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Natural vegetable dyes; Food, fruit species and mushrooms; Gums and waxes; and incense


Natural vegetable dyes
Edible products from forests - food, fruit species and mushrooms
Gums and waxes
Incense


by Sonam Tshering
Divisional Forest Officer, Sarpang
The Royal Government of Bhutan

Although Bhutan is largely covered with natural forests, a detailed survey of forest products has not been carried out. Hence accurate and authentic data on the various types of minor forest produce, such as edible products, dyes and wax, are still to be ascertained. Moreover, Bhutan has few industries or factories engaged in the collection and marketing of forest products. Collection and processing methods are still crude and traditional. Improving this situation would undoubtedly lead to an increase in both local and national revenue, as there are many abundant plant products that could be extracted. Other plants are simply not yet known and go to waste as their profitable use, if any, remains unknown.

Natural vegetable dyes

There are a number of dye-yielding plants in Bhutan (Table 15). Local people obtain dyes from plants and minerals by simple, traditional extraction methods. These dyes can be grouped into five categories: leaf dyes, bark dyes, flower and fruit dyes, stem and root dyes, and mineral dyes.

Leaf Dyes

Leaf dyes yield a variety of colours and are used by local people for dyeing hand-woven materials, a fairly large cottage industry in Bhutan. Species include Symplocos sp., Strobilanthes flaccidifolious, Holicia nilagirica and Indigofera.

Bark Dyes

These can potentially be extracted from species such as Terminalia tomentosa, Berberis nepalensis, Acacia spp., and Alnus sp. Due to a lack of knowledge and experience, however, only dyes from the bark of walnut trees and Berberis sp. are presently extracted by local people.

Natural dyes play an important role in making traditional Bhutanese fabrics.

Flower and Fruit Dyes

In Bhutan, flower and fruit dyes are the most important category of natural dyes. Most of the dye species are raised from seeds by rural people, then sold. Their fruit can be used as mordants. Particularly important are khomany-shing (Choenomeles lagenaria), robtangshing (Rhus similata), churoo, amla (Phyllanthus emblica), Cedrala toona, Michelia champaka and Mallotus phillipenensis. The dyes are normally used for colouring or dyeing silk clothes. Mallotus phillipenensis, for example, produces a red dye called "sinduri," which is commonly used in colouring cloth.

Stem and Root Dyes

Stem and root dyes are used for many varied purposes. Dyes from Curcuma longa are used for colouring foodstuff, from Acacia catechu for tanning and dyeing canvas and leather goods, and from jackfruit for dyeing robes for monks.

Mineral Dyes

Found throughout Bhutan, these dyes are obtained from natural mineral salts (dochur) and oxidized iron (marchelo).

Edible products from forests - food, fruit species and mushrooms

There are a number of plant species in Bhutan's forests whose fruits, seeds, tubers, roots, or stem parts are collected and consumed directly by the local people. The full extent of such use, however, has not yet been surveyed. A better understanding of the uses of such products would clearly lead to an improvement in the country's economic situation, particularly in rural areas.

A description of some of the species used as food follows (see also Table 16):

Food

· Wild yams (Dioscorea spp.) are found in abundance in southern Bhutan. The tubers are eaten once a year as part of a ritual. At times of famine, however, wild yams become a staple for those lacking other food. The tubers have an excellent taste. During difficult times even the bulbil, which is bitter, is eaten.

· Bamboo shoots are a common vegetable in Southeast Asia. Bhutan has many edible bamboo species. The roots are harvested during the rainy season - normally when they are about one foot high. The shoots are then boiled with wood ash to remove all poison. Without boiling, some bamboo shoots are extremely poisonous. Some bamboo varieties, however, do not have to be boiled.

· Elatostema spp. is consumed as a vegetable, known locally as "damroo."

· Algae (e.g., Ulva spp.) is mixed in curries.

· Tubers such as Dioscorea spp. and Alocasia spp. are eaten as vegetables.

· Jackfruit is also eaten as a vegetable.

· Oil can be extracted from sal seed and from Symplocos paniculata and consumed with ferns and other food.

Fruit

Forest fruit includes:

· pears (Pyrus spp.) - known locally as "phoetsi" in Dzongkha
· Eleagnus latifolia - small, red fruit
· "tong" in Dzongkha - somewhat like a pear (Docynia indica)
· "humpa" in Dzongkha (Citrus spp.)
· "nimbu" in Nepali
· Bel-Aegle marmelos - eaten after boiling
· wild banana (Musa spp) - the fruit is eaten raw; the flowers are eaten as vegetables
· mango (Mangifera spp.) - eaten as fruit
· beer (Ziziphus spp.) - grows mainly in Bhutan's southern riverine plains and degraded areas
· amla (Phyllanthus emblica)
· strawberries (Fragaria)
· "khalangji" (Solanum spp.)
· jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

Details of various other fruit species are given in Table 16.

Spices

Generally used as food flavouring agents. Many also have medicinal properties. Most important of all the spices found in Bhutan are cardamoms and peppers (Curcuma aromatic and Cinnamon zeylanicum). Other species include mentha, curry pasta (Murraya koenigii), Amaranthus spp. and Zanthoxylum spp. (see Table 17 for a detailed list of various Bhutanese spice species).

Mushrooms

Bhutan prizes its wide variety of mushrooms (Table 18). They come from both the country's tropical and temperate regions. More edible mushroom varieties are found in temperate regions than in tropical areas.

Some of the commonly eaten mushrooms are "jilli namcho" (Auricularia auricula), which grows on rocks and rotten logs; "jichu kangroo" (Calvaria spp.); "ga shamu" (Clitocybe odora); "sisishamu" (Cantherellus cibarius); "taa shamu" (Polyporus spp.); and "sangey shamu" (Tricholoma matsutake). Many varieties are marketed commercially.

Gums and waxes

Gums

Gums are translucent, amorphous exudations from the wounds of trees. Bhutan has not yet begun intensive gum tapping. Local people collect gum as and when required and the damage done to the trees is negligible. Gum (latex) from Ficus elastica is extracted for sealing bamboo baskets, and other bamboo work, using simple methods.

Commercial processing of gums has not yet begun. Bhutan's climate is favourable for the cultivation of gum trees, however, and the launching of such commerce would be beneficial to the whole country. Bhutan presently has only a few gum-yielding species (Table 19).

Trees from which the people extract gum include: brongshang (Ficus elastica), simal (Bombax ceiba), khair (Acacia catechu), and semla gum (Bauhinia retusa).

Waxes

Waxes are generally obtained from insect products, such as the honeycomb-cells of bees and wasps (Apis spp.). Local people collect honeycombs after the bees or wasps leave their nests. The empty combs are melted and all crude material removed. The wax is generally used for smoothing the thread when weaving cloth, or it is rubbed into the woven cloth to give it gloss and strength. Some waxes are now processed into candles, sealing materials, and other products (see Table 20 for a list of the various species found in Bhutan).

Quality mushrooms are one of the prime non-wood products of Bhutan's many forests.

Incense

Incense sticks are manufactured from many plant species which yield sweet scents (Table 21). Most people use the leaves, barks or whole plant directly as incense. In Bhutan, the demand for incense sticks for religious use is high. At least one large-scale factory is now manufacturing incense, in addition to many small-scale factories.

Some of the commonly used incense species are "shup" (Juniperus spp.), grown at high altitudes; "pang pee" roots (Nardostachys jatamansi); "sanze kachu" (Tancetum tibeticum); "poikar" (Cannarium sikkimensis); and Rhododendron spp. In the absence of these species, people use pine leaves or Artemisia spp. as incense.

The raw materials required by a typical incense industry are shown in Table 22.

Table 15 Natural Vegetable Dyes in Bhutan

Botanical name

Local name

Parts used

Collection time

Colour of dye obtained

Quantity available

Distribution

Mallotus phillipenensis

Sinduri (N)

Powder of fruit

March-September

Red

Abundant

Found in subtropical areas

Acacia catechu

Khair (N)
Taeja (Dz)
Jasenshing (Sh)

Heart-wood

Throughout the year

Dark brown

Abundant

Kalikhola, Samtse and Sarpang

Symplocos ramosissima

Domzim (Dz)
Kharane (N)
Serzim (Sh)

Leaves

Throughout the year

Yellow

Abundant

Available in every district

S. glomerata

Domzim (Dz)
Kharane (N)
Serzim (Sh)

Leaves

Throughout the year

Yellow

Abundant

Available in every district

Symplocos paniculata

Pangtsi (Dz) Zimshing (Sh)

Leaves

Throughout the year

Yellow

Abundant

Found only in patches in western Bhutan

Strobilanthes flaccidifolius

Ram/Tsangja (Dz) Yangshaba (Sh)

Leaves

Throughout the year

Blue

Once cultivated, but now grows naturally in the wild

Mongar, Trashigang, Pemagatshel, and Trashiyangtse

Lacifer lacca

Jatsho (Dz) Tshos (Sh) Laha (N)

Encrustation

September-October

Red

Cultivated by villagers

Mongar, Trashigang, Pemagatshel and Trashiyangtse

Choenomeles lagenaria

Khomang (Sh) Mentsim (Dz)

Fruit

September-October

Mordant

Fairly abundant

Southern Bhutan, Mongar, Bumthang and Trashiyangtse

Rubia manjit

Choid (Dz) Mangito (N) Lanyi roo (Sh)

Whole plants

June-September

Red

Abundant

Trashigang, Mongar, Pemagatshel, Punakha Wangdue, Thimphu and Paro

Curcuma longa

Yongka (Dz) Hardi (N) Gung (Sh)

October-November

Yellow

Can be easily cultivated

Mongar, Samdrup Jongkha, Pemagatshel, and throughout southern Bhutan

Phyllanthus emblica

Churoo (Dz) Chorgon sey (Sh) Amla (N)

Fruit

August-December

Mordant

Abundant

Dagana, Trashigang, Mongar, Punakha, Wangdue and Lhuntse

Rhus chinensis

Robtangshing (Sh) Kharabshing (Dz) Bhakimlo (N)

Fruit

April-May

Mordant

Abundant

Tsirang, Sarpang, Manas and Samtse

Juglans regia

Tashing (Dz) Okhar (N) Kheshing (Sh) Walnut (Eng)

Bark

Whole year

Black

Moderate

Haa, Wangdue, Punakha, Trashigang, Mongar, Zhemgang, Trongsa, Chhukha and Pemagatshel

Dochur (Natural Salt)

White substance

Whole year

-

-

Found in land slips and rocky areas

Manchala (Ironoxide)

White substance

Whole year

Orange-red

-

Found in some streams

Artocarpus integrifolia

Jackfruit (Eng) Katar (N) Dranaashing (Dz) Bojang (Kh) Drimling sey (Sh)

Wood

Whole year

Brownish yellow

Abundant

Cultivated in southern Bhutan

Holicia nilagirica

Potorshing (Sh) Potala (Dz) Bandarey (N)

Wood

Whole year

Yellow

Abundant

Found in warm, broad-leaved forests

Indigofera spp.

Indigo (Eng)

Leaves

Whole year

Indigo

Abundant

Thimphu, Trashigang, Paro and Mongar

Mangifera indica

Amshing (Sh) Amp (N) Mango (Eng)

Wood

Whole year

Light yellow

Moderate

Found in southern Bhutan

Onosma hookari

Mugtsi (Sh) Drimug (M)

Root, bark

April-September

Grey

Moderate

Lhuntse, Lingtshi, Laya, Lunana, Paro and Thimphu

Punica granatum

Pomegranate (Eng) Thalimsey (Sh) Darim (N) Sendu (Dz)

Rind

March-May

Golden yellow

Moderate

Also cultivated in sub-tropical regions by villagers

Rheum emodi

Chumtsa (M)

July-August

Yellow

Moderate

Alpine

Barberis aristata

Korshuen (M)

Whole year

Moderate

Alpine

Note: (Dz) =Dzongkha, (Eng) = English, (M) = Medical, (N) = Nepali, (Sh) = Sharchop-kha.

Table 16 Food and Fruits in Bhutanese Forests

Scientific name

Local name

Parts used

Collection time

Quantity available

Distribution

Remarks

Juglans regia

Tashing (Dz)
Khashing (Sh)
Okhar (N)
Walnut (Eng)

Fruit

September-October

Abundant

Wangdue, Punakha, Paro, Haa, Chhukha, Mongar, Lhuntshi, Zhemgang, Trashigang, Trashiyangtse and Pemagatshel


Pyrus spp. Docynia indica

Lue (Dz)
Pear (Eng)
Litong (Sh)
Naspati (N)

Fruit

July

Abundant

Wangdue, Punakha, Paro, Haa, Chhukha, Mongar, Lhuntshi, Zhemgang, Trashigang, Trashiyangtse and Pemagatshel

Cultivated

Diplocknama butareace

Yika (Dz)
Pinsa (Sh)
Chowri (N)

Fruit

August-September

Abundant

Rare; Punakha, Wangdue, Mongar, Trashigang, Dagana, Samtse, Sarpang and Samdrup Jongkha

Fruit pulp is eaten and oil is extracted from seed

Cornus capitata

Phasti/Namimpluse (Sh)
Poitsi (Dz)

Fruit

October-November

Abundant

Punakha, Wangdue, Trashigang and Mongar


Cornus macrophylla

Chapoi/Baminpa (Sh)
Boray poitsi (Sh)
Poitsi (Dz)

Fruit

October-November

Abundant

Punakha, Wangdue, Trashigang and Mongar


Elagnus latifolia

Bjee (Dz)
Dangbur (Sh)

Fruit

February-March/September-October

Abundant

Found only in Montane Zone


Docynia indica

Tong (Dz)
Thungchurpu (Sh)
Mel (N)

Fruit

October-December

Abundant

Punakha, Wangdue, Trashigang, Zhemgang, Trongsa, Trashiyangtse, Tshirang and Pemagatshel

Wild, as well as cultivated

Punica

Chindu (Dz)
Darim (N)
Thalim (Sh)

Fruit

August-September

Abundant

Punakha, Wangdue, Trashigang, Mongar and southern Bhutan.

Cultivated

Citrus spp.

Bokoley/Humpa (Dz)
Noompang (Sh)

Fruit

October-February

Abundant

Found wild, scattered throughout every district.


Citrus spp.

Nimbu/Kagati (N)

Fruit

October-February

Abundant

Cultivated in southern Bhutan


Aegle marmelos

Bell (N)

Fruit

October-February

Moderate

Cultivated in southern Bhutan


Musa spp.

Ngala (Dz)
Banana (Eng)
Laishing (Sh)
Kera (N)

Fruit

Whole year

Abundant

Southern Bhutan

Cultivated

Zizyphus spp.

Khangkhalingsay (Sh)
Khankarisey (Sh)
Baer (N)

Fruit

March-April

Abundant

Samtse, Sarpang, Samdrup Jongkha, Trashigang and Trashiyangtse


Phyllanthes emblica

Chhorengsey (Dz)
Amla (N)
Chhoroo (Sh)

Fruit

August-October

Abundant

Trashigang, Mongar, Wangdue, Punakha and Trashiyangtse


Eugenea spp.

Jamuna (N)
Mantsisey (Sh)
Nasi or Nyasey (Dz)

Fruit

August-September

Fairly abundant

Punakha, Wangdue, Trongsa, Trashigang, Mongar and Lhuntshi


Fragaria spp.

Marip (B)
Sagang (Sh)
Strawberry (Eng)

Fruit

August-September

Abundant

Found in all pine forests


Morus spp.

Kimbu (N)
Tshadey (Dz)
Shakhongmasey (Sh)
Phrumtagpasey (Sh)

Fruit

May-July

Rare

Found scattered throughout all districts.


Dioscorea spp.

Phantang (Sh)
Phantang (Sh)
Khalagtang (Sh)
Gongjogtang (Sh)
Borang jogtang (Sh)
Rantang (Dz)
Bantarul (N)
Ghartarul (N)
Wild yam (Eng)

Tuber

February-April

Abundant

Found in southern Bhutan


Randia spp.

Nertingaey (Sh)
Maidal (N)

Fruit

June-July

Abundant

Found in sub-tropical regions


Calamus spp.

Patsha (Dz)
Dreyngang (Sh)
Cane (Eng)
Bet (N)

Shoot

June-July

Abundant

Found mostly in cool, moist sub-tropical forests


Girardiana palmata

Zochha (Dz)
Gomjazu (Sh)
Phagpajazu (Sh)
Sisnu (N)
Nettle Plant (Eng)

Inflorescense

June-July

Abundant

Tropical and sub-tropical regions


Adhatoda vasica

Bashaka (Dz)
Khatsarim (Sh)
Bashaka (N)

Flower

June-July

Abundant

Tropical and sub-tropical regions


Elatostema spp.

Damroo (Dz)
Drimmom (Sh)

Stem and leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Cool, moist sub-tropical regions


Ulva spp.

(LEON) Algae (Eng)
Churoo (Dz)
Lungai (Sh)

Whole plant

Whole year

Abundant

Found on boulders in rivers


Eleocarpus varuna

Badrasey (N)
Gasha-thungsey (Sh)

Fruit

Whole year

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Bambusa spp.

So (Sh)
Bans (N)

Shoot

June-July

Abundant

Tropical regions


Rhus hookeri

Tarsishing (Sh)

Fruit

September-October

Abundant

Temperate to sub-tropical alpine climates


Lorenthus spp.

Khainingroo or Rumplung (Sh)
Lorenthus (Eng)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Temperate to sub-tropical alpine climates

Substitute for tea leaves

-

Neshing jormo (Sh)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Temperate areas


Calamus spp.

Phakre (N)
Tikir (Sh)

Fruit

Whole year

Abundant

Temperate areas


-

Thakal (N)

Fruit

June-July

Rare

Temperate areas


-

Nakey (Dz)
Dawai (Sh)
Neguro (N)
Fern (Eng)

New shoots

June-August

Abundant

In every district of Bhutan


Solanum spp.

Khalanji (Sh)

Fruit

March-May

Rare

Tropical and sub tropical regions

Can be cultivated

Rhus chinensis

Chakashig (Kh)
Kharabshing Datrit (M)
Robtangshing (Sh)
Bhakimlo (N)

Fruit

April-May

Abundant

Tropical and sub tropical regions


Hodsoni

Ghewphal (N)
Tershe (Sh)

Seeds

April-May

Fairly abundant

Tropical regions


Machilus edulis

Guli (Sh)
Phamphal (N)
Aracado (Eng)

Fruit

July-August

Abundant

Moist, sub-tropical regions


Spondius spp.

Lapsi (N)

Fruit

July-August

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Spondius spp.

Amarsey (Sh)
Amaroo (N)

Fruit

July-August

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Artocarpus spp.

Lathar (N)

Fruit

July-August

Rare

Sub-tropical regions


Mangifera sylbistris

Amchukili (Dz)
Mango (Eng)
Amp (N)

Fruit

May-June

Rare

Sub-tropical regions


-

Amsey shingsi (Sh)

Fruit

July-August

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Symplocos paniculata

Pangtshi (Dz)

Fruit

July-August

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Phyllanthus emblica

Churoo (Dz)
Amla (N)
Chhorgensey (Sh)

Fruit

May-June

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Zizyphus spp.

Tshoshing (Sh)
Khangkhalingsey (Sh)
Baer (N)

Fruit

March-May

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


-

Gothanapaisey (Sh)

Fruit

May-July

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Bidens spp.

Zumphirobu (Sh)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Piper spp.

Pani (Dz)
Pan (Sh/N)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions

Leaves used as a substitute for tea

Acacia catechu

Toeja (Dz)
Khair (N)
Jasenshing (Sh)

Heart-wood

Whole year

Abundant

Tropical

Heartwood is boiled and used as a substitute for tea

Alocasia spp.

Mane/Piralu (N)
Bozang (Sh)

Tuber

Whole year

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions


Orchid spp.

Ola-chhoto (Dz)
Sunakhari (N)
Orchid (Eng)

Flower

May-July

Rare

Sub-tropical regions


Note: (B) = Bumthap, (Dz) =Dzongkha, (Eng) = English, (M) = Medical, (N) = Nepali, (Sh) = Sharchop-kha.

Table 17 Spices in Bhutanese Forests

Botanical name

Local name

Parts used

Collection time

Quantity available

Distribution

Elettaria cardamomum

Allaichi (N)
Cardamum (Eng)
Kakola (M)

Fruit

June-July

Abundant

Samtse, Sarpang, Samdrup Jongkha, Wangdue, Tsirang and Shemgang

Cinnamomum tamala Cuinnamomum zylanicum

Tezpata (N)
Shingtsha or Soloshing (Sh)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

All southern districts

Piper nigrum

Pipla (N)
Pansa (Sh)

Fruit

September-October

Moderate

Sarpang, Samtse and Samdrup Jongkha

Piper nigrum

Round Pipla

Fruit

September-December

Abundant

All southern parts of Bhutan

Cornus longa

Hardi (N)
Jung (Dz)
Yongka (Sh)

Rhizome

Winter season

Abundant

Trashigang, Mongar, Samdrup Jongkha and Samtse, Sarpang and Tsirang

Myrica negi (small)

Tsutsusey (Sh)

Fruit

Winter season

Abundant

Temperate zones

Myrica spp. (big)

Omsha tsutsusey (Sh)

Fruit

Winter season

Abundant

Temperate zones

Rubus eliptica

Sergong (Sh)
Ainselu (N)

Fruit

Winter season

Abundant

Temperate zones

Muraya koenigii

Curry patta (Eng/N)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Tropical regions

Mentha spp.

Nombarang (Sh)
Padena (N)
Mentha (Eng)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Sub-tropical and temperate regions

Hantonia spp.

Nombareng (Sh)
Padena (N)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Sub-tropical and temperate regions

Corriandum spp.

Wuse (Dz)
Dhania patta (N)

Leaves

Whole year

Abundant

Tropical

Amaranthes spp.

Zimtsi (Dz)
Naam (Sh)

Whole plant

June-August

Abundant

Temperate regions

Zanthoxylum alatum

Gee (Sh)
Thingne (Dz)
Chhawa (Kh)
Pepper (Eng)
Timbur (N)

Fruit

May-August

Abundant

Sub-tropical regions

Z. budrunga

Waosey (Sh)
Bokey Timbur (N)

Fruit

May-August

Fairly abundant

Sub-tropical regions

Note: (Dz) =Dzongkha, (Eng) = English, (M) Medical, = (N) = Nepali, (Sh) = Sharchop-kha.

Table 18 Forest Mushrooms in Bhutan

Scientific name

Commercial name

Local name

Collection time

Quantity available

Distribution

Auricularia auricula

Jew's ear

Jilli namchu

June-August

Common

Temperate regions

Agaricus campestris

Button


June-August

Fairly common

Temperate regions

Armillaria mellea

Honey


June-August



Agrocybe cylindrancea



June-August



Agaricus bisporus

Button


June-August


Temperate regions

Agrocybe paludosa






Amanita schinocoephala



June-August

Fairly common


Amanita caesarea

Caesar's

Conngsey

June-August

Fairly common


Boletus subtomentosus

Bee


June-August

Fairly common


Boletus alegans

Bee


June-August

Fairly common


Boletus bresadolae



June-August

Fairly common


Boletus variegatus



June-August

Fairly common


Boletus edulis

Cap

Bam shamu

June-August

Fairly common


Boletus cavipes



June-August

Fairly common


Boletus luridus



June-August

Fairly common


Boletus erythropus



June-August

Fairly common


Boletus lividus



June-August

Fairly common


Boletus viscidus



June-August

Fairly common


Clavaria spp.


Bjichu kangro

June-August

Common


Clitocybe odora

Green milk

Ga shamu

June-August

Fairly common


Coprinus atramentatius

Ink cap

Ruru shamu

June-August

Fairly common


Coprinus micaceus



June-August

Fairly common


Cortinarius collinitus

Pig's stomach


June-August

Fairly common


Clitocybe aggregate


Ga shamu

June-August

Fairly common


Clitocybe infundibuliformis



June-August

Fairly common


Collybia valutipes

Enokitake


June-August

Fairly common


Cantherellus cibarius

Chanterelles

Sisishamu

June-August

Fairly common

Temperate regions

Common hydnum

Hydnum


June-August

Fairly common


Clavaria botrytis

Purple coral

Jichu kangru

June-August

Common


Calvaria viscosa

While coral


June-August

Fairly common


Copricus comatus

Ink cap

Ruru shamu

June-August

Common


Clavaria flaya



June-August

Fairly common


Cyathus olla



June-August

Fairly common


Collybia velutipes

Velvet shank


June-August

Fairly common


Clitocybe geotropa



June-August

Fairly common


Cantharellus cinereus



June-August

Rare


Drosphila hydrophilax



June-August

Fairly common


Entoloma lividoalbus



June-August

Fairly common


Fistulina hepatica

Beefsteak

Chimp shamu

June-August

Fairly common


Geastrum rufescens

Earth flower


June-August

Fairly common


Ganoderma lucidum

Monkey's seat


June-August

Fairly common


Hygrophorus hypothejus



June-August

Fairly common


Hygrophoris



June-August

Fairly common


Helvella crispa



June-August

Common


Hericium erinceus

Monkey head


June-August

Fairly common


Inocybe piriodora



June-August

Fairly common


Inocybe nipipes



June-August

Fairly common


Inocybe godeyi



June-August

Fairly common


Lycoperdon perlatum

Puff ball

Daybongthe

June-August

Common


Lactarius deliciosus

Golden milk


June-August

Fairly common


Lactarius piperatus

White milk


June-August

Fairly common


Lepiota procera

Parasol


June-August

Fairly common


Lepiota mastoidea

Parasol


June-August

Fairly common


Lepiota clypoilaria

Silky volvaria


June-August

Fairly common


Lactarius scrobiculatus



June-August

Fairly common


Lactarius sanguifluus

Pink


June-August

Fairly common


Lactarius luteus



June-August

Fairly common


Lactarius vellereus



June-August

Fairly common


Lycoperdon pyriforme



June-August

Fairly common


Lepiota mastoidea

Betel


June-August

Fairly common


Lentinus edodes

Oak

Soke shamu

June-August

Common


Lepiota molybdites



June-August

Fairly common


Leary maria velutina

Large


June-August

Fairly common


Marasmius oreades

Coarse teeth


June-August

Fairly common


Panaelus sphinctrinus

Manure


June-August

Fairly common


Peziza aurantia


Kangchu shamu

June-August

Fairly common


Polyporus sulphureus


Taa shamu

June-August

Common


Polyporus frondosus

Myetake

Taa shamu

June-August

Common


Pholiota squarrisa

Wooly cap


June-August

Fairly common


Pleurotus cornucopiae

Oyster

Nakey

June-August

Common


Pleurotus eryngii

Oyster

Nakey

June-August

Common


Pleurotus ostreatus

Oyster

Nakey

June-August

Common


Pleurotus sajor caju

Oyster

Nakey

June-August

Common


Polyporus picipes



June-August

Fairly common


Pseudocolus schellenbergiae



June-August

Fairly common


Russula cyanoxantha

Green

Damsha

June-August

Fairly common


Russula lepida


Maley sha

June-August

Fairly common


Russula albonigra



June-August

Fairly common


Russula rubra



June-August

Fairly common


Russula foetens



June-August

Fairly common


Pholiota carperata



June-August

Fairly common


Russula amoena

Quelet


June-August

Fairly common


Russula alutacua

Flies


June-August

Fairly common


Strobilomyces flocopus



June-August

Common


Sparassia crispa

Golden coral


June-August

Common


Stropharia semiglobata

Dung, roundhead


June-August

Rare


Tremella mesentrica

Golden jelly

Tsili sha

June-August

Common


Tricholoma matsutake

Matsutake

Sangay shamu

June-August

Common

Genekha, Ura, Isuna and Betekha (2.5 tons). Exported

Tuber spp.

Truffles


June-August

Rare


Morchella esculenta

Morel

Gep shamu

June-August

Rare

Temperate regions

Schizophyllum commune

Split gill

Cinchiring (Sh)

June-August

Common


Volvariella volvacea

Straw

Sorbang Bamu

June-August

Rare

Lingmethang; tropical to temperate regions

Source: Project Mushroom, Simtokha.

Note: (Sh) = Sharchop-kha.

Table 19 Gums in Bhutanese Forests

Botanical name

Local name

Parts used

Collection time

Quantity available

Distribution

Remarks

Ficus elastica

Rubber tree (Eng)
Brongshig (Sh)
Kakola (M),
Labar (N)

Exude

Whole year

Rare

Found in tropical forest

Can be cultivated

Bombax ceiba

Simal (N)
Pemgeser shing (Sh)

Exude

January-April

Abundant

Bukatading, Kalapani and Pugli in Samtse District. It is also found scattered throughout southern Bhutan.


Acacia catechu

Khair (N)
Toeja (Dz)
Jasenshing (Sh)

Heart-wood

Whole year

Abundant

Bukatading, Kalapani and Pugli in Samtse District. It is also found scattered throughout southern Bhutan.


Bauhinia retusa

Semla gum

Exude

January-April

Abundant

Found in Samtse, Tsirang, Sarpang and Samdrup Jongkha

Used as colouring for sweets

Note: (Dz) =Dzongkha, (Eng) = English, (M) Medical, = (N) = Nepali, (Sh) = Sharchop-kha.

Table 20 Waxes in Bhutanese Forests

Scientific name

Local name

Parts used

Collection time

Quantity available

Distribution

Apis dorsata

Mouri (N) Wagoma (Sh)
Bee (Eng)

Beehive

September-January

-

Found in Tsirang, Genekha and Jimina. Also found in other districts in limited numbers.

Apis apis

Mouri (N)
Mizuma (Sh)
Bee (Eng)

Beehive

September-January

Moderate


Apis sp.

Putka (N)
Yingburing (Sh)

Beehive


Moderate

Topical and sub-tropical regions.

Note: (Dz) =Dzongkha, (Eng) = English, (M) Medical, = (N) = Nepali, (Sh) = Sharchop-kha.

Table 21 Forest Plants Used As Incense in Bhutan

Botanical name

Local name

Parts used

Collection time

Quantity available

Distribution

Juniperus spp.

Shup (Dz)
Dhup (N)
Shugposhing (Sh)

Whole plant

Throughout the year

Abundant

Gasa, Thimphu, Trongsa, Bumthang, Wangdue, Trashigang, Haa, Paro, Lhuntse, Trashiyangtse and Mongar

Nardostachys jatamansi

Pang Poi (Dz)

Roots

Throughout the year

In pockets

Halajola, Selela, Sagala, Jewlela, Dagye Phangtsho, Soi Yatsa, Lingtshi, Laya, Lunana, Naro, Pelela, Bumthang, Dagapela, Thrumshingla, Merak Sakten, Phajuing, Dochula and Sinchula.

Daphne spp.

Shogushing (Sh)
Deyshing (Dz)
Kagatey or Argeli (N)

Inner wood

Throughout the year

Abundant

Trashigang, Mongar, Thimphu and Haa

Tanacetum tibeticum

Sangze kachu (Dz)
Khenka (Dz)

Whole plant

Throughout the year

Rare

Haa, Paro, Thimphu, Bumthang, Lingtshi and Laya

Artimesia spp.

Khampa (Dz)
Titeypati (N)
Dungmin (Kh)

Whole plant

March-December

Abundant

Found in abundance in all districts.

Rhododendron, anthopogon

Baloo (Dz/Sh)
Sunnpatte (N)

Whole plant

Whole year

Abundant

Halajula, Pelela, Sagala, Jewlela, Soy Yak-sa, Lingtshi, Laya, Lunana, Naro, Bumthang, Dagapela, Dagana, Thrimshingla, Merak-Sakten and Phajuding

Rhododendron, setosum

Sunpatte (N)
Suloo (Dz/Sh)

Whole plant

Whole year

Abundant

Halajula, Pelela, Sagala, Jewlela, Soy Yak-sa, Lingtshi, Laya, Lunana, Naro, Bumthang, Dagapela, Dagana, Thrimshingla, Merak-Sakten and Phajuding

Abies densa

Dungshing (Dz)
Wangshing (Sh)
Silver fir (Eng)

Leaves/twigs

Whole year

Abundant

Paro, Haa, Pelela, Gasa, Bumthang and Lhuntse

Cupressus spp.

Tsendenshing (Sh)
Dhupi (N)
Tsendey (Dz)

Whole plant

Whole year

Rare; found only in patches

Kukuchhu, Lunana, Dangchhu, and Nobding; found planted in patches

Aquilaria agallocha

Agar (Eng)
Agarwood (Eng)
Agaroo (Dz)
Agur (Sh)
Agori (N)

Infected heartwood

Whole year

Extremely rare

Manas and Phipsoo Game Sanctuaries and Samdrup Jongkha

Cannarium sikkimensis

Poikar (Dz)
Poskar (Sh)
Gokuldhup (N)

Exude

Whole year

Extremely rare

Sarpey in Samtse, Samdrup Jongkha and Sarpang

Shorea robusta

Sal dhup (N)

Exude

Whole year

Abundant

Samtse, Kalikhola, and Sarpang and in plantations in the south

Cinnamomum cecidodaphne

Phagpanengshing (Sh)
Malagiri (N)
Wood (Eng)

Wood

Whole year

Abundant

Punakha, Mongar and Samdrup Jongkha

Delphenium brunonium

Jagoipoi

Whole plant

July-August

Rare

Lingtshi

Gaultheria spp.

Chanze kam (Dz)
Machino (N)
Shogshingma slung (Sh)

Whole plant

Whole year

Abundant

Trashigang, Mongar and Trongsa

Terminalia bellerica

Myrabolen (Eng)
Baroo (Dz/Sh)
Barra (N)

Fruit

March-May

Abundant

Abundant in tropical forests

Terminalia chebula

Myrabolen (Eng)
Baroo (Dz/Sh)
Harra (N)

Fruit

March-May

Abundant

Abundant in tropical forests

Phyllanthus emblica

Churoo (Dz)
Churoo (Dz)
Chhorgansey (Sh)
Amla (N)

Fruit

March-May

Abundant

Abundant in tropical forests

-

Wangpo Lakpa (Med)

Root

June-August

Fairly abundant

Laya, Lingtshi, Haa, Thimphu and Bumthang

Machilus spp.

Kaula (N)

Bark

Whole year

Abundant

Tropical forests

Note: (Dz) =Dzongkha, (Eng) = English, (M) Medical, = (N) = Nepali, (Sh) = Sharchop-kha.

Table 22 Raw Materials Used in Bhutan's Incense Industry

Botanical name

Local name

Parts used

Distribution

Quantity required (kg. per annum)

Remarks

Rhododendron-anthopogon

Balu

Leaf

Paro, Haa and Gasa

200

Can be replaced by juniper

R. setosum

Sulu

Leaf

Paro, Haa and Gasa

200


Angelica sp.

Tangkun

Root

Paro, Gasa and Lingtshi

150


Nardostachys jatamansi

Pangpoe

Root

Paro, Gasa and Lingtshi

100


Cinnamomum tamala

Shingtsha

Bark

Punakha and Wangdue

150


Artemesia vulgaris

Khengkar

Leaf

Throughout Bhutan

500


Innula sp.

Manu

Root

Gasa, Paro and Lingtshi

250



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