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Pilot Country Study - Zambia


Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Definition and classification
3.0 Identification
4.0 Institutional aspects
5.0 Problems and constraints
6.0 Technical description
7.0 Statistical data
8.0 Recommendations
9.0 Conclusion
10.0 Bibliography


NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS ZAMBIA

A Country pilot study for the expert consultation for English Speaking African Countries.

by
F.C. Njovu, Consultant
May, 1993

Acronyms and abbreviations

FAO

- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

GRZ

- Government of the Republic of Zambia

GTZ

- Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit

NGO

- Non - governmental Organization

NWFP

- Non Wood Forest Products

TFAP

- Tropical Forest Action Plan

ZFAP

- Zambia Forestry Action Plan

Executive summary

In assessing the role that forests play in the daily lives of the people who live in and around forests we often overlook the importance of Non-wood forest products (NWFP). This is often the result of a biased ideas that the major benefits derived from forests is wood and environmental protection.

Rural populations depend on the forests for a number of other products. Forests provide food in form of fruits, leaves, roots and mushrooms. They also provide building and construction materials in form of fibre, bamboo, rattan and so on. For most rural people, medicinal plants from the forest provide about the only form of medicines throughout their lives. The collection of these items provide people with employment and their sale supplements their income. With about 60% of Zambia's population residing in rural areas, it is not difficult to realise the importance of forests.

Over 55% of Zambians's total land area of 752,600 square kilometres is covered by forest type comprises species of the Brachystegia, Isoberlinia and Julbernadia genera.

The government has overall responsibility over NWFP through four government departments, namely:

- Forest Department Natural Resources Department
- Wildlife Department
- Fisheries Department

These institutions have assumed the responsibility because of the nature of their main operations. These and other organizations are involved in conducting research in NWFP. Other organizations are:

- The University of Zambia
- The National Council for Scientific research
- Public and Private Companies
- Associations and other interested groups

These conduct research in those NWFP in which they have vested interests.

Funding for research for government institutions is provided by the government. Donor agencies and other interest groups also provide funding for special purposes.

Of all NWFP in Zambia, the ones that are highly promoted and developed are those connected with beekeeping activities and basket/mat making.

Traditional beekeeping is widely practiced in Zambia. The activity depends on forest resources for all inputs and outputs. The hives in which the bees are kept are made from tree bark. The bees are found in any forest especially where rainfall is over 1000 mm per annum. The bees collect nectar and pollen from the forest to produce honey. The beekeepers harvest honey for consumption and trade. The combs are processed into beeswax which is marketed. The income from these products goes a long way to assist the rural populations.

Baskets and mats are made from bamboo, reeds or rattan and other plants that produce similar materials.

The importance of identified NWFP and classification according to use have been tabulated with statistical information on selected products. Statistical information on NWFP is not available because the harvesting, processing and marketing of these products is done by individuals who keep no records or on small-scale basis.

A number of constraints that hinder the development of NWFP have bean identified and these are:

- Shortage of man-power
- Inadequate funding
- Poor infrastructure
- Poor economic environment
- Under developed economic structure

Recommendation have accordingly been made that if implemented would alleviate some of the problems in this sector. Based on these recommendations, a field project has been recommended to address the problem of lack of information on NWFP in Zambia. The project is nation - wide survey and it falls within the framework of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan which Zambia is in the process of formulating. In addition the survey would augment the efforts of other surveys that have bean conducted in the country.

1.0 Introduction


1.1 General
1.2 Geographical description
1.3 Forestry sector


1.1 General

The importance of forests as a source of livelihood and sustenance for the rural population in Zambia dates back to the time before people begun to cultivate the land on which to grow food. During this time people gathered fruits, roots and leaves and also hunted birds and animals for food. In addition the forests provided shelter against adverse weather conditions and possible predators. To date forests continue to play a major role in the provision of wood and non-wood forest products and services to the population living in and around the forest areas for their subsistence.

For most rural people forest foods add variety to diets, improve palatability and provide essential vitamins, protein and calories. Medicines from forest species are usually the main medicines for rural populations. Many people rely on sale of rattan and bamboo products, grass medicines wild fruits and others to supplement their income.

The objectives of the pilot study is to "provide a brief, concise and realistic overview of the importance of non-wood forest products to the country and prospects for further development".

This paper presents the results of a pilot study carried out to gather and collect information on "non-wood forest products" in Zambia. It gives information and statistical data on the use and importance of non-wood forest goods and services that are derived from the forests and their biomass for commercial, industrial and subsistence use.

1.2 Geographical description

Zambia is entirely landlocked and lies between latitudes 8 and 18 degrees south and longitudes 22 and 34 degrees east. It is bordered by Zaire, Tanzania, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Botswana and Namibia.

The total area of Zambia is 752, 600 square kilometres. The population of the country currently stands at nearly 8 million inhabitants with a very high growth rate of 13.2% per annum. With over 42% of the total population residing in areas designated as urban Zambia is one of the highly urbanised countries in Africa.

The main part of the country is a plateau which ranges from 1000 to 1300 metres above sea level. A range of mountains on the north eastern border rises to move than 1800 metres. The major river is the Zambezi from which the country derive its name. Its small tributaries dry the western part of the country. the Kafue and Luangwa rivers are the main tributaries of the Zambezi and these drain the central and eastern parts of the country. The Luapula river drains the northern part of the country and pours its water into the river Zaire. In addition to these rivers there are a number of lakes which are shared with neighbouring countries. In the north is the southern tip of Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mweru which are shared with Tanzania and Zaire respectively. In the south is found the man-made lake Kariba which is shared with Zimbabwe. Lake Bangweulu lies wholly in Zambia.

The climate of Zambia is sub - tropical with three identifiable seasons. The warm wet season, the cool/dry and warm/dry seasons. The unimodal rain season stretches from November to April. The rainfall varies from 700 mm in south to about 1400 mm per annum in the north. The cool/dry season runs from May to August while the warm and dry season is from September to November. Temperature vary from 17 to 32 degrees just before the rains and between 15 and 27 degrees during May to September.

As a result of varying elevation and rainfall distribution, the country is divided into four major agro - ecological zones and there are :

1. The Northern high rainfall zone covering the Copperbelt, Luapula, Northern and North-western provinces. In these areas soils are highly leached sand velds of low fertility.

2. The medium rainfall Central, Southern and Eastern plateau which also has the most fertile soils with the highest population density. Rainfall in this zone averages 800 1200 mm per year

3. The low rainfall Luangwa - Zambezi rift valley with an average of about 700 mm of rainfall per annum. The soils are mainly shallow chestnut sands.

4. The western semi-arid plains which cover the western part of the country. The area is covered by infertile Karahari sands. Average rainfall varies between 700 and 1000 mm per annum.

1.3 Forestry sector

It is estimated that about 55% of Zambia's total land area is covered by indigenous forests. In land tenure terms land in Zambia is basically classified-as

Statelands

6 %

Reserves

36 %

Trustland

50 %

National Parks

8 %

Specific areas in Statelands, Reserves and Trustland are declared as either National forests or Local forests. National and Local forests constitute slightly under 10% of the total area.

The distribution of vegetation and forest types follow altitude and rainfall patterns. The more important forest types include:

The dry forests particularly in the west where the highly valuable Baikiaea plurijuga is found.

The Mopane woodland comprising Colophospermum mopane in almost pure stands.

The acacia woodland which is more savanna like and characterised by species of Acacia, Combretum and Terminalia genera.

The miombo woodlands characterised by Brachystegia, Julbernadia and Isorberlina species and covering almost 60% of the forested area. The miombo woodland is found in the high and medium rainfall areas of the northern and central Zambia.

In addition to the above forest types there are grassland vegetation types associated with flood plains of major rivers and lake basins while evergreen forest are found in high rainfall highland areas occurs. The dry forests are found either as dry evergreen or dry decidious such as the Zambezi Teak Forests. Table 1 below shows the percentage distribution of these forest types.

Table 1: Distribution of Forest Types

Forest Type

% of total forested

area

Closed forests


Dry (evergreen and deciduous)

7.7



Swamp and riparian

0.5

8.2

Open forests


Miombo

58.3



Kalahari

15.8



Mopane

7.2



Munga (Acacia)

6.1

87.4

Other


Termitaria etc

4.4

4.4


100

100

2.0 Definition and classification


2.1 Food security
2.2 Traditional medicines
2.3 Construction materials
2.4 Manufacture of other items
2.5 Income generation


Non-wood forest products are defined as all biological material (other than industrial roundwood and its derivatives) that may be extracted from natural ecosystems and managed plantations and utilized within the household, be marketed or have a social, cultural or religious significance. NWFP include flora and fauna.

NWFP play an important role in the Zambian household. They provide the people living in or around forests with a variety of products that are employed in their day to day life. Examples of activities where NWFP are important are:-

2.1 Food security

This is in farm of nutritional supplements. Leaves of forest trees provide a welcome additional source of nutrition especially during the dry months when fresh vegetables become scarce. Forest fruits ripen at different times of the year thereby supply a continuous source of vitamins especially for children. Fruits from trees such as Uapaca kirkian, Parinari curatellifolia, Strychnos spp, Syzygium spp, Anisophyllea etc are very popular when they are in season.

Wildroots have saved many a life in the remote parts of the country especially during drought, examples are Colocasia edulis, Dolichos elipticus and Eriosema buchananii, wild animals, birds and fish provide an important source of protein to all Zambians.

Although there are restrictions on the harvesting of wild animals, fish is widely available and is a major source of cheap animal protein. Lymnophyton obtusifolium and Nidorella welwitschii are burnt to made cooking soda and salt respectively.

2.2 Traditional medicines

People living in rural areas and to a large extent those in towns, depend on traditional medicines to maintain their physical or mental health. Some traditional medicines are largely based on NWFP. Although these medicines and charms may not be scientifically proven, people believe in them and in some cases they are the only available medicines.

Leaves. bark, fruits etc are used for medicinal purposes, Parts of some animals are also utilised in the preparation of traditional medicines

2.3 Construction materials

Traditional dwellings and other structures such as granaries are constructed of locally available materials. The frame of the roof of such structures is made of pieces of bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) or reeds tied together with bark rope and thatched over with grass. Blandering in the walls of pole and dagga huts may be of bamboo tied with bark rope. The best bark rope is obtained from the Brachystegia spp and Julbernadia spp. Triumfetta is also used for tying where trees are not available.

2.4 Manufacture of other items

Baskets and similar items are made from materials derived from forest plants. Bamboo, reeds and papyrus are some of the plants that are used. Bark and leaves of Phoenix reclinata are used to make temporary containers. The mid-rib of the leaves of Borassus aethiopum makes good sweeping brooms while the other part of the leaf is used for basket, hats and mats. Rope from the fibres of Sesamum angustifolium is used for stitching reed mats and making fish nets and animal traps.

2.5 Income generation

All items mentioned in the preceding paragraphs may actually be traded for cash to generate income for other uses. People engage in such activities particularly during the slack periods when agricultural activities are reduced.

During the years in which caterpillars occur, caterpillar collection becomes a lucrative activity as the larvae are favourite delicacy of people living on the copperbelt and in Lusaka.

The classification of Zambia NWFP according to whether they are used for subsistence or trade purposes at local, national or international levels as well as the assessment of their importance at community, district and national levels is given in Annex 1. The assessment is based on the observation of use of a particular product vis-à-vis its natural availability in the area. For instance if a particular NWFP such as bamboo or mushroom is readily available in the area, it is expected that the product will be widely used and residents in that locality will depend on its use to some extent. And if almost every household is actually utilizing these products in their every day life, then products are classified as very important at community level. The same assessment applies at district and national level.

It has bean possible to show volumes or values because such information does not exist and the collection of such data is beyond the scope of this pilot study. The indicator used in the identification of products is the popularity of usage of a particular product. In fact it is this aspect that the proposed project is supposed to tackle. So the products that have been rated as very important are those whose use in widely spread to such an extent that almost every household uses them.

The classification into traded or mainly subsistence use is based on whether the product is actually offered for exchange at a relatively reasonable scale.

3.0 Identification

In line with the criteria for the identification and selection of non-wood forest products that play a relevant role in local communities, the products listed in Annex II have been identified. Annex III show the analysis of the opportunities that exist to further promote and develop NWFP in Zambia. These are the Socio-economic activities that would expand and benefit from further promotion and development of the identified products.

4.0 Institutional aspects


4.1 Institutional responsibility
4.2 Legislation
4.3 Policy
4.4 Training Research and development


Whereas there is no particular institution responsible for all non-wood forest products in the country, there are four government departments that have overall responsibility over national forests and wildlife. These are:

The Forest department
Natural Resources department
Fisheries department
Department of Wildlife.

These four institutions are responsible for policy formulation, data collection, taxation control of exploitation and resource protection. There is hardly any overlapping or duplication of responsibilities as their different roles are cleared defined. However, close cooperation does exist between the four institutions.

The Forest department has its headquarters in Ndola while the other three departments have theirs in Lusaka. All the four departments are represented at Provincial, district and sub district levels where they have personnel to man the offices.

Popular participation is assured through traditional ruler and local authorities who represent the people. Before the four departments can issue a licence for exploiting any of the products (especially on commercial basis) authority must be sought from the traditional ruler and the local authority.

Based on the available knowledge, the government can take measures to restrict the production of, processing and trade of any Non-wood forest products at any time. However, the enterprises can influence government policy and practice by making presentations to the minister responsible.

4.1 Institutional responsibility

Organizations and institutions that are involved in research and development of some non-wood forest products in Zambia are described below.

4.1.1 Forest department

The Forest department has three divisions that deal with research and utilization of non-wood forest products based in Kitwe and these are :

Forest Products Research Division
Forest Research (Biological) Division
Beekeeping Division.

The Forest Products Research division has a section that conducts research in minor forest products; the aspect of collection (extraction), processing and utilization and preservation are dealt with. The area of emphasis in this section has been on products that are derived from wood (trees) especially extractives. Investigations have been carried out on dyes, essential oils, gums, resins and tanins.

The Forest research (biological) division conducts research on various biological aspects of forest plants of interest. The emphasis is on the identification and raising of these plants to improve production. Investigations are carried out on medicinal plants, fibres, food plants (fungi, fruits etc) and extractives (dyes, tanins and guns).

The Beekeeping Division conducts research in beekeeping methods and products, marketing and extension. The main area of interest is in forest flowers (Bee forage), fibres for hive production, honey, beeswax and propolis.

All these divisions are manned by university post graduates with Masters of Science in forestry related fields. They are assisted by Bachelor of Science degree holders, diploma and certificate technicians. To some extent these institutions are capable of conducting their business. Where they are not able to do so, there is always a possibility of seeking assistance from local and international institutions.

The major source of funding for the Forest department is the government which provides funds to run these organizations. International agencies (FAO and FINNIDA) have bean assisting with the provision of equipment and manpower training. In addition, local organizations and companies have been helping to fund research and development of those non-wood forest products of particular interest to them, such as research on latex producing trees, raising of mushroom in green houses and rattan production.

4.1.2 National council for scientific research

This is an autonomous organization created to, among other objectives carry out research on the possibilities of commercial utilization of local raw materials. The council has been involved in research and development and utilization of non-wood forest products. So far research is being conducted in Fibre, Vegetal, Medicinal and Extractive categories.

The human resources at the council is highly qualified some of them being Phd holders in their field of specialization. The technical capability (Laboratories and other facilities) is there as this council was established specifically for the purpose of conducting research.

The funding of this organization is in form of grants from the Zambian government. Other funds are obtained from sponsorships by organizations and companies that are interested in particular non-wood products and sale of formulae or patents to commercial entities.

4.1.3 The University of Zambia

The university through its many faculties and schools has been involved in various aspects of non-wood forest products. The involvement depends on the interest of the faculty or school in question such that the department of chemistry is involved in extractives, agriculture department is responsible for non-wood forest products that are of interest to farmers and so on.

4.1.4 Public and private companies

Various private and public companies do conduct research in those NWFP of their interest especially where they can detect a commercial possibility.

4.1.5 Associations and interest groups

These organization service various sectors of the community and represent varying interest groups. Groups such as the Traditional Healers Association and the Zambia Council for the Handicapped conduct research in non-wood forest products from which their members benefit. This is done either by the associations themselves or through sponsoring relevant research programmes in other institutions.

4.1.6 Other support institutions

Since the harvesting, processing and marketing of non-wood forest products falls in the category small scale (forest) enterprises, these activities are also catered for by institutions established to provide small scale industries.

1 - Village Industry Service (VIS) was established in 1978. VIS is a voluntary NGO whose object is to promote industries and crafts on the basis of small scale labour intense unity with the objective of maximizing village employment and generating additional village income. VIS provides technical and financial support.

2 - Small Scale Industries Organization (SIDO) was established by an act of parliament of 1981 with a primary objective of promoting small scale industrial enterprise in Zambia.

3 - Small Scale Enterprise Promotion Limited (SEP) was set up as a joint venture of the Development Bank of Zambia and the Frederick - Ebert Foundation of West Germany. The company provided requisite services such as financial and training of small scale entrepreneurs. The company has since been transformed into a financial institution exclusively interested in small scale entrepreneurs.

4.2 Legislation

The Forest Act Chapter 311 of 1973 with subsequent amendments is the main law that govern forestry in Zambia. Relevant sections of the law prohibit entry into the protected forest areas for any purpose without authorization to do so. The law empowers the minister to set fees and make any regulations concerning the harvest, removal and processing of forest products and also empowers the forest officers to collect fees and taxes and to authorize the collection, removal and utilization of forest products. There are no guidelines or standards regarding product quality or testing requirements on non-wood forest products. However, since most forests or woodland in the country lies outside the protected areas, the Land Act and it's subsidiary legislation is also relevant.

The legislation in itself is adequate and not overly restricted although non-wood forest products are not individually named. The deficiency lies in the enforcement of the law.

4.3 Policy

The policy of the Zambian government as regards non-wood forest products is derived from the main policy and law on natural resources. The law states that the ownership of all land is vested in the President on behalf of the people of the country. The policy is that the government should manage these resources for sustainability and for the benefit of the Zambians.

4.4 Training Research and development

Scientific training at degree level in non-wood forest products is conducted outside the country due to lack of adequate training facilities locally. Below this level, training can be done either locally or abroad. Consequently links at various levels do exist with other research on educational institutions in other nations.

Technical support and infrastructure on sub-national basis is on the whole not well distributed for reasons to be discussed later. The same applies to the dissemination of information on relevant advances in their fields.

Whereas the number and hierarchy at nation, regional and district levels are defined in the establishment for each institution, together with the quality of staff training in relation to responsibilities and whereas the government has trained and facilitated the training of a number of personnel to fill these posts, the staffing is far below required levels. This is mainly due to government failure to retain trained staff who leave after training for better conditions. The incentive for career advancement is there but there are no incentives to keep trained staff from leaving.

5.0 Problems and constraints


5.1 Lack of information
5.2 Shortage of manpower
5.3 Inadequate funding
5.4 Infrastructure
5.5 Poor economic environment
5.6 Under developed marketing structure


The importance of non-wood forest products to the local communities cannot be over emphasized. Some of the non-wood products are not only important to the local communities but also to the nation. Exploitation of NWFP helps to create job opportunities and helps the country earn the much needed foreign exchange. However the promotion and further development of these products is hindered by a number of problems. These constraints mainly stem from the institutional framework in which the NWFP are managed. The government has overall responsibility for NWFP. This has resulted in the following constraints.

5.1 Lack of information

Information on NWFP in Zambia is not readily available. Even where research has bean conducted, the results are rarely publicised. Most of the research in academic statistical information is lacking mostly because of the unorganized nature of utilizing the NWFP.

5.2 Shortage of manpower

The difficulty with the arrangement of having the government as the sole institution responsible for non-wood forest products is that the responsibility becomes too much. More attention is paid to pressing matters as well as activities that appear to generate more tangible results. This is illustrated in the terminology used to refer to NWFP. In Zambia these are referred to as "Minor Forest Products", even in the legislation. Consequently trained manpower in this field are very few. Since specialised training is required for this category of personnel, the government has failed to retain trained personnel due very low salaries and poor conditions of service.

Human resources are essential to conduct research in NWFP as well as to disseminate research findings train and educate the producers and users of these products.

5.3 Inadequate funding

Even in instances where human resources are available, it has not always been possible to carry out their job because facilities are lacking. In order to conduct meaningful research, properly equipped laboratories should be in place. Other facilities such as transport to visit the areas for either sample collection or to provide extension services are a prerequisite for successful promotion and further development of non-wood products

5.4 Infrastructure

The development of NWFP is also hindered by lack of well developed infrastructure in the country such as a good road network and staff housing. Forests by their very nature are found away from centres of large populations were market for these products exist. If the road system is well developed NWFP that are either bulky and heavy or highly perishable (e.g. honey, bushmeat and mushroom) can easily find access to the market. Additionally if extension expertise is available on site and able to offer advice when needed, interest in these products would be maintained. This would in turn encourage more production of the product in question.

5.5 Poor economic environment

Due the poor economic environment prevailing in the country, individuals and companies have been reluctant to invest in ventures that would result in the promotion and development of NWFP. Even where the willingness is present, the high interest rates and availability of loans discourages investment in those activities that have narrow profit margins or are unfamiliar to financiers.

The same situation exists when it comes to short-term (seasonal) loans to enable individuals to enter into production and processing of non-wood forest products.

5.6 Under developed marketing structure

The availability of a well developed marketing structure is an essential element in the promotion and further development of any commodity. For any individual or organization to enter the production, processing or marketing of non-wood forest products, there must be assurance of the possibility of selling their products locally or internationally.

6.0 Technical description


6.1 Beekeeping
6.2 Basket making
6.3 Munkoyo (Sweet Beer)
6.4 Masuku


Four activities that involve production and processing of NWFP are discussed. These activities are widely practiced. They are beekeeping and basket making which are described in detail and two ways of beverage making which are briefly discussed. There are a number of other products of local and national importance. The problem is that of data availability. Since as mentioned earlier, there is no particular institution that has conducted a detailed research in the use of these products it is not possible to show figures in a study such as this one. In addition, the NWFP is this country are mostly dealt with by the informal sector.

6.1 Beekeeping

Beekeeping is well suited to those who live in rural areas as there is plenty of space in which to scatter hives. In Zambia honey and beeswax production depends on the natural forest.

6.1.1 Production

Zambia has many thousand of hectares of Brachystegia woodland which provides excellent source of nectar for bees. The availability of bee forage varies greatly depending on the proportions of the various tree species in the woodland and on the rainfall. In general however any wooded area with more than 1000 mm of rainfall may be considered a possible beekeeping area.

Although efforts have been made to introduce frame hive beekeeping for more than 30 years, this has not been successful mainly because of the price of the frame hives which rural people cannot afford. Consequently, traditional beekeeping by the rural people is the major source of honey products in the country. Traditionally making of hives, baiting and harvesting (Cropping) are male roles. Women can only participate in transporting and processing.

Bark hives are made by stripping bark off a live tree. The cylindrical lives are about 120 cm long and about 30 cm in diameter. The joint along the length of the hive is secured with seasoned hardwood pegs, the ends are then closed either by circular plaited grass doors made of fine thatching grass, or by another piece of bark. The hives are then left to dry for two months before being hung in trees.

6.1.2 Harvesting

Harvesting is done when the flowering of trees from which the nectar is obtained is over. There are two flowering seasons. The main flowering period is September to November usually just before the rains. This is when the Brachystegia species flower. In addition over considerable areas Julbernadia paniculata and J. globiflora occur, and these flower from February to May producing a second flow.

It must be stressed that the major source of nectar are the Brachystegia and Julbernadia species. However any species which flower out of the main season are important because they enable the bees to keep up their stores of pollen and honey. The most important species in this group are Marquesia macroura, M. acuminata, Syzygium and Parinari species.

Even in area where Brachystegia woodland does not occur, good yields may be obtained from species such as Acacia and other shrubs.

Once the honey is removed from the hives, it is packed in any suitable containers and transported to the villages where the honey can be used for beer brewing, as a sweetener or prepared for sale.

6.1.3 Processing

Honey for sale is traded either semi processed or unprocessed. In the country there are both government and private agencies involved in the honey trade. The would-be buyers distributes containers to the beekeeper before harvesting. After harvesting the unprocessed honey is bought by the many buyers who process it further. The honey that is semi processed is first processed at village level. Some beekeepers have been supplied with honey presses which are used to squeeze the honey from the combs. The liquid honey is sold as semi processed honey. The combs from the honey press together with those from honey where the bees have absconded are processed into beeswax.

The procedure is that the combs are melted in boiling water once everything has boiled the liquid is strained through sack cloth and left to cool. The beeswax will solidify on top of the dirty water. This is then marketed through the normal channels, processed honey and beeswax fetched more income for the village beekeeper. Processing is a family activity.

6.1.4 Renewability of the resource base

Beekeeping makes use of the high natural potential of the areas where it has been practiced for generations. Investigations into the most appropriate technologies (concerning ecological, economical and social relevance) have been carried out.

According to a recent study done on the impact of beekeeping on the natural resources a negative impact by bark-hive beekeeping has been identified. Ironically the same tree species that are good bee forage producers also have the best bark for hive making. In recognition of this fact, a number of measures have bean taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the trees. Beekeepers do appreciate the value of forests (trees) and they are aware that the sustainability of their livelihood depends on the availability of forests. To this end, beekeepers are encouraged to make three to five hives from a single tree. Other measures include the introduction of alternative hive making material such as grass, calabashes and planks. In fact it is not all trees of a given species are suitable for back hive manufacture, so there is selection during the process of hive making. The procedure is likened to the silvicultural practice of selective cutting employed by logging companies in the same miombo forests. But this is at a reduced scale. The damage caused by beekeeping to the environment is therefore not as severe as that caused by other activities such as logging, shifting cultivation, charcoal burning and clearing for agriculture and settlements.

Currently research is underway to try and find suitable alternative materials for hive making that would be accepted to the local beekeepers.

6.2 Basket making

Another NWFP based activity the is widely practiced in Zambia is basket/mat making. Material used for making baskets vary but the most common is bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica). In Zambia bamboos are closely related with termite mounds.

The popularity of this activity is proven by the fact that it is the most important activity in the forest based small scale industries sector. Fisseha and Milimo (1986) found that of the 80,000 full time workers in this sector, 94% were in manufacturing and of these 5% were basket and/or makers.

Basket making is a very lucrative business entered into specifically for income generation. The products are sold in urban centres and along major road routes.

6.2.1 Harvesting and processing

Fresh bamboo is used. Good canes with few branches are chosen and cut in lengths of more than 2m each. These are the split in the forest into strips before transporting to the village or roadside then the strips are smoothed.

Larger strips are used for the skeleton of the basket and handles. The thin strips (about 5 cm in diameter) are used for weaving the basket body. Since basket are bulky, it is usually these bamboo strips that are transported from the place of production (mostly Copperbelt) to other marketing areas.

6.2.2 Manufacture and marketing

Basket manufacture is usually done at or close to the selling point. Various shaped basket are made. The same raw material is also used for baby cribs, wicket chairs, flower baskets and similar products. The activity is done by individuals with family members or one or two friends. Selling is done at the market, at road sides and by vending.

6.2.3 Renewability of the resources base

Bamboos grow from rhizomes, harvesting does not kill the clamp unless it is dug up. So bamboo bushes keep sprouting until they flower at which time the whole clamp dies. this phenomenon is however very rare. The growth rate of bamboos is high such that there is replacement on an annual basis. No efforts are made to replant or regenerate bamboos in Zambia.

6.3 Munkoyo (Sweet Beer)

Great potential for developing non-wood forest products exist in Zambia. The roots of a sub shrub Rhynchosia insignis are used in the brewing of a sweet beer locally known as Munkoyo.

6.3.1 Production and processing

Rhynchosia insignis is a sub shrub found as an under storey plant in the Miombo Woodland. Its roots are tuber-like and fibrous. Collectors dig the roots up and either offer them for sale directly or are beaten up into fibrous strands that are dried and then sold.

The process of brewing Munkoyo involves the preparation of maize meal porridge which is then left to cool. Once the porridge has cooled, beaten roots of Rhynchosia are added to it and stirred until the colour changes to yellow. The liquid is then strained and left overnight.

6.3.2 Marketing

The Munkoyo is the marketed by women to workers in industry and offices and is very popular especially as cheap lunch. It is also taken as a beverage at home and where ever there is a gathering of people such as at weddings, funerals or meetings.

6.4 Masuku

The fruits of Uapaca kirkiana are very popular with Zambians. They ripen between September and November when they are offered for sale at markets and along roads.

The National Scientific Council has come up with formula for making Masuku wine which a local company is using. The fruits are collected during the period when they are in abundance and processed into a sweet wine.

Apart from wine, the fruits can also be used in making jam.

7.0 Statistical data

Statistical data on non-wood forest products is not easy to come by. These products are collected and utilised by local communities, The only figures that are available are for those item that are licenced by the government department. Even then, the accuracy of such figures is questionable since the government does not have adequate facilities to monitor the licenses. Furthermore, people are reluctant to give accurate production figures of whatever activity that they are involved in for various reasons. The figures given in the table below relate to the part of production that goes through the government established channels of trade such as cooperatives. It has been estimated that the bulk of the production is handled by the informal sector.

Table II Statistical Data Sheet

Year

Product

Scope

Quantity

Unit

Value US$

1988

Honey

M

180780

Kg

180780

1989

"

M

95000

Kg

95000

1990

"

M

205300

Kg

203300

1991

"

M

10014

Kg

10014

1991

"

E

18000

Kg

18000

1992

"

M

171850

Kg

171850

1988

Beeswax

M

14765

Kg

38390

1989

"

M

19895

Kg

51730

1990

"

M

56395

Kg

146630

1991

"

M

24635

Kg

64050

1992

"

M

28515

Kg

74140

Note: Information obtained from official figures. It has been estimated that 50% of total production of honey is recorded and only 25% of the beeswax.

8.0 Recommendations


8.1 Infrastructure
8.2 Manpower
8.3 Financial assistance
8.4 Information distribution system


The further promotion and development of non-wood forest products requires a deliberate government policy directed specifically at this sector. Zambia's economic performance has been on the decline since the mid 1970s. The high rate of population growth and the lack of new investments has resulted in falling standards of living and reduced employment opportunities. Non-wood forest products have high potential in terms of employment creation and improvement of the standard of living of the people involved in such activities. Many people rely on sale of honey, beeswax bamboo furniture and baskets, medicine, wild fruits and mushrooms to supplement their income. Others engage in hunting and gathering for sale seasonally either to exploit raw materials or markets available only at particular periods or the labour available at certain times when agricultural activities slack. NWFP are heavily depended upon in emergencies as was evident in some remote parts of the country during the recent drought.

As the new government which came into power in 1991 tries to put the economy of the country back on track, attention should be paid to what should be done to the forest sector (especially NWFP) in order to bring the optional utilization and to derive maximum benefits for the local communities and the nation as a whole.

According to the governments economic recovery programme, the primary goal is "to reduce unemployment, expand resources to improve health, education and other basic social services and meet the income and other needs of the most vulnerable members of society". The government policy focus on "promoting small holder production by redirecting and augmenting research and extension services and improving rural infrastructures especially roads, storage and processing facilities".

Efforts along this line are already in progress. At present the government is seriously looking into the question of retaining the already trained manpower by improving the conditions of service. But the progress is slow due to limited financial resources as other sectors of the economy such as improvement of infrastructure also urgently require attention. The following are general recommendations.

8.1 Infrastructure

The improvement of infrastructure such as roads would facilitate easy movement of the forest products especially from the remote rural areas. This will automatically result in more product utilization and thus development.

8.2 Manpower

Although the government with the help of various donor countries has trained a lot of people, adequate manning levels are far from being achieved because those with relevant expertise leave the government and/or the country. Thus efforts and resources are wasted. Measures should be taken to improve conditions of service in the country and also provide facilities to promote efficient performance. Skilled workers are required to conduct research and extension.

8.3 Financial assistance

The harvesting of NWFP in Zambia starts with the local populations. In some instances, it is not easy for these rural people to do so in an efficient way due to lack of facilities. Rural populations have no access to loans from ordinary financial institution because they lack security and collateral. Financial assistance in form of small seasonal loans can go a long way in assisting the rural people to develop NWFP. These loans can be used to acquire transport (bicycles), storage facilities, simple processing equipment and other materials that may be necessary. These loans can be repaid after the loanee has marketed his produce.

8.4 Information distribution system

The first stop in this direction is to reorganise the existing institutions so as to establish a system whereby research findings can easily be made available to interested parties so that those who wish to venture into developing NWFP can have the information that they need.

9.0 Conclusion

The paper has highlighted some of the aspects of NWFP in Zambia. Like in most countries little attention is paid to NWFP except for those that produce high returns. This is evident from the fact that there is no specific institution responsible for these products. However, a number of organizations have responsibility over some NWFP this responsibility come as a by-product of the institution's main activity.

The value of NWFP to the people who live in and around the forests is quite immense and is often underestimated. Availability of information and data on consumption and trade is seriously lacking due to the fact that most of the trade is not recorded except in cases where large organizations are involved. It is hoped that this problem will be addressed by the survey that has been proposed within this paper.

10.0 Bibliography

Anon, ( ) An Introduction to Framehive Beekeeping in Zambia. Forest Department. Ndola, Zambia.

Arnold, M (1992): Assessing the Multiple Values of Forests. ODI Rural Development Forestry Network. Network Paper 13e. pp 13 - 18. London.

Clauss, B (1992): Bees and Beekeeping in the North -western province of Zambia. Beekeeping Survey Report. Ndola, Zambia.

FAO (1985) Wood Consumption and Resource Survey of Zambia. Technical Note No.2. Forest Department, Ndola, Zambia.

Fisseha, Y. and Milimo J. T. (1986): Rural Small-Scale Forest Based Processing Enterprises in Zambia. Report of a 1985 pilot survey. FAO. Rome. Italy.

GRZ (1992) New Economic Recovery Programme: Economic and Financial Policy Framework. 1992 - 94 Lusaka, Zambia

Rudra A.B (1990): TFAP Preparatory Mission Draft Issues Paper. Zambia.

Sida (1989): A Regional plant Genetic Resource Centre SADCC. Plan of operation 1989-1992, SIDA. Stockholm Sweden.

Annex I: Main use and importance

Product

Subsistence

Traded

a

b

c

a

b

c

Fibre


Bamboo

1

1

-

2

2

3


Bark

1

1

-

3

3

-


Grass

1

1

-

1

2

-


Leaves

3

-

-

-

-

-


Rattan

3

-

-

-

3

3


Stem

3

-

-

-

-

-


Vines

3

-

-

-

-


Vegetal


Flowers

3

-

-

3

-

-


Fruit

1

1

-

2

1

-


Fungi

1

1

-

2

1

3


Leaves

3



3




Nuts

2



-

3



Roots

2



2

2



Seed

3



3




Stem

3



3




Tuber

2



3



Faunal (Food)


Bush meat

1

1

-

2

2



Eggs

3



3




Fish

1

1


1

1



invertebrates

1

1


2

1


Faunal (Non food)


Hides

3



3




Horns

3



3




Skins

3

3


3

2

3


Tusks

3

3


3



Cosmetic & Medicinal


Bark

2

2

-

2

3

-


Fruit

2

3


3




Fungi

3



3




Leaves

2



3




Roots

2

3


3




Nuts

3



3




Stem

3



3




Hides & Skins

3



3




Horns

3



3



Extractives


Dyes

3

-

-

3

-

-


Tanins

3



3



Miscellaneous


Honey

1



1

1

2


Beeswax

1



3

2

3


Propolis

3



3



Legend

a: Community

b: National


c: International


1: Very important


2: Moderately important


3: Less important

ANNEX II. IDENTIFICATION OF RELEVANT ROLES

Category

Product

Importance

Food security and Nutrition

 

Vegetal Condiments

3

Fruits

1

Fungi

1

Leaves

3

Nuts

1

Roots

2

Seed

1

Tubers

2

Faunal (Food)

 

Bush meat

1

Bird

2

Eggs

3

Fish

1

Honey

1

Invertebrates

2

Health/Cosmetic & Medicinal

 

Bark

1

Fruits

3

Fungi

3

Leaves

1

Roots

1

Stems

3

Hides & Skins

3

Horns

3

Miscellaneous


Propolis

3

Job opportunities/Fibre

 

Bamboo

1

Leaves

3

Rattan

3

Stem


Faunal (Non-food)

 

Hides

3

Horns

3

Sericulture

3

Skins

3

Tusks

3

Extractive

 

Dyes

3

Essential oils

3

Gums

3

Resins

3

Tanins

2

Miscellaneous


Beeswax

1

Income generation


Fibre


 

Bamboo

1


Bark

3


Grass

1


Stem

3


Vegetal


 

Flowers

3


Fruits

1


Fungi

1


Leaves

3


Nuts

3


Faunal (food)


 

Bush meat

1


Fish

1


Honey

1


Invertebrates

2


Faunal (Non-food)


 

Hides

2


Sericulture

3


Skins

2


Tusks

3


Extractives


 

Dyes

3


Resins

3


Miscellaneous


 

Beeswax

1

Cultural aspects


Faunal (non-food)

Hides

2


 

Horns

2


Feathers

2


Furs

3


Skins

1


Tusks

2


Miscellaneous


 

Propolis

3

Religious ceremonies


Fibre


 

Leaves

2


Miscellaneous


 

Beeswax

2

Legend:

1: Very important
2: Moderately important
3: Less important

Annex III. PROMOTION AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPORTANT PRODUCTS

1.0

Food Security and Nutrition

1.1

Fruits - good opportunities especially if preservation and processing can be improved

1.2

Fungi - good opportunities especially if well preserved.

1.3

Bush meat - good opportunities especially if harvesting can be controlled to ensure sustainability

1.4

Fish - immense opportunities

1.5

Honey - immense opportunities particularly if a less wasteful method of beekeeping is successfully introduced to increase productivity.

1.6

Nuts and seed - As for fruits

1.7

Tubers - good opportunities

2.0

Health

2.1

Bark - relatively good opportunities especially if the claims and beliefs can be scientifically proved.

2.2

Leaves - good opportunities as for bark

2.3

Roots - good opportunity as for bark.

3.0

Employment creation - Most products have a potential for job creation provided that the source is tamed or cultivated.

3.1

Bamboo - excellent opportunities especially at international level there is no need of cultivation.

3.2

Beeswax - good opportunities if a better way of keeping bees are introduced.

4.0

Income generation - the possibility of income generation does exist for all traded NWFP but for some of the products, the opportunities are exceptional.

4.1

Bamboo - excellent opportunities

4.2

Grass - good opportunities especially in areas that are close to fast growing urban centres.

4.3

Fruits - good opportunities although fruit occurrence is seasonal.

4.4

Fungi - good opportunities as for fruits.

4.5

Bush meat - good opportunities provided that the killing is controlled

4.6

Fish - immense opportunities

4.7

Honey - great opportunities provided a more sustainable way of keeping bees is successfully introduced.

4.8

Beeswax - as for honey.

5.0

Export - These are the products that have a potential as export products or as raw materials in exported products.

5.1

Fungi - good if storage and transport is improved.

5.2

Honey - great opportunities

5.3

Fish - good if preservation is improved.

5.4

Bamboo - good opportunities as semi processed raw material or finished products

5.5

Beeswax - excellent opportunities

5.6

Faunal (non food) - excellent opportunities if the ban on trade of such products was lifted.

6.0

Import substitution - All NWFP can be used for import substitution to same extent. Only a few are given below

6.1

Fibre - all products under this heading have good potential of substituting imported materials.

6.2

Cosmetic and medicinal - Products in this group have potential which can be greatly improved it the claims were to be proved scientifically.

6.3

Dyes and Tanins - good opportunities if the sources can be cultivated in order to produce sufficient quantities.

6.4

Beeswax - great potential.

Annex IV.

1.0 PROPOSED FIELD PROJECT

The following field project is being proposed to facilitate the acquisition of more detailed information on NWFP.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The tackling of the issues raised in this paper would require wide and far reaching measures to be undertaken by government. It is not within the power of the author to commit the government to undertake policy measures but recommendations have been made. Further it is not possible to come up with a project that would address all the issues that have bean covered in this paper, for this reason only one aspect will be covered in the project.

Recognising the need for more comprehensive information in the field on NWFP, a field project is being proposed to look into ways and means to promote and further develop these products in Zambia.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the project will be to conduct a detailed survey into the extent of usage of NWFP in the country. The survey will also look at research activities and findings in this field and assess the usefulness of the results of research.

1.3 SCOPE

This national wide survey should concentrate on the northern part of the country where wide distribution and diversity of the forests is found. In addition, this is where more activities are found. The survey is expected to come up with information on the type of product, method of harvesting or processing, present marketing possibilities, the importance of these products at the community and national level and the constraints that hinder promotion and further development. The contribution of NWFP to domestic and national income and generation of employment opportunities will also be assessed.

It is also hoped that the survey will throw some light on the effects of extracting NWFP on the forests and also consider ways of ensuring sustainable utilization.

1.4 DURATION

The NWFP survey is expected to take 24 months. The first three to four months will be used to organize the project in order to put everything in place.

1.5 PROJECT REQUIREMENT

In order to successfully conduct such a survey, a number of inputs are needed. Similar surveys have not be conducted in the past due to shortage of resources.

The NWFP survey project can easily be accommodated by the Forest Department of the Zambian government. However, there is need to provide resources such as financial, equipment and personnel.

1.5.1. Equipment

The following equipment will be required

- 1x4 wheel drive twin- cab vanette
- 2 office tables
- 4 office chairs
- 1 filling cabinet
- 1 book shelf
- 1 computer (PC with 40 - 60 megabytes with WP-5.0 and spread software preferably window excel)
- stationery
- camping equipment

1.5.2. Financial

Funding will be required to pay the drivers and staff salaries and subsistence allowances in addition to meeting vehicle maintenance and running costs.

1.5.3. Personnel

The following personnel will be required as part time and full time for the project duration. The project manager and the two assistants will be seconded from the Forest Department while the driver and secretary will be employed by the project.

- 1 Project Manager - Msc degree holder (Part time)
- 2 Assistants - diploma holders (full time)
- 1 Driver
- 1 Secretary

1.6. PROJECT BUDGET

The total project budget for the 24 months will be $55,660 broken down as show in table 3 below:

ITEM

COST US$

1. Equipment




1x4 wheel drive vanette

15,000



1 Computer with software and printer

4,000



2 Office tables

600



4 Office chairs

600



1 Filling cabinet

500



1 Book shelf

300



Stationery

1,000




22,000

2. Camping Equipment

1,000

1,000

3. Salaries and Allowances




Project Manager (100x24 man months)

2,400



2 assistants (2x80x24 man months)

3,800



1 driver (50x24 man months)

1,200



1 secretary (50x24 man months)

1,200



Allowances (4x15x150 man days)

9,000




17,600

4. Operating expenses

10,000

10,000

5. Contingencies (10%)

5,060

5,060

TOTAL

55,660

55.660

1.7 RELEVANCY OF PROJECT

This project will supplement other surveys that have been conducted in connection with the utilization of the local forest resources. These are The Wood Resources and Consumption Survey which was sponsored by FAO and conducted from 1984 - 86, the Beekeeping survey on North-western province conducted by Bernhard Clauss between 1987 -91 with sponsorship from GTZ and the Rural Small-scale Forest Based processing enterprises in Zambia conducted by Dr. Y. Fisseha and Dr. J.T. Millimo in 1985.

This survey is within the scope of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. TFAP is a global framework for action to promote sustainable use and conservation of tropical forests through proper management of forested areas. The Zambia Forestry Action Plan (ZFAP) which is in the process of being formulated sets out the programme of sustainable use and conservation of forest resources in Zambia. The local experience gained during this NWFP survey will be extremely useful in the formulation of ZFAP programmes and other integrated projects in other fields. It is on this basis that this project is strongly recommended.


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