Summary of comments on ZFAP sub- programmes
Awareness of the importance of integrating gender issues in forestry programming exists and concerns are well articulated. The main constraints for gender integration in the current programme are the lack of gender disaggregated information and the lack of skills in gender analysis. Related to this is the lack of skills in initiating and maintaining participatory processes.
The following text summarizes the initiatives suggested for each sub-programme to address the above mentioned constraints.
Indigenous Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Programme (IFMBP)
Programming for IFMBP needs to be based on gender disaggregated information, an understanding of the contributions currently made by women and men in the areas of indigenous trees and conservation, and on documented knowledge of the rural women and men of the forest resource. IFMBP must develop strong links with the NGOs to facilitate the collection of gender disaggregated information and to strategize for future management and conservation. IFMBP must identify and develop gender sensitive tools to sustain the participation of rural women and men in indigenous forest management and biodiversity conservation.
Trees and Forest Development Programme (TFDP)
Programming for TFDP needs to be based on local level analysis of the roles of women and men in the agricultural, forestry and related sectors. The starting point for TFDP should be the reasons for the existence of trees on farms currently, not the assumption that "a tree growing culture" is entirely absent among rural people. It is fundamental that information on farm, tree activities is gender disaggregated as it is well established that there is significant variation in gender roles in this area. Supporting services, such as extension, information dissemination, and seedling provision must also be gender sensitive.
Forest Industry Development Programme (FIDP)
Not enough is known about the roles of women and men in the forest industries, particularly in the sector of non-wood products. As FIDP is also posed to have significant impacts on poverty alleviation, it is vital that gender analysis of current roles will be carried out as a basis for strategizing equitable participation in the future.
Woodfuel Energy Development Programme (WEDP)
Household fuel activities is a sector in which gender roles have always changed relatively fast depending on economic and technological changes. In any development of household strategies for woodfuel efficiency, the users need to be fully participating. The introduction of new technology at the household level, for example, can only succeed with full participation of the users to ensure that it meets cultural, economical and technological criteria of the user.
Forestry Education and Training Programme (FETP)
From the perspective of the gender issues this sub-programme needs most input. FETP has the potential of being the major strategy for redressing many of the identified gender inequities in the sector. The strategies summarized below in 2.2.2. have now been incorporated in Volume 3.
Forestry Research and Extension Programme (FREP) To make sure that FREP provides information needed for the implementation of participatory forestry, FREP should concern itself with development of methodology and tools for gender analysis and for participatory forestry, and with promoting partnerships between the scientific community, the rural community and the NGO community. The link between extension and research components of FREP must be explicit at the level of activities. The TORs of all extension staff should be reviewed to ensure the inclusion of criteria to measure performance on sustaining participatory forestry and understanding of gender roles in the area.
Planning Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (PMEP) The monitoring and evaluation of participatory forestry must include community based evaluation indicators. The process of identifying these indicators must be sensitive to gender, age, wealth and other social factors that determine the roles of women and men in the forestry sector. All information collected through PMEP must be gender disaggregated whether it relates to the monitoring and evaluation of activities in the forestry sector or to the management of those activities. Reporting by Forestry Department personnel should be reviewed to ensure information flow on issues relating to gender and participation.
The new forestry policy represents a significant shift towards recognizing the contributions of various stakeholders in the forestry sector. This shift towards participatory forestry requires retraining and training of forestry personnel in participatory and gender sensitive planning, monitoring and implementation. Strengthening institutional capacity to carry out identified strategies is fundamental to the successful implementation of the new policy. Zambia as a country is in state of transition. As a result socio-economic pressures result in changing gender roles. The Forestry Department needs to be responsive to these changes in the community level programming. These changing roles must be identified as one of the critical factors influencing the choice of forestry objectives. Because women's participation in the management of the forestry sector is known to be out of proportion with their contribution to it, the new policy must also make explicit reference to strategies that will correct this imbalance. Such strategies would include guaranteeing women access to forestry training in all of its sub-fields, the collection of gender disaggregated information, evaluation of performance based on indicators relating to gender participation and affirmative recruitment policies.