Appendix I

Glossary of terms used


Ripe fruits collected from Pimenta species trees growing in tropical South America; exported to USA, Russia and Europe for use as a culinary and pickling spice.


Ambers are fossilized resins containing non volatile terpenoids which have been oxidized and polymerised to a point where they can withstand chemical and microbiological attack. Ambers occur in a few isolated regions throughout the world. The formerly large deposits in Baltic region were probably from large prehistoric forests of Aracauria spp.

Babacu oil

Oil extracted from kernels of Babacu palm (Orbignya phalerata), growing in successional palm forests over large areas in Brazil and Bolivia. It is used as cooking oil, soap and in chemical applications.


Fragrant aromatic resin of East Asian tree of genus styrax.


A very fine white Philippine fibre obtained from the stalks of unopened leaves of Burior talipot palm and used in making hats.


Extracted from Drybalonops aromatica for medical use.

Caraway or Cumin

Fruit of an umbelliferous plant, carum carvi, used in cakes and as source of oil.


A tanning extract from various mangrove barks and heartwood of Acacia catechu.

Chewing Sticks

Small sticks cut from branches or roots of certain trees e.g. Acacia modesta, Slvadora oleoides, Garcinia spp. etc., and used as tooth brushes.


A latex tapped from Manilkara zapota trees in some Latin American countries and used as chewing gum and glue.

Cola nut

Nuts of the West African tree of the genus Cola, consumed as a condiment and tonic.

Copaiba oil

It is an oleoresin exudate which is obtained by manual tapping of the trunks of various Copaifera species, widely distributed along the Amazone and its tributaries. Also known as "Copaiba balsam".


A 'resin', primarily that produced by dipterocarps of Southeast Asia.


Derris refers to either formulated insecticide or the ground or whole roots of the plants (Derris species) from which it is obtained and used as fish poison or as garden insecticide.

Dom nuts

The nut like seed of South African palm (Phytelephas macrocarpa), containing a very hard, white endosperm, which takes a high polish and is used a substitute for ivory, especially in manufacture of buttons, hence known as vegetable ivory.

Dragon's blood or Benjamin

Red gum that exudes from fruits of some plants, especially Dracaena draco.


Grass of the genus Erica used in making brooms.


A grass (Stipa tenacissima) growing in Spain and North Africa, used in paper making and as brooms


A tannin from Uricaria gambir collected and cultivated in Malaysia and western Indonesia.


Bright-yellow resin of several Garcinia species for use in paints, ink and medicine.

Garad pods

Pods of Babul (Acacia spp.)

Gharu or Aloewood

Resinous incense wood produced by diseased tissues of certain trees belonging to genus Aquilaria found in Malaya, Borneo and Indochina.

Gutta percha

A latex from Palaquium spp., used in golf bolls and electrical insulations.


Blue dye obtained from plants of genus Indigofera.


A latex from Dyera costulata, used in chewing gum.

Jojoba oil

Often described as liquid wax; a colourless, yellowish, odourless liquid, consisting mainly of esters of alcohols, obtained from desert shrubs of genus Simmondria (S. californica and S. chinensis); used as a substitute of sperm oil, e.g. in cosmetic preparations.


Fine cotton-like material surrounding seeds of tropocal tree (Ceba pentandra), used for stuffing cushions etc.

Kapok oil

An oil extracted from seeds of Ceba pentandra.


Also known as candlenut. The nuts obtained from a large tropical tree, native to South- East Asia, but now widely distributed in tropical regions, and closely related to tung or varnish tree. The oil extracted from the nuts is known as candlenut oil. Also called kekume, kukui or lumbang oil. It is used locally to make candles and commercially as a source of oil.


Sap of lacquer tree (Rhus vermicifera) used to polish wood etc.


Exudates of plants consisting of suspension of salts, hydrocarbons, and other organic compounds in water.

Manila copal

Resin tapped from a coniferous tree (Agathis dammara) in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia: used in high-grade varnishes.

Maple sugar

Sugar obtained by evaporating sap extracted from trees or shrubs of genus Acer.


Bark stripped from trees of Listea sp., used as a mosquito repellent and as an aromatic.

Neem oil

An industrial oil extracted from fruits of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) used mainly in making soaps.

Palm hearts

Apical meristem (bud) of palms, e.g., Euterpei edulis, used as a vegetable.


A plant of the family pandanaceae, particularly Textile Screw Pine.


An insecticide made from dried flowers of a herbaceous Chrysanthemum plant, growing wild as well as cultivated.


A tropical American tree (Schinopsis lorentzii) whose hard wood yields an extract used in tanning.

Quillaia bark

Bark stripped from Quillaia sponaria and used as soap. Also known as soap bark or Panama bark.


A palm tree (Raphia ruffia) of Madagascar. Fibre from its leaves used as string or woven into baskets, hats etc.


Resinous, fragrant wood of Sandalum album, a parasitic tree growing wild in eastern Java to Timor and cultivated elsewhere, used in handicrafts, in addition to being a source of an essential oil, incense and medicine.

Soap berries

Nuts collected from trees of genus Sapindus, yielding substances serving purpose of soap.


Sorva is collected as a milky white latex from the trunks of certain Amazonian Couma species used as a natural base for chewing gums.


A heterogenous group of phenolic compounds which have preservative adhesive and dyeing properties.


A South American palm whose leaves are used to make hats.

Yang oil

A resinous oil from several dipterocarp species in Thailand.


Fronds obtained from palms (Chamaedorea spp.) in some Latin American countries and used in floral arrangements for weddings in the USA and Europe.

Ylang ylang

Malayan tree (Cananga odorata) from the fragrant yellow flowers of which a perfume is distilled; the perfume itself.