Cagayan de Oro)

Rapid decline of women's interest in training and other group activities

Improve women's access to training

Initiate gender and poverty-responsive training programs

Design training where the women are, with least disturbance to their livelihood
Design training with the women

Bais, Negros Oriental; Libmanan, Camarines Sur; Mindanao consultation; Visayas consultation (Dumaguete)

Programs or projects inducing shift to cash crop production

Safeguard food security

Promote diversification of crops without jeopardizing food supply

Disclose pros and cons of crop/technology
Urge farmers to continue cultivation of food crops

Manolo Fortich. Bukidnon: Mindanao consultation

Vulnerability of small producers including women farmers to market price fluctuations

Enable women to gain greater control over their produce

Organize themselves into a producers' union
Obtain communication equipment (two-way radio) to monitor prices and locate best buyers for their product

Ask assistance of their partner- NGO to organize themselves formally
Raise working capital for the group for the acquisition of a radio
Obtain license for the radio and training on how to operate

Manolo Fortich. Bukidnot

Technicians' assumption that all farmers are male even in the light of increasing importance of women's crops(vegetables)

Enable women to demand technical assistance as crop growers and/or livestock raisers

Heighten awareness among women of their status as farmers in their own right
Increase awareness among technicians of the technical assistance needed by women farmers

Conduct awareness-raising sessions with women
Conduct assertiveness training for women to help them deal with technicians and other development agents
Conduct gender sensitization and analysis training for technicians
Prepare an inventory of crops raised by women and prepare technology packages that will improve technicians' ability to work with women farmers

Mindanao consultation: Libmanan. Camarines Sur


Wages paid by many plantations inadequate to support household

Protect rights of plantation workers, female and male, to a living wage

Monitor compliance with wage laws
Promote land sharing between owners and workers a la PLOW
Generate sustainable income- generating activities for workers and their households

Encourage women to join labour unions and wage monitoring teams
Disseminate PLOW scheme among plantations
Protect women's claims to land that will be distributed Involve women and men in the design of income-generating activities
Prepare proposal for funding
Implement and review project

Bais, Negros Oriental; Talisay, Negros Occidental

Hiring priority given to males, and in times of crisis, women lose their jobs first

Eradicate discrimination in hiring in plantations

Promote awareness among women of their rights
Urge plantations to practice diversified cropping to minimize occurrence of crises

Prepare awareness-raising materials
Conduct awareness-raising sessions
Develop technologies that would improve existing diversified cropping systems

Bais, Negros Oriental; Talisay, Negros Occidental; Mindanao consultation


Declining income of fishing households due to overfishing

Expand livelihood possibilities for women and households in fishing communities

Generate alternative livelihood to fishing
Diversify fishing equipment to enable households to fish at different times of the year

Identify livelihood systems in the area
Identify prospective livelihood for the fishing community
Secure capital to finance acquisition of more varied equipment

Bais, Negros Oriental; Mindanao consultation; Visayas consultation

Declining income (cont.)


Minimize the number of individuals or groups going into fishing

Disseminate effective family planning materials
Involve both men and women in family planning discussions

Bais, Negros Oriental, Mindanao consultation; Visayas consultation

Continuing depletion of marine resources due to overfishing and capture technologies employed

Protect remaining marine resources

Arrest further depletion of marine resources

Enforce existing laws that regulate the fishing technologies used
Disseminate technical information on environment friendly fishing technologies

Mindanao consultation; Bais, Negros Oriental

Declining supply of fish that women could sell, process, and/or feed their families with because fish are brought directly to buying depots

Protect family nutrition and women's incomes


Bais, Negros Oriental; Mindanao consultation

Upland /forestry

Technicians tend to work primarily with men

Enable women to participate in the protection of the environment

Involve women in training and application of resource- enhancing technologies Increase awareness among technicians of women's existing or potential role in protecting the environment women could also adopt these

Conduct gender sensitivity and analysis for the women and for technicians
Conduct assertiveness training for women
Adapt technologies so that
Include women in cross visits to investigate resource enhancing technologies

Bais, Negros Oriental; Mindanao consultation

Low yields of upland farms due to depleted soil nutrients, choice of crop mix. and others

Improve yield and prevent further degradation of the soil

Promote/apply resource- enhancing technologies such as contour farming
Plant fast-maturing trees that could be harvested

Disseminate information and technology packages
Make planting materials for fast-growing trees available

Bais, Negros Oriental; Mindanao consultation

Women's burden brought about by lack of domestic water supply system

Provide dependable domestic water supply

Mobilize women to demand a domestic water system from the local government

Obtain consensus among the women concerning need for action
Prepare petitions
Organize marches or rallies, if need be

Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon; Dolores, Quezon; Visayas consultation

High outmigration (for women, domestic service) due to lack of employment opportunities in the uplands

Stem outmigration (especially migration to Manila)

Provide employment in the barangay or town

Set up small factories consultation: San Pablo.
Train young women and men in income-generating skills

Dolores Quezon. Mindanao Laguna


Need to organize women's groups

Protect women s rights under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP)

Promote the organization of women's groups in Agrarian Reform Communities (ARCS)
Promote women's participation in cooperatives at all levels

Initiate gender sensitivity discussions
Discuss women's rights under CARP
Conduct assertiveness training with women

Mindanao consultation: Visayas consultation

Commercialization of women and women's bodies

Prevent the exploitation of women

Raise awareness among women and men in the community about women's rights, roles, and duties

Hold discussions in the barangay about women's rights, roles, and duties
Hold discussion about the plight of overseas workers and other parts of the country

Magsaysay. Misamis Oriental. Libmanan. Camarines Sur

Poor roads and transportation system

Enable producers, female and male, to market their goods at low cost

Produce and market nonperishable goods if roads are not improved
Mobilize community to demand road or transport facilities

Shift part of land to crops that are not perishable
Secure planting materials and information about technology
Prepare petitions
If needed, organize marches or rallies

Mindanao consultation; Dolores, Quezon

Lack of control over women's sexuality


Enable women to gain control

Ensure that women are named in owner-ship or land-control papers (emancipation patents, CLOAs, and certificate of stewardship contracts) as individual or joint owner or steward

Check guidelines covering transfer of land (DAR and DENR)
Monitor implementation(titling) in the field
Involve women in the monitoring activity

Mindanao consultation


Improve the nutrition of female and male children and adults

Promote FAITH ("food always in the home") and similar schemes to secure food for the household

Prepare communication and planting materials for dissemination
Involve both women and men in the training on new technologies

Mindanao consultation

Poor roads and transportation system

Enable producers, female and male, to market their goods at low cost

Produce and market nonperishable goods if roads are not improved
Mobilize community to demand road or transport facilities

Shift part of land to crops that are not perishable
Secure planting materials and information about technology
Prepare petitions
If needed, organize marches or rallies

Mindanao consultation; Dolores, Quezon

Lack of control over women's sexuality


Enable women to gain control over land

Ensure that women are named in owner-ship or land-control papers (emancipation patents, CLOAs, and certificate of stewardship contracts) as individual or joint owner or steward

Check guidelines covering transfer of land (DAR and DENR)
Monitor implementation(titling) in the field
Involve women in the monitoring activity

Mindanao consultation


Improve the nutrition of female and male children and adults

Promote FAITH ("food always in the home.) and similar schemes to secure food for the household

Prepare communication and planting materials for dissemination
Involve both women and men in the training on new technologies

Mindanao consultation

1 Some of the activities were been surmised from the discussions, rather than translation of verbatim suggestions during the interviews and meetings


National Sectoral Reports on Women, Agriculture and Rural Development for:

Country "FACT SHEETS" on Women, Agriculture and Rural Development for:

Country papers on The Socioeconomic Situation of Rural Women for:

Rural Women of Latin America and the Caribbean, Preliminary contribution of FAO to the Sixth Regional Conference on the Integration of Women to the Economic and Social Development of Latin America and the Caribbean, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 25-29 September 1994.

A Synthesis Report: Towards the Development of a Regional Plan of Action for Women in Agriculture in the Near East (1996-2000).

Women, Agriculture and Rural Development: A Synthesis Report of the Africa Region.

Case Study on Women in the Peruvian Amazon.

Case Study on Rural-Urban Migration and Its Impact on Rural Women in Africa.

Case Study on The Socioeconomic Situation of Rural Women in Central and Eastern European Countries.

Report of the Technical Workshop: Women in Agriculture and Rural Development, Dakar, Senegal, 15 November 1994.

FAO Guidelines for Reporting on the Situation of Women in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

FAO Guidelines for the Improvement of Gender-desegregated Agricultural and Rural Statistics in Near Eastern Countries.

FAO Annotated Bibliography on Women, Agriculture and Rural Development.

Previous PageTop Of PageTable Of Contents