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News of the world

Forestry and forest products
Book reviews
Meetings and conventions

The items appearing here are condensed selections of news thought to be of interest to readers of UNASYLVA. They are grouped alphabetically by countries under headings currently used by the Division of Forestry and Forest Products for reference purposes. The Editor will be glad to receive direct from readers authenticated items of interest and of news value for this part of the review.

Forestry and forest products



A report from New South Wales, Australia, indicates that the placement of immigrants from the Baltic States of Europe on Government forestry projects is proceeding satisfactorily. The forestry officers directly involved have been impressed by the appearance, intelligence, and co-operative spirit exhibited by the new workers. The immigrants have an opportunity to accumulate cash reserves while learning the language and customs of their new country. The Baltic workers have already made their presence felt with the result that urgent forest projects have been speeded up and new ones commenced.


In late years conditions in Austria have been very detrimental to the forest. As it is barely possible to keep up sustained supplies of timber and wood products for the Austrian economy, there is an absolute necessity to utilize forest resources and stocks in the most rational and economic manner.

Austria, realizing that intensive research is the only answer to the problem, has decided to give special attention to this project.

Prior to 1938, timber research was by no means neglected in Austria. There were experts of international repute working in this field. However, activities were not co-ordinated or centralized in a single body. An Austrian committee for timber problems already existed before 1938 as a part of the Austrian Timber Control Board, but its activity was directed towards an increase of timber consumption rather than toward a rational and economic utilization of timber resources. The reason for this policy was the difficulty encountered by the Austrian timber industry in disposing of its products. Today conditions are entirely different. Not even the most urgent timber requirements of the Austrian economy can be satisfied. The same situation exists with regard to timber exports, which are of the greatest importance for the country's balance of trade.

For these reasons it is essential to find the best methods of wood utilization so as to obtain the best results with the minimum of material. Intensive research and effective help for all institutions engaged in such research are of absolute necessity.

Austria possesses a number of internationally famous institutions which are active in the field of wood utilization and research. However, until now, there has been no efficient co-ordination between these bodies. Recognizing that under present conditions overlapping must be avoided at all costs, the Austrian Society for Wood Research has been founded after many years' preparation. The aim of this society is the integration of all institutions and organizations connected with wood research.

All well-known Austrian experts are collaborating with the new society. As a result of the great interest expressed by competent Austrian authorities, a forum has been created which, it is hoped, will be in a position to co-ordinate all activities in the field of wood research. However, according to tradition, Austria also intends to co-operate in this field in the international sphere. Close collaboration should be carried on with all countries and should include the exchange of knowledge and experience.


An announcement has been made that the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Strasbourg has just created a regular public course, which is still the only one of this kind given in France, on the subject of pedological and phytosociological cartography. This course is intended for persons such as agricultural experts, forestry specialists, etc., who may need such information for their professional work and particularly for those who would like to participate in the work of making a phytosociological map; some pages of this map with a scale of 1:2,000 have been published recently. They cover various regions of France and will serve as a model.


The Norwegian Forestry Society (Det Norske Skogsselskap) and the Norwegian Foresters Association (Norsk Forstmannsforening) are both celebrating their 50-year anniversary in 1948. Both have had a great influence on the progress of forestry in Norway during their period of existence. The president of the Forestry Society is Mr. Jørgen Mathiesen and Mr. Nils Ihlen is the president of the Foresters Association.


Among the films to be produced under the 1948 program of the United Nations Information Division is one on "Timber". Although this film will be made by one of the leading documentary producers in Sweden, it will not be about that country only but will be international in both content and point of view.


The 23rd annual report of the Imperial Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, for 1947, states that it could be claimed that practical work and tours were fully back to the prewar standards, and had, in fact, been strengthened in certain respects, notably on the engineering and utilization side. There were 44 students attending courses, and all senior students took part in a series of open discussions on a wide range of forestry topics.

Courses included silviculture, soil ecology, forest botany, forest pathology, forest entomology, mensuration and management, wood structure, forest economics, British forest law, Colonial forestry administration, forest engineering, surveying, etc.

The Education Secretary of the U.K. Timber Development Association announces that the new syllabus for commercial subjects has now been approved by the Joint Council of the Association of Principals of Technical Institutes and Association of Technical Institutions.

The syllabus for the revised three-year course is as follows:

First Year: Structure of softwood trade in the U.K. - trade methods and customs - units of sale-payment of terms; railway classification; structure of hardwood trade in the U.K., etc. (as above).

Second Year: Trade documents; Contracts "Albion," "Uniform," Pacific Coast, Russian, Eastern Canadian; doors, plywood, and hardwood contracts; c.i.f. reselling. Comparison between them and detailed discussion of clauses (including T.T.F. insurance clauses).

Third Year: Shipping: Charter parties (detailed discussion of clauses); bills of lading; "documents"; marine insurance and policies; claims; arbitration; customs of various ports; marketing. Trade organization (employers' and employees'). Relation of size to use (e.g., carcassing, flooring, wharfing, docking, area customs). Elements of commercial law and practice.


A trip has just been made to the United States by a young French forestry worker. This trip was the outcome of a first agreement concluded between the Chief of the U. S. Forestry Service and the director of the Ecole nationale des Eaux et Forêts in Nancy. The original purpose was to have an "exchange" of two American war veteran forestry workers for young French officers graduated from the School. The duration of these visits, which were first scheduled for 1.947, had been originally fixed at two months; each government was committed to defray the expenses for the main travel of its nationals and interior travel and current expenses of its guests.

The two American forestry workers made their study 'trip on schedule in 1948. They stayed at the Nancy School and made the field trips with each of the School's two graduating classes (Central France, Landes, Jura, Vosges, and Alps). The French government sent only one officer to the United States in 1948. He has just completed a field trip for study and information in the most interesting forest areas, particularly the entire Pacific coast, the South, and the Northeast.

It is the intention of these two countries to pursue and develop such exchanges in the future.

Silviculture and Management


It is pointed out that the "typographic bostrychid," Ips typographus, recently appeared in the spruce stands of the Belgian Ardennes. The exceptional drought in 1947 apparently caused the rapid spread of this damaging beetle in Western Germany, Eifel, the Black Forest, Bavaria, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia. The exploitation of the growing stock, which deteriorated over the entire European continent during the war, has only been resumed slowly and still proceeds at a slow pace; this also has encouraged the increase of bark beetles.


Since the summer of 1946, Canada has organized a vast survey on the subject of forestry regeneration which is still under way at the present time. This survey is conducted, on 20,500 plots, 8,000 of which were prepared in 1946 and 12,500 in 1947. The results are rather disturbing. On the surface areas exploited the regrowth of conifers in eastern provinces is satisfactory, but a substitution of Balsam fir, Abies balsamea, for other species, and particularly for the valuable white pine, is taking place. On the other hand, regrowth is becoming poorer and poorer in the Provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, though somewhat better in Alberta. However, on those lands which have been subjected to fire following exploitation, it is extremely slow everywhere, except in Alberta where the land is planted with Lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta. The survey has not yet covered British Columbia.

In order to extract seeds from air-dried cones of coniferous trees, the Departmental Station of Angus (Ontario) is now using an ingenious machine in which heat is derived from infrared lamps. The cones are moved along over two successive aluminum traveling bands in which holes have been punched. The bands are exposed to the radiation of a series of lamps, the direction and height of which, above the traveling bands, can be easily regulated.:-The seeds expelled fall through the holes of the bands and are thus immediately withdrawn from the effects of heat. Between the two bands the cones are plunged into water, and the effect of this bath is to ensure a more complete dislocation of the scales and a surer extraction of the seeds on the second traveling band. The machine is small in size (5.80 in. x 0.90 in. x 1.80 M.) and the traveling bands are superim, posed one above the other. Its capacity is 130 liters per hour; the time necessary for the total treatment of a cone is 4 hours instead of the 50 required by the usual methods of treatment. The machine is driven by a ¼ horsepower motor. Lastly, the temperature control is perfect.


Until 1945, the Metasequoia was known only in the fossil state. In February of that year, Chinese explorers discovered stands of this tree in a secluded valley of Central China. Seeds derived from these stands have been shipped to England and the United States, where they will be subjected to germination tests.


The occurrence of pine rust, Melampsora pinitroquum, which is frequently found among young stands of forest pines, Pinus sylvestris, has been noted in the forests of the Landes; this disease had not yet attacked the pinaster, Pinus pinaster. Pine rust attacks the yearly sprouts of young seedlings in the humid zones, kills the less vigorous among them, and deforms the others. The secondary host is the aspen or the white poplar. Combating the disease directly by spraying the plants with copper sulphate can only be done on a small scale. The procedure to be followed, therefore, is to eliminate aspens and, in, the future, to avoid mixing pinasters with aspen and white poplar trees or bringing plantations of these species into close proximity with stands of pinasters.


War damage to the forests has been severe; the timber on 25 percent of the wooded area has been destroyed. Only three fifths of these damaged forests is capable of natural regeneration. Foresters must, therefore, limit themselves to the artificial reforestation of the remaining two fifths, and they will not be able to continue their ambitious reforestation program started before the war. Of the total area of Greece, 15 percent, or 1.918 million hectares, is. covered with forests. The main species are Abies cephalonica (229,000 hectares), Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia (420,000 hectares), and beech, Fagus, (193,000 hectares). Forty three percent of the forests are coppice 26.5 percent are coppice with standards: and 30 percent are high forests.


The country's reforestation plan covers a period of 25 years and includes 2 million hectares of and soil and poor or cut-over forest lands. The 500 kin. of forest roads existing in 1925 have now been increased to 3,000 km. A forestry school at Ifrane will give forest rangers their initial schooling.


The Forestry Week Exhibition which took place recently in Stockholm was extremely successful and made possible the public exhibition of many innovations, both in the field of forestry, strictly speaking, and in forestry exploitation and the wood industries. Attention was particularly attracted by a "calculating microscope" which makes it possible to determine rapidly the number and thickness of the annual rings starting from the core and thus to examine 500 tree sections per hour Also of note was the research work which has been actively pursued with regard to improved varieties of forest trees and species of rapid growth, particularly as regards the crossing of Canadian and Swedish aspens. In a lecture, Professor M. Naslund stated that, considering the results obtained in the general census begun in 1938, it was advisable that cutting be reduced by 30 percent in the northern part of the country for a' period of approximately 20 years, while the rate of fellings might remain unchanged in the central portion. In the South, on the contrary, it would be possible to increase the rate of cutting. 'The application of the recommended program would make it possible to increase the yield of the Swedish forests gradually up to 50 percent within 80 years.


It is reported that in the State of Wisconsin the area covered by white pine, Pinus strobus, the most highly appreciated species in that region, is expanding. It is said to have increased by 100,000 acres (40,000 ha.) in the last ten years, up to the present area of 430,000 acres (174,000 ha.) under second generation stands which are dense enough to ensure protection automatically against rust, Cronartium ribicola. The tendency is towards still further expansion, since most of the stands are now attaining cone-bearing age. This result is due no doubt to the active protection given to this species through close co-operation between private holders, the State, and various services of the Federal Government through eradication of Ribes.

Although there have been numerous instances of the introduction of American tree species into Europe, it is only rarely that one comes across reports of the results obtained from the introduction of European species on American soil. However, many early ironmasters of Pennsylvania, following the example set by the large landowners of England, imported European trees for decorative purposes. In a recent article, mention is made of a plantation of European larch trees, Larix decidua, from 25 to 70 years of age, covering 1.20 hectares, still alive near the city of Warriors Mark in central Pennsylvania. Measurements were taken in the autumn of 1947 on this plantation where there still remain 200 trees, either in pure tree clumps or mixed with many native broadleaved trees. The, average diameter of the trees was found to be approximately 35 cm. and the average height 22 m. The most striking fact-. was the poor development of the treetops which indicates that this species requires considerable spacing from a very early age. Their growth is comparable to that of the native conifers. Finally, natural regeneration is taking place and. the stands could be restocked if the young seedlings were protected from competition with native species and given adequate light.

Aspen, Populus tremuloides, is found in Utah in vast and sometimes entirely pure stands, the resources of which are estimated to be about 20 million cords (51 million m3 ®) of standing timber. It is used in that State for many purposes, namely, for fences, telegraph poles, pitprops, packaging, etc., and its excellent mechanical qualities would justify a still more extensive utilization. It is incorrect to state that the majority of aspen trees of large dimension are suffering from decay. One of the most recent uses of aspen is for the manufacture of wood wool, called "excelsior " For the manufacture of this product, the aspens most in demand are those approximately 30 cm. in diameter, barked and chopped into logs 43 cm. in length on the spot. Research work is being carried on to discover the best management methods to be applied to these stands on a sustained yield basis. The difficulty is that for this purpose it is necessary to start early and that there is no market at present for small size logs. Forest regrowth requires a clear felling and prohibition of pasturing of flocks in the area until such time as the terminal buds are high enough to be beyond the reach of grazing livestock. The best method of exploitation is to cut 60 percent of the volume, leaving all trees 25 cm. or less in diameter, and then to return to the same forest area 10 years later in order to cut the remaining trees. This method of cutting greatly improves the quality of the pasture land below the aspen stand, without damaging the forest.

Wood Conversion


The first new esparto pulp and paper mill to be erected during the last 25 years is now being built in Algiers The pulping equipment is being supplied by Celdecor and the scheme includes Celdecor-Pomilio continuous digestion and gas chlorination and the Kamyr bleaching system. The output of the mill will include 24 tons daily of fine esparto straw papers and 18 tons daily of strong wrapping paper, for which straw will be used as raw material. All the Celdecor equipment for this should be delivered by the end of 1948. Some of the Kamyr equipment will be manufactured in the United Kingdom and some in the Union of South Africa. It is reported that the Celdecor-Pomilio process is being considered for installation in several mills in India. Two more installations are reported being installed in France and consideration is also being given to this process in the Netherlands.


The new sawmill and pulpwood preparation plant of the Associated Pulp and Paper Mills of Tasmania will be equipped with machinery manufactured by Canadian Sumner Iron Works of Vancouver, British Columbia. Negotiations for this order, Which have been in progress since the summer of 1947, were brought to a successful conclusion early this year. Determining factors in the choice of Canadian Sumner machinery were the critical U. S. dollar shortage and the more advantageous tariff on Canadian-built machinery imported into Australia. In addition to building the machinery, the engineering staff of Canadian Sumner was charged with the responsibility of preparing plans for the new sawmill and pulpwood preparation plant. The machinery to be built at the Vancouver plant includes a Bellinghamtype hydraulic whole log barker which, tests have shown, is efficient in the removal of eucalyptus bark. Structural steel will come from Australian plants, and pumps and motors will probably be shipped from England. Other machinery from the Sumner shops will include log hauls and log deck machinery, log turners, log loaders, two 8-foot bandmills, two air-operated sawmill carriages with shot gun feed, one slabbage chipper, and one whole log chipper with other incidental machinery. The machinery will be supplied to Paper Makers Proprietary Ltd., a subsidiary of the Associated Pulp and Paper Mills, and shipped to their operations at Burnie, in Northwest Tasmania on Emu Bay facing Bass Strait. Sir Walter Massey-Greene is managing director, with headquarters at Melbourne, while Harry B. Somerset is general manager at Burnie, Tasmania.


A Finnish company has started continuous cooking of cellulose. This process is a goal towards which the cellulose experts have striven for long and which now can be regarded as reached. So far only the sulphate method has been applied, and production on a technical scale has been carried out at a pilot plant. The application of this method to sulphite cooking is also being initiated. Four mills for utilization of the sulphate method are already under construction in Italy, France, and Sweden, and more mills are planned. Thanks to the new method, the cellulose digester does not need to be emptied and refilled for the following batch. Refilling and emptying take place successively during the process which thus does not need to be interrupted. The economic consequences are considerable, as the operating costs are reduced.

On 14 April 1948 a new fiberboard mill was put into operation at Pihlava, Finland. Present output of insulating boards is 10,000 tons; however, it is expected to begin the production of semi-hardboard and hardboard some time in 1949, at which time the total capacity of the mill will reach 25,000 tons Work on the mill began in the autumn in 1946 and construction in the spring of 1947. The raw material will be sawmill waste.


The first British rayon plant for India was shipped a short time ago from England for the Travancore Rayon Co., which has a paid-up capital of approximately £1,250,000 and is expected to be in operation by the end of the year. The Travancore plant is being equipped with the latest British rayon production development, the "Nelson" process, which spins, washes, dries, and winds in one continuous sequence. It is simpler and less costly than other methods.


A new method of producing cellulose from straw has been worked out in Sweden. The problems involved have been thoroughly studied by experts, who have also critically examined the methods so far used in Sweden and abroad for producing pulp from raw materials like straw, bagasse, bamboo, etc., with a view to eliminating their weak points. A method has been found which is considered both technically and economically satisfactory. After thorough laboratory experiments, large-scale trials were arranged at some cellulose mills in Sweden and abroad, and the results obtained met very strict demands The method gives a high yield from the taw material used, and the paper produced from the pulp is quite comparable in purity and strength with paper made from wood cellulose. The production costs are considerably lower than in the methods so far used for making bleached cellulose from wheat straw. Negotiations have been opened with several European and American countries regarding building new mills, or reconstructing old mills in order to use the new process.


The Swedish firm of Bolidens Gruvaktiebolag, in conjunction with the Forest Products Institute, South Africa, has recently carried out successfully in South Africa antitermite tests on fiberboards. The tests show that untreated fiberboards attacked by the termite are completely destroyed within six months, while boards which have been impregnated with a solution of arsenic last as long as five years. The extra cost of these specially treated boards is not unduly heavy, the price for 'A in. (0.3 cm.) fiberboards being £1 12s. 6d. per 1,000 square ft (93 m2).


During the past two years a series of experiments on a laboratory and semicommercial scale has been carried out at the Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, to explore the possibility of using DDT or other insecticides with a similar type of action for the prevention of infestation by Lyctus. Though the results of this work are not yet complete, they are considered sufficiently promising to justify the use of a spray treatment on a commercial scale, particularly since a practical method of restricting spread of Lyctus on timber-storage premises is most urgent. The spray at present recommended is an emulsion in water containing at least 2 percent DDT. It is made up from commercially miscible oil concentrates in solvent naphtha or xylene containing 20 or 25 percent DDT by dilution with the required amount of water. The spray is a milky fluid which will not discolor or in any way affect the working properties of the timber. Suitable concentrates can be obtained from a number of insecticide manufacturers. The spray is recommended only as a preventive for protecting timber from infestation. It' is not advised for use on timber known to be already attacked or which may have been exposed to infestation by Lyctus, e.g., during the summer of 1947. It is also suitable for the prevention of reinfestation of infested timber which has been sterilized by heat treatment in a kiln.

A new preservative treatment for timber under all conditions of use has recently been developed which impregnates against all forms of rot. It is based on the known bacterial and fungicidal efficiency of phenyl mercury combined with the anchoring properties of Fixtan acid. The substance is odorless and colorless and combines with phenyl mercury to form a powder that is readily soluble in water (1 lb. to 100 gal.) (0.45 kg. to 455 liters), and the preservative for timber thus obtained has, it is claimed, five outstanding properties: (1) deep penetration into timber is obtained by brushing, dipping, and spraying; (2) effective impregnation is fast to washing and weathering; (3) growth of all forms of fungal attack is completely arrested; (4) neither the solution nor the treated timber is dangerous to handle: and (5) timber is entirely uncolored and may be polished or painted without difficulty. As this phenyl mercury Fixtan preservative is described as cheap and easy to handle, and as the transport and storage costs are reduced to a minimum (powder only supplied), wide fields of application to industry are indicated. All construction timbers can be permanently impregnated before or after erection, and mining timbers can be cheaply preserved. The Forest Products Research Laboratory tests on Fixtan acid show that it is highly toxic to woodrotting fungi, and that it is also resistant to leaching with water.


Powell River Company has recently installed machinery with which it is hoped that all waste from groundwood screenings will be eliminated. A Jeffery shredder and Noble Wood refiner have been installed in the company's old groundwood screen room. Exhaustive tests are being conducted with these new machines to determine the maximum efficiency of each unit. The Jeffery shredder consists of several circular knives designed to deal with fairly large wood chips, such as rejects from the knotter screens, which in the past have been a total loss. The wood refiner operates like the grinder, revolving at 1,800 RPM and giving a surface of approximately 12,000 feet per minute (3,700 meters per minute). The rotor has small grooves milled into its surface which act like dippers picking up an equal amount of stock each time they rotate. Grooved shoes are forced to the rotor, just as pulp blocks are forced to the grindstone, through the use of hydraulic cylinders to which the shoes are attached. The machine is equipped with 21 shoes all of which are not always in use, as treatments of various types of stock require different degrees of pressure which is accomplished by releasing or adding shoes.

Because thick beech stock generally splits and checks during air seasoning, beech is often difficult to market or to utilize in the manufacture of wood products. Reducing the seasoning defects would make the use of thick beech stock practical for many purposes. Tests made at a turning mill in Maine show that it is possible to season beech shaving-bowl stock with no greater checking and splitting than birch. The seasoning process tested involved treatment with buffered sodium chloride, a proprietary chemical. The material used in the experiment was approximately 1,600 green beech bars about 21/8 inches thick (5.40 cm), 3 to 4 5/8 inches wide (7.62 to 11.7 cm.), and 4 to 5½ feet (1.2 to 1.7 meters) long. These were divided into four comparable groups. Each group was given a different treatment and was made into a separate pile for air seasoning. Three of the groups were treated with the chemical and the fourth was untreated, to serve as a control Three different ways of applying the chemical were tried: dry spreading, spraying, and dipping. All three groups of beech bars treated with the chemical had fewer seasoning defects than the untreated bars. The results obtained by dry spreading were markedly the best. The values for end cheeks are less important than those in the other categories because practically all end cheeks would be removed in the normal trimming operation, in which about 1½ inches (4 cm.) are cut from the end. After air seasoning the stock was kiln dried to a moisture content of 5 percent, in 18 days. An initial kiln condition of 170° F. and 34 percent relative humidity was used, with a final condition of 180° F. and a low relative humidity. The last phase of the experiment was a factory test to determine the number of perfect shaving-soap bowls that could be obtained from the 4 5/8 inch (11.7 cm.) bars in each group. The yield from regular birch bars, air-seasoned at about the same time and kiln-dried in the same charge as the beech, was also studied. There were no significant, differences between the yields from the regular birch bars and the beech bars treated by dry spreading of the chemical.

The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station has developed a satisfactory technique for treating red pine, Pinus resinosa, and red maple, Acer rubrum, poles to be used for the shade tobacco industry. Several thousand poles have been treated by local operators for use this season, and large orders are coming in for the following year. This has opened a market for thinnings from red pine plantations, as well as for the otherwise unsalable material from red maple swamps. The preservative used is zinc chloride, at the rate of one pound for each cubic foot (1 kg. per 0.06 m3) of wood treated. For a moderate sized operation, a metal vat 3 ft. wide, 6 ft. long and 18 in. deep (0.9 in., 1.8 in., 0.5 m.) will permit treating 50 or more poles at one time. The poles must be treated within four days after cutting and the bark should not be removed. They are allowed to stand in the solution, with the butt ends down, 2 to 7 days, depending largely on weather conditions. When the butts are immersed in the solution, the tops are sprinkled with 1 to 2 ounces (28-56 grams) of dry zinc chloride, to ensure a positive treatment of the extreme top end. After removal from the container, the poles are stood vertically, with the butt end up, for 2 to 3 months, to ensure distribution of the zinc chloride throughout the post. Treatment is beat accomplished between 1 March and 1 October. In cold weather the intake of solution and its subsequent distribution throughout the post is quite slow.

An experimental installation of glued laminated stringers in a two-span bridge in California is intended to provide information concerning durability and service performance. The stringers were built up from nominal two-inch (5 cm.) stock, each lamina consisting of two pieces edge-glued together. After gluing with a waterproof glue set at 70° F for 24 hours, the stringers were pressure impregnated with creosote by the full cell process, without preliminary incising.

After two years the laminated members are reported in excellent condition.

Wood Utilization


The Division of Forest Products, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Melbourne, reports that, while Plywood bonded with a suitable phenol-formaldehyde adhesive can be used for external work in thickness down to 1/4 in. (6 mm.), it is advisable to apply paint or other suitable treatment to minimize face checking. Methods of preventing the development of an unsightly network of fine cracks on the surface, one rather unfortunate feature of unprotected plywood used in structures exposed to the weather, are now under investigation at the Melbourne Laboratory. Current research carried out by C.S.I.R. indicates that face checking can be reduced by adjusting such factors in plywood manufacture as the thickness of the veneers and the temperature of pressing. The Australian technologists are also studying the production and characteristics of "flexwood," which consists of a very thin, figured veneer glued to a pliable fabric backing. It is said that a single tree of Queensland walnut of average dimensions could provide enough 1/100 inch (0.3 mm.) veneer to cover a million square feet (93,000 m2) of "flexwood" paneling.

Australian laboratories have been carrying out a study of the suitability of local species as a substitute for hickory, Hicoria ovata, for ski manufacture. Attention was given to density, strength to carry bending loads, hardness, texture toughness (resistance to shock), case of steam bending, and case of working with machine and hand tools.

The comparison with hickory was made for five specific factors: density, modulus of rupture (bending strength), modulus of elasticity (stiffness), hardness, and toughness (resistance to shock). For each of these factors, the figures were expressed as percentages of the corresponding values for hickory, placed at 100 percent. The results were published for 16 species, some of which have properties fairly similar to those of hickory, except, perhaps, with regard to toughness. Tests have also been made with laminated skis, using hard, dense woods, or even a densified veneer, for the running face.


Plans have been made for building at Silkeborg, Denmark, a rayon plant with an annual capacity of 5,000 tons rayon, artificial fibers, and cellophane. This is about half the annual requirements. The cost is estimated to be around 30 million kroner, or about 61/4 million dollars.


The first Finnish factory plant for making sugar out of wood will start to operate in 1948 The production is calculated to be 500 kg. per day in the beginning. The method has been worked out by Dr. Olli Ant-Wuorinen. Experiments have been conducted at Uleåborg for some time and the results have been good. It is possible to get 1 kg. of sugar out of 6 kg. of wood, as well as some by-products which can be used for the production of yeast and alcohol. Sweden is not going to build a similar plant as it has been found there that sugar made of wood is more expensive than beet sugar.


Although research is still under way on the planting techniques of homogeneous stands in equatorial regions, work on potential utilization of forest resources in this zone can only be based, in the first stage of exploitation, on utilization of the stands in their present condition. On the other hand, inventories and counts taken in various parts of these forests (Ivory Coast and Gaboon) have shown that, because of their markedly omnigenous character, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to envisage the manufacture of cellulose on an industrial scale by the processing of a single species, however well chosen. The problem therefore arises as to how to cook heterogeneous mixtures. As the wood of a tropical species is generally homogeneous, it would appear advantageous to use for mixtures woods having different anatomical characteristics. Some preliminary trials were made in the laboratory of the Forestry Branch of the Institute of Tropical Agronomy, at Nogent-sur-Marne, with simple mixtures (4 to 5 species only) arbitrarily determined. The cooking proved to be satisfactory.

Encouraged by these results, the Industrial Administration for Colonial Cellulose, a State agency which now controls the Paper Branch of the above institute, attempted to work out mixtures corresponding to the average of counts taken in seven tracts in the Audouin Forest, in the Ivory Coast. There are 83 different species on these tracts, but in view of the fact that 25 of these species alone represent 85 percent of the exploitable volume, the cooking tests were made only on the 25 species. A proper selection in the various characteristics of the cooking method (quality and amount of chemicals, temperature, etc.) will create good cooking conditions. With the mixture chosen, a total alkali strength varying between 7.5 percent and 20 percent (experimented in caustic soda) resulted in high yields, frequently over 54 percent, in homogeneous pulp. The physical resistance of sheets from such experiments is approximately the same as should be obtained from sea-pine pulp cooked in the same conditions.

Experimentation was carried on with different mixtures from tracts in other forests, but in this case some difficulty arose. For example, for certain woods which were harder to penetrate it was necessary to increase the alkali percentage. This resulted in a lower yield, but did not impair the quality of the paper.

This work has proved the importance of a classification of woods according to cooking properties, and the laboratory has attempted to develop some quick testing methods with a view to (1) determining the absorbent properties of various woods; and (2) classifying woods from the viewpoint of their reactions during standard cooking, such classification being then made according to the ratio between the amount of pulp obtained and the residual uncooked fiber.

Simultaneously, biometric studies are in progress.

At the present time, woods are classified in 7 categories, but it would be desirable to reduce these to 2 or 3, which would eventually. permit the division of lumber yards into 2 or 3 groups.

As in the case of individual cooking, the soda-sulphite process gives the best results. This method, as also the sulphate process, is far superior to that which uses only soda The paper obtained from these pulps can be used either as wrapping paper of the kraft type, or as writing paper or newsprint.

The pulp-bleaching process is not yet defined, for in this case, account has to be taken not only of technical considerations, but also of economic factors particularly with respect to supply of chemicals.

In the light of the above-mentioned experiments, it can be stated that a great forward step has been taken in the direction of utilization of tropical forests, in their present condition, for the manufacture of paper pulp.


Two new wallboard plants are being built in Germany, one in Amorbach with a capacity of 20 tons of insulating board per 24-hour shift, the other in the neighborhood of Würtemburg with a capacity of 25 tons of hardboard and 12 tons of insulating boards. Both plants will be equipped with Boija-Jung defibrator machines.

Development of a process for manufacturing high-tenacity rayon from beechwood pulp will save the Combined Zones rubber tire industry approximately one and a half million dollars in imports this year. This rayon, used as fiber in rubber tires, has undergone extensive mechanical and road tests during the past year and has been found superior to conventional cotton thread used at present by German tire manufacturers in the Combined Zones. The pulp is produced by the Waldhof Fabrik at Kostheim near Weisbaden, and at Mannheim, while the rayon is spun at the Glanzstoff Fabrik in Oberburg. High-alpha-content pulp for bizonal industrial requirements has been imported into Germany at high world market prices, but indigenous production of the beech pulp under the special refining process will cut these imports sharply. Imported pulp costs approximately 250 dollars per ton, while beech pulp can be manufactured in Germany for 950 reichsmarks. per ton. Present production capacity in the Combined Zones is about 500 tons of the new pulp monthly, slightly less than requirements for the 1948 tire production goal, which is 120,000 tires monthly by mid-summer. Experiments toward producing high-tenacity rayon from beech wood were started over a year ago by German firms, with the help of United States technicians, in an effort to find a good indigenous substitute for cotton thread used in rubber tires. The final product was turned over to Combined Zones tire firms in February 1947, for testing. Prewar and wartime experiments were carried on in Germany in order to develop this process but they were never successful, and the idea was abandoned. The United States has produced a similar high-tenacity rayon from certain species of spruce and pine for the last ten years, but Germany lacked sufficient quantities of these species and had to rely on beech wood. However, Germany had gone far in producing a staple fiber from beech, which was used in cloth as a substitute for cotton and wool. The difference in manufacture between the staple fiber and the long continuous high-tenacity thread consists in the washing out of impurities from the latter during the pulp-making process. Coal required for such production is not excessive, and valuable by-products, such as yeast and alcohol, are obtained from the pulp.

Due to the increasing scarcity of wood resulting from exhaustive cutting during the war, as well as the great demand for building timber, mine wood, and export needs, the pulp and paper industry in Germany is forced to find new raw materials to replace wood. In addition to the species of wood, such as spruce, fir, and pine that have been commonly used for the manufacturing of pulp, it is well known that for many years great quantities of beech wood have been used for manufacturing artificial silk and rayon But even poplar, aspen, and birch wood have been used for that purpose. Among the crops which are annually harvested from fast-growing plants in Germany, only corn straw, herbaceous stalks of potatoes, and reed can be taken into consideration. The annual production of wheat and rye straw is estimated at about 25 million tons, while production of oat straw, rape, and other kinds of straw amounts to about 15 million tons. On an output basis of 33 percent, a fiber yield of about 13 million tons ought to result from the above quantities of straw. Unfortunately, this straw yield cannot be supplied to the paper industry because it is needed for agricultural purposes such as food and chaff. During the last war, the processing of the annual crop of millions of tons of potato-plant stalks was considered with a great deal of optimism, and a special method of manufacturing was developed. Indeed, a few thousand tons of potato stalks were gathered and made into pulp, which was suitable for manufacturing rayon. Since the end of the war this method has been practically abandoned. The difficulties encountered in gathering the stalks, their transport to the pulp mill, the storing of the material during the time between the crops, and last but not least, the very low yield of pulp make this process unprofitable from an economic point of view.

Reed of no present commercial value has been suggested as a third source of raw material for papermaking. In Germany there are three particular species of reed, namely, the broadleaved stalk, Thypha latifolia, the slender-leaved stalk, Thypha augustifolia, and the little reed stalk, Thypha minimar. In Germany the annual harvest of reed is estimated to be about 1 million tons, with deduction of 27 percent for leaves and! 14 to 15 per cent for leaf stems; the yield of the rest is scarcely 30 percent. Therefore, the processing of reed into pulp has been unsuccessful up to now. The reaping, drying, and conveyance of the reed to the Pulp mill is also troublesome and expensive. Better results have been obtained in Italy with Arundo donax, a kind of reed growing in warmer regions which produces bamboo-like stalks up to a height of several meters. An engineer at Freiberg, Saxony, recommends the cultivation of sunflowers, Helianthus annuus, whose stalk contains fibrous material of a high quality. The prospect of obtaining not only valuable sunflower oil but also raw material for the pulp and paper industry is quite attractive. The sunflower, however, grows only on good soil, demands much sunshine, and withdraws from the soil precious nutritive material which must be replaced by means of increased manuring. Similar problems are met in cultivating rape, a plant which yields both oil and straw. The latest suggestion for getting raw material for the German pulp and paper industry concerns German broom, Sarothamnus scoparius, a wild shrub with rod-like twigs, little frail leaves, and golden blossoms that strike the eye in springtime. This plant likes a sandy soil with a very small percentage of calcium; its growth is unfavorably influenced by good vegetable soil and permanently wet ground, as well as by a too dry climate. However, a useful processing of lignified stalks of broom is now possible after extensive research in lab oratories and mills, and many tons of various kinds of paper of a remarkable quality have been produced. Broom is sown in the spring when night frosts are no longer expected. One-half kg. of seed is needed for one hectare. Because of the resistance of the hard seed shell to penetration of water, the seed is prepared by means of scratching machines. After three years of ripening the crop is brought in by means of a specially constructed mowing machine in a manner similar to the harvesting of corn. The annual crop is considered to amount to 5/8 ton of broom from every hectare under favorable growing conditions. This will yield about 1.7 to 2.7 tons of pulp. Nothing has been stated hitherto with regard to the pending patent proceedings concerning the method of disintegration, except that neither of the usual acid or alkaline methods will be employed.


Among novel developments in Spain, according to Dr. Aries, Director of the Northeastern Wood Utilization Council, Brooklyn, U.S.A., are two plants making rayon from straw, a development which has taken place in the U.S.A. only on an experimental level. "In addition," he says, "there is a wallboard plant under construction which will use sawdust. The future plans in Spain include a mill to pulp esparto and a number of new paper mills."


A Swedish paper company is making parachutes out of paper These will be used by the Peary land expedition to Greenland for the delivery of sundry stores to the exploring parties. They will also be used for various purposes in the French colonies. The Swedish company began making these paper parachutes during the war, and is the sole maker of this type. This parachute has a carrying capacity of 100 kg., and it is resistant to salt water, which the usual nylon parachutes are not.


A new sheet material, Rubberwood Board, is now manufactured in Great Britain. The manufacturers point out that the board has the specific gravity of medium density hardwood and that it is made from chemically treated sawdust bonded by heat and pressure with a minimum amount of synthetic resin. They claim that the process through which the material passes imparts a considerable degree of self-bonding properties to the sawdust, so that less resin is required to give mechanical strength than is common in similar types of board. This property ensures that the material can be worked by ordinary woodworking tools without undue wear or necessity for frequent sharpening. Applications suggested for Rubberwood include furniture, paneling, flooring tiles, partitions, and cores for veneered boards.

It has been announced recently that revolutionary new processes in the manufacture of Pulp-molded containers will be put into operation in the near future. They have been the subject of considerable research and the manufacturers claim that their improved methods increase the present rate of production in such proportions that, for the electric light industry alone, they will be able to supply sufficient containers to package every electric light bulb of any description that is produced in the British Isles. The container is made to the shape of its contents and is comprised of two parts completely enclosing the bulb but leaving the metal holder protruding so that it can readily be pushed into the testing socket at the time of sale. The two parts join, round the middle and hold together by means of the flanged edges which overlap and are slightly tapered so that the curve of the bulb's surface pushes them securely together. Many advantages are offered by a pulp-molded container: it has shock -absorbing qualities, its light weight reduces transport costs, and its molded shape saves space in bulk packaging.

Imperial Chemicals Industry is to open a new large-scale factory in Scotland for the manufacture of the cellofas products for which a very great demand has developed in the last years. Nitro-cellulose research has been dealing recently with a number of cellulose derivatives, chief of which was a group of the ethers of cellulose which are called by the trade name of "cellofas." This group of substitutes has many applications: as an emulsifier and thickener in foodstuffs; for finishing cloth in the textile industry; as a binder in pulp and papermaking; and lastly, a new development, as an emulsifier for mud in oil-well drilling. Although the new plant will take up production on a large scale it may not be large enough according to the latest estimates to fulfill all requirements and may have to be expanded.

In view of the approach of the Olympic Games there is considerable topical Interest in an announcement regarding the design of a new British-made kayak, a number of which will be used in the regatta section, of the Olympic Games. The new kayak is unique in that, as opposed to light wood ribs over which is stretched doped fabric, it is a ribless monocoque shell formed from molded veneers laid up in three-ply construction and bonded together with a synthetic resin adhesive Nails, rivets, and wires are entirely absent, with the result that the hull takes on a perfect streamlined shape and is enormously strong and rigid, by virtue of the method of forming the shell by correct disposition of veneers bonded together with a synthetic resin adhesive.


A new shipping case sealing adhesive, Boxseal Glue, designed especially for automatic case-sealing machines, is now in production. The manufacturers claim that it will successfully and speedily seal the flaps of Fourdrinier Kraft, cylinder Kraft, and jute-lined corrugated containers, as well as the solid fiber types. Although emphasis is placed upon Boxseal as an automatic machine sealing adhesive, it can also be applied by hand brushing. As such, it serves to hold shipping labels, express waybills, etc., to shipping boxes, as well as for use as a flap-sealing glue. The glue is descried as a liquid - converted starch-derived adhesive. The method of manufacture increases immensely the adhesive power obtainable from -the raw materials. It enables the glue to coat a thinner, more cohesive film on the container board without excessive penetration into the board fibers. The glue remains on the surface to make positive contact with the container flaps when they are pressed together. The makers point out that unlike ordinary starch-derived adhesives, it remains in a fluid condition indefinitely, permitting it to be piped directly to the machine glue pans without danger that the adhesive will solidify in the pipes and cause stoppages. Dilution of the glue is dependent on the porosity of the container board in use, ranging from 15 to 50 percent by volume and on a setting speed range of 20 seconds to 60 seconds. At 25 percent dilution tests show 85-percent fiber tear on containers in 35 seconds.

The University of Wisconsin reports that three of its biochemists have discovered a method of using sulphite waste in the manufacture of lactic acid, a product used in the tanning, lacquer, and food-processing industries. The scientists are Reid H. Leonard, W. H. Peterson, and M. J. Johnson. Their work was financed partly by a grant from the Rhinelander Paper Company, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Under their process, excess sulphur is removed from paper mill waste by treating it with steam Malt sprouts, blackstrap molasses, and lactic acid can be recovered from fermented material by using solvents. One advantage of the new process is that 95 percent of fermentable sugars in the waste are recovered in lactic acid. Other fermentation methods recover only about 50 percent of the sugars for salable products.

Mr. Lawrence Ottinger, president of the United States Plywood Co., speaking recently on the occasion of the opening of a new warehouse in Tampa, Florida, jointly owned by the Mengel Co. and U. S. Plywood, announced that his company would import about 6,500,000 square ft. (600,000 m2) of Korina plywood a month from the Belgian Congo. In making the announcement it was revealed that all warehouses of the U. S. Plywood Co. and U. S. Mengel Plywoods, Inc., had been supplied with the Dew Korina plywood, a light-colored hardwood which was being welcomed by architects, decorators, and furniture manufacturers, who regarded it as a good substitute for the more expensive and scarce prima Vera, or white mahogany. When the company's import program was fully underway it was expected that 4,500,000 square ft. (410,000 m2) of the imported timber would be used for fine veneers, while 2,000,600 square ft. (190,000 m2) of lower grade stock would be used for less expensive plywood. The price of the imported product, said Mr. Ottinger, was approximately one half that of prima Vera. In addition to fulfilling U. S. Plywood's need for raw material, and providing needed dollars for the Belgian Government, which owns the forest lands, the new discovery will lead to the establishment of another industry along the sparsely settled Gold Coast. At Port Gentil, French Equatorial Africa, the American company will build the largest hardwood plywood plant in the world, for French interests, The company's engineers will set up the plant, and when it is in production it will be turned over to the French. The plant's capacity will be in excess of 10,000,000 square ft. (930,000 m2) a month, and the raw material for the mill will be okoumé, a fast-growing tree which is available in large quantities and sufficiently close to tidewater for economical production.


In order to meet the demand for wallboard in Yugoslavia new plants will have to be built. The first one is to be delivered complete from Sweden and erected in Bosnia and Herzegovina and will have a capacity of 6,000 tons of hardboard and 6,000 tons of insulating oard per annum. Later, it is intended to expand the production of insulating boards to 12,000 tons per annum. The plant will be equipped with Boija-Jung defibrator machines. New plants will probably be built in Croatia and Serbia also.

Economics and Statistics


According to preliminary data, newsprint imports into Argentina during 1947 approximated 153,000 metric tons, of which nearly 7,000 tons were imported by the Argentine Government. The largest supplier was Canada (38,000 tons); other important sources were Sweden (35,000 tons), Finland (28,000 tons) Newfoundland (28,000 tons), and Norway (23,000 tons). The United States of America supplied about 60 tons valued at 4,894 dollars according to United States preliminary export statistics. Total newsprint imports into Argentina in 1946 amounted to 142,600 tons. Efforts are being made to increase domestic paper production. New machinery has been ordered and is expected to be delivered in 1948.


There are now 1,688 factories in Australia engaged in manufacturing paper and paper products. These include 82 manufacturers of stationery and paper products; 86 manufacturers of cardboard boxes, cartons, corrugated boxes, etc.; 37 manufacturers of paper bags; and 12 manufacturers of paper. In the latter category, Victoria has five factories; New South Wales, two; Queensland, one; South Australia, one; and Western Australia, one. The total number of persons engaged in the manufacture of paper is 4,625 (3,956 males and 669 females), and salaries and wages for the year amounted to £1,525,871 (£1,402,728 for males and £123,143 for females). Total value of materials used throughout the whole of the industry during the year was £19,140,302 (approximately $91,873,450 at par).


A record pulpwood cut in 1947/1948 may go as high as 10 million cords (25 million m3 ®), thus allowing many Canadian pulp companies to bring their pulpwood inventories back to normal for the first time since before the war. The chief reasons for this record cut are almost ideal weather conditions and a labor force which reached a peak of 80,000 men in the latter part of November. Altogether 192,000 men were engaged in pulpwood operations in 1947/


Exports of chemical and other wood pulp from Czechoslovakia totaled 41,810 metric tons and were valued at 359,880,000 crowns (1 crown = U.S. $0.0201) during the first 9 months of 1947 (latest data available). Exports of paper and paperboard amounted to 32,673 tons and were valued at 497,094,000 crowns. Exports of paper and paperboard products amounted to 3,297 tons and were valued at 151,559,000 crowns. The total value of exports of paper and related products (1,008,533,000 crowns represented 3.5 percent of the value of all exports during the period under review. Imports of paper items were as follows: chemical pulp, 1,957 tons; paper and paperboard, 2,817 tons; and paper products, 68 tons.


Since 1945 Finland has exported 95,000 wooden houses to Soviet Russia. This number includes 12,000 houses which had to be delivered in connection with the peace treaty. Poland is the second largest purchaser of wooden houses. Last year this country imported 2,400, while this year the figure will be 1,700. Finland also exports to Great Britain, Denmark, and other countries.

Timber production in the 1947 season was 43 million m3 ® - some 10 million less than in the two previous seasons. The severe winter and the drought hampered the timber - floating program. Industry in general suffered from a shortage of hydroelectricity, but production was maintained at about the 1935 level and appreciably above that of 1946. The index of production (1935 = 100) for the year averaged 102 for home industries, 78 for export industries, and 105 for all industry compared with 102, 64, and 86 respectively in 1946.

At the opening meeting of the twentieth Finnish Forest Week in Helsingfors on 3 April, the Secretary of State gave some particulars of this season's lumbering results According to reports received, only about 75 percent of the felling program can be effectuated as far as merchantable timber is concerned, while the result will probably be even worse as regards fuel. Out of an estimated 45 Million m3 ® to be felled this season, only about 34 million m3 ® will be cut. Out of the 17 million m3 provided by the fuel program, the particulars received indicate that the final result will be somewhere about 10 million m3 ®. The Secretary of. State thought it most important that the lumbering work should be made more effective.

The total production of the board industry during 1947 was 135,000 metric tons, a 7 percent increase over 1946 production of 126,000 tons. This represents about 93 percent of capacity and is very satisfactory considering the difficulties encountered, in particular the lack of water power during the latter part of the year. Production will be considerably lower on account of these difficulties during the winter months of this year. Finland exports to 45 different countries, the chief of which are listed below in order of their importance:

Exports to:

Metric tons


United Kingdom


















New Zealand






Other countries


*The figure for U.S.S.R. includes the reparation deliveries.

Although the demand in different markets for board has been lively during 1947, international trade has been faced with many difficulties, such as the ever-increasing government regulations, import restrictions, and currency regulations. These difficulties have hampered sales to a great extent, and the exceptionally large stock of orders has decreased considerably so that the mills can now make quicker delivery. The price situation is still very firm and there have been substantial increases in the cost of production in Finland as well as in the Scandinavian countries. It is expected that, although government regulations abroad might slow up Finnish exports of board, demand in the different buying markets will result in a fairly lively trade during 1948.

The wallboard industry of Finland at present comprises seven mills with a total annual capacity of about 75,000 tons An eighth factory is now under construction. When it is completed, and the other mills receive additional machinery necessary for making hard board, the total capacity of the industry will reach 140,000 tons per year, of which about half is soft board and half hard board.


In French Equatorial Africa the output of timber has increased. It was nearly 100 percent higher in 1946, with 100,000 metric tons of wood, as against 56,000 in 1945. Okoumé logs account for 90 percent of these totals. Further progress, however, will have to surmount serious difficulties.

Substantial advances were made in 1946/47 in the development of French colonial forestry production. In the case of French Cameroun, export figures were even higher than the peak exports for 1939.

It should be pointed out, however, that this situation may not continue, since shipping costs alone are as high as the cost of European woods. In fact, the vast markets for tropical woods are shrinking in proportion to the increase in production costs. It may be noted that transport rates for natural woods represent an increase of 1,850 percent as compared with prewar rates, while f.o.b. prices for wood, after the devaluation of the CFA franc (African franc), are only about 8 or 9 times those of 1938/1939.






Okoumé roundwood




Various roundwood




Sawn timber and veneer




Middle Congo

Okoumé roundwood




Various roundwood




Sawn timber and veneer









Sawn timber





Paper is very short in Germany. The British Zone is particularly badly off, as it contains none of the larger pulpmaking centers. Throughout Germany less than 40 percent of the pulp and paper mills have managed to resume operations. War damage and dismantling have made substantial inroads into productive capacity, and the per caput consumption of paper by the German population is drastically reduced in comparison with the prewar figure. Nevertheless, the importance of paper -especially newsprint, with its intimate relation to propaganda-is appreciated by all the occupying powers. In the Russian Zone newsprint enjoys high priority, and, as better supplies of pulpwood are available, newspapers are larger there than in the British and American Zones.

There is considerable trade in paper between the Eastern and Western Zones. The barter of newsprint, printing and writing papers, etc., for engineering equipment, chemicals, and other materials which are scarce in the Eastern Zone is sanctioned. This barter has already involved thousands of tons of paper.

War struck heavy blows at the German paper industry, but it has not quelled the urge for research work. A lot of this is going on, directed to the use of fast-growing poplars and certain other plants as raw materials. One mill in the American Zone has established a pilot plant, where experimental work is now proceeding. The production of artificial resin is another field in which research is being actively pursued. Demand for paper mill machinery and equipment is far in excess of supply and the output of the German manufacturer is booked up for years ahead.


In Honduras wood felling is very important, both for the home market and for export. The bulk of the exported wood consists of mahogany, pine, and cedar, while other kinds of wood are exported only to a very insignificant extent. During 1945/46 the following quantities were exported:


4,236 m3


5,587 m3


863 m3

Cross beams

138,000 kg.


529 m3

Besides the above-mentioned types of wood, Honduras produces oak, nutwood, ebony, and numerous other woods amongst which are many valuable species.

The country possesses an extensive wood reserve. A tax is levied for wood felling on State-owned land and it varies with the quality of the wood, i.e., from 24 lempiras per tree for mahogany to 2 lempiras per tree for pinewood. For the current year the taxes thus levied are estimated to average 50,000 lempiras. The cost of timber is largely dependent on transport expenses. The forests consist of mixed woods. This offers difficulties in felling special quantities of the same kind of wood and also in arranging transport facilities.


Plans have been made by a private company in India to establish a plant for the manufacture of newsprint, at Chandni, between Khandwa and Burhanpur, in the Central Provinces, and near a branch of the Bombay-Delhi Railway. The factory will be situated in a 375,000 acre (152,000 ha.) forest. The broadleaved trees will be the raw material used for the production of newsprint which is expected to be at the rate of 100 tons daily within two years. At present, India is entirely dependent upon imports, for its newsprint requirements. Although imports generally have been about 40,000 tons annually, estimates are that approximately 90,000 tons would be used if supplies were available. When the national education program gets under way, the demand is expected to increase 400 percent.

The industrial Panel on Paper and Board Industries in India has published a report regarding the future of the Indian paper industry. The following estimates have been made:




(Long tons)


Paper consumption



Paper production



Paperboard production



As the Panel suggests that India ought to be self-supporting in regard to newsprint, it is proposed that the Department of Agriculture immediately make an inventory of all raw materials suitable for production of paper, including different species of wood, bamboo, straw, rags, etc. It is suggested that the present government aid to the paper industry be continued and even increased. The possibilities of making machines for the paper industry within the country will be examined.

It is also recommended that the Forest Research Station at Dehra Dun be reorganized so that it can serve as a center for pulp and paper research. The possible use of bamboo pulp in the artificial silk industry is suggested as a subject for investigation.

A further recommendation is made to the effect that six students per year be sent abroad to study the pulp and paper industry.


Italian production of all types of paper and cardboard is estimated at 375,000 metric tons for 1947. This compares with 175,000 tons in 1946, a maximum of 538,000 tons in 1940 and an average of 492,000 tons for the five-year period 1935-39. Shortage of coal and imported wood pulp, as well as some war damage to plant, resulted in heavy curtailment of production in the period 1943-45. The chief bottlenecks at the present time are coal and chemical pulp. Before the war the industry used about 200,000 tons of coal, but since coal imports are now only about 60 percent of normal, this will have some effect on the industry, despite more extensive use of electric power. However, the most serious shortage is of chemical pulp. The following figures show the extent to which Italy depends on imported supplies:





(Metric tons)

(Metric tons)































Supplies of mechanical pulp are mostly produced in Italy, to a large extent from poplar wood. Prewar production averaged 140,000 metric tons a year. Average imports were about 6,000 tons, mostly from adjoining countries, of which Austria was the principal one.

It is difficult, however, to arrive at an exact estimate of production and consumption of newsprint paper, There are no official figures of production though prewar productive capacity was probably fairly close to 85,000 metric tons per annum. It is doubtful whether domestic consumption was ever much higher than 65,000 tons, so a surplus was available for exports. Production declined greatly during the war years, but the productive capacity was not greatly damaged, with the result that demand, now estimated at about 60,000 tons per annum, could readily be filled from domestic sources were the necessary raw materials available.

When considering Italian imports of pulp, it seems reasonable to include imports of cellulose for the artificial silk industry. In 1938 the Italian rayon and staple fiber industry was the third largest in the world, producing a total of 124 million kilograms of fiber, and requiring 186,000 metric tons of cellulose. Of this requirement, 70,000 tons were produced in Italy, import requirements being, therefore, about 116,000 tons. The industry reached its high production point in 1941, with 197 million kilograms of fiber. By 1945, production was totally arrested, and estimated production in 1946 was 40 million kilo grams, or one fifth of capacity. During 1946, however, by compensation agreements with Sweden, Austria, and Norway, Italy was able to obtain fairly large supplies of rayon cellulose, most of which arrived toward the end of the year. Total imports were 68,250 tons while imports in the first eleven months of 1947 were 80,000 tons. It is possible, therefore, that 1947 production of fiber reached the planned figure of 120,000 toils, or about 60 percent of current capacity.


According to reports, SCAP intends to push ahead its plans to re-establish the Japanese rayon-producing industry as an important factor in the world rayon market. The current revitalization program calls for the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) rehabilitation of the rayon-producing industry to a total capacity (yarn and staple) of 330 million pounds (150 million kg,), from which an annual average output of 308 million pounds (140 million kg.) can be obtained; (2) eventual attainment of an annual domestic per caput consumption goal of 1.4 pounds (0.64 kg.) of rayon filament yarn and 1.3 pounds (0.59 kg.) of staple; (3) establishment of annual consumption of 1.75 million pounds (0.79 million kg.) of rayon staple for industrial uses; and (4) increasing the annual export level of filament yarn products to 60 million pounds (27 million kg.) and rayon staple products to 30 million pounds (14 million kg.).

The rebuilding of Japan's rayon output to an annual level of 308 million pounds (140 million kg.) a year means that the industry will eventually be restored to the extent of 57 percent of the peak 1938 output level of 541 million pounds (245 million kg.). Most of the rehabilitation will be concentrated in the filament yarn section.

If judged by the progress made during 1947, the completion of this rehabilitation program will take a number of years. Production goals for 1947 were set at 30 million pounds (14 million kg.) of rayon filament yarn and 24 million pounds (11 million kg.) of staple for a total of 54 million pounds (24 million kg.) However, it is estimated that actual 1947 output amounted to 16 million pounds (7 million kg.) of filament yarn and 19 million pounds (9 million kg.) of staple for a total of 35 million pounds (16 million kg.). Filament yarn production, therefore, reached only 54 percent of the target, while staple did better at 79 percent of its goal. The failure to meet these targets was due primarily to insufficient coal supplies and shortages of wood pulp, caustic soda, and other basic chemicals. In addition, an extensive reconditioning of producing equipment is necessary

The future export goal of 90 million pounds (41 million kg.) of yarn and staple represents about one-third of the planned annual output. The purpose of this sizable export volume is to obtain foreign exchange for the purchase of raw materials and foodstuffs. The countries with whom this export trade will be carried on have not been mentioned. The principal prewar markets for Japanese yarn and staple included India, China, Netherlands Indies, Australia, and the Japanese empire areas; the United States also imported substantial quantities of staple before the war. It may be of interest to note that India currently is building its own rayonproducing industry, and plans are being considered for the establishment of rayon-producing units in Australia and China.


Negotiations are under way between the Philippine Government and a firm in the United States for the purchase of a paper mill to be installed in Manila this year. The mill, it is understood, has a production capacity of 30 tons per day. It is capable of making newsprint as well as higher grades of paper.

Additional pulp mills are to be established in various parts of the Philippines in the near future, it is learned. These mills will be put in areas where raw material, such as cogon, corn and rice husks, and abaca, are abundant.


The total production of paper in Poland in 1948 is likely to exceed 253,000 metric tons, as compared with 205,000 last year. The annual newsprint consumption has risen from 2.2 lbs. (1 kg.), a head in 1937 to 3.3 lbs. (1.5 kg.) in 1947.

Raw material supplies in 1948 are expected to be larger than in the preceding year due to a more even production rate in the various subsidiary factories.

The shortage of waste paper is serious and this necessitates its importation in large quantities from abroad. Recently, an intensive publicity drive has resulted in an increase in the monthly rate of waste paper deliveries from 1,500 tons to 3,000 tons.

Large sums are to be devoted to the repair of run-down machinery and to maintaining regular supplies of power. Rehabilitation of war-damaged factories will be continued, particularly in case of plants producing pulp and cardboard. Also, reconstruction of a viscose pulp factory is contemplated during 1948.

The number of employees of the Polish paper industry will this year exceed 29,000. This figure includes all sections such as sales and distribution.


Consumption of wood pulp by the paper industry in Portugal in recent years has averaged nearly 18,000 metric tons annually, about one third of which is produced by the country's only pulp mill.

Sweden was the only supplier of imported pulp in 1944 and 1945, and the principal source in 1942 and 1943. In the two latter years, small quantities were imported from the United States and Canada.

The paper produced by the 75 manufacturers is limited to a very few types, all of which are low-grade and, in general, inferior quality. The newsprint and printing stock made are acceptable to the trade, but output is kept at a minimum since it is more profitable to manufacture products which are protected by tariffs. No attempt is made to produce papers involving special. or complicated processes. Paperboard is made, but it is not adaptable to many uses.

Paper consumption in Portugal has increased during the past 10 years. The annual average per caput consumption for the period 1942-45 was 12.3 pounds (5.6 kg.), compared with 11.5 pounds (5.2 kg.) in 1937.


Forest products are still by far the most important exports from Sweden. Forest products accounted for 53 percent of the total exports from Sweden in 1947 as against 38 percent in 1939; mineral products showed a decline to 6 percent in 1947 from 19 percent in 1939.

Paper production in Sweden amounted to 1,040,000 metric tons during 1947, compared with approximately 1,012,000 tons in 1946 and 978,000 tons in 1937. Most paper mills worked at capacity until operations were hampered by the rationing of electric power in the fall of 1947. Domestic consumption was reduced to 465,000 tons in 1947 from 530,000 tons in 1946, as a result of legislation brought about by a new Swedish foreign-exchange policy. Despite the fact that paper production has increased steadily during the past 10 years, with the exception of the war years, exports have declined. Domestic consumption, however, has nearly doubled in the past 10 years. The Swedish Government reduced 1947 consumption by tightening domestic quotas, and new allotments which became effective on 1 January 1948 will further reduce home consumption to 411,300 tons in 1948, if the present rate of allotment is continued throughout this year. Based on production and consumption data, paper exports were not more than 575,000 tons in 1947. In 1937, paper exports were 664,000 tons. Exports of wood pulp from Sweden totaled approximately 1,735,000 metric tons during 1947, compared with 2,200,000 tons in 1937. Chemical pulp accounted for 1,510,000 tons of the 1947 pulp exports, and the remainder was mechanical pulp.

The Government Fuel Commission in Sweden has officially announced that for the present season half a million standards of sawn and planed goods will be reserved for export. Quotas have been fixed for all the principal exporting countries, totaling at present 421,850 standards (1,970,883 m3 (s)). Great Britain is first on the list with 162,000 standards (757,000 m3 (s)). Next comes Belgium-Luxemburg with 80,000 (370,000 m3 (s)), followed by the Netherlands with 69,000 (320,000 m3 (s)), Denmark with 45,000 (210,000 m3 (s)), and South Africa 20,000 (93,000 m3 (s)). These are the chief importers, and smaller quantities have been allotted to Australia, Egypt, Ireland, Palestine, other countries within the sterling area, and Norway, France, North Africa, and Italy. In addition to theme quantities of sawn and planed goods, 40,000 actual standards (190,000 m3 (s)) will be allotted for export in boxboards and squared timbers.


The principal prewar sources of paper and paperboard supplies for Switzerland were Sweden, Finland, and Austria. Swiss wood pulp imports have generally run to approximately 10 percent of domestic consumption, or about 20,000 tons. The domestic industry has been unable to meet requirements since post World War I years, and this is still the case. In the period between the two wars, the proportion of domestic pulp used was greatly increased, and during the recent war Switzerland was compelled to rely almost exclusively on its home supply. However, in 1946, pulpwood output in the country was only about 120,000 tons, and even with imports, the total avail-able to pulp mills was below requirements. Supplies to the mills in 1948, as in 1947, will depend on imports and the number of workers in the domestic timber industry. Imports of chemical pulp in 1946 ran to 66,000 tons The 1947 paper production is estimated by the industry as about 150,000 metric tons, compared with 115,000 in prewar years. Paperboard production is estimated at 45,000 compared with 30,000 to 35, 000 tons prewar. Newsprint is expected to show,* only about 25 percent of production for 1947. Swiss demand for paper is estimated at 150,000 tons annually and paperboard 55,000 tons. Domestic production supplies about 90 percent of paper and paperboard requirements, the remainder being made up of imports.


In 1937 the Ukraine produced 28,400 tons of paper, as compared with 22,600 tons in 1932. This output represented, in 1937, 3.42 percent, and, in 1932, 4.8 percent of the Soviet Union's total paper production. In 1946 the reviving paper industry of the Ukraine turned out about 9,500 tons of paper and cardboard, exceeding its production program by 10 percent. This year the output of paper and cardboard is expected to be more than double that of 1946.

The first section of a mill producing paper bags has been launched in the Dragobych Region, and another paper mill is being built in the same region. Two cardboard factories are being built, one in Lvov and one in Rakhov (Transcarpathian Region).


Under the Marshall Plan, Britain has been tentatively allocated £331,075,000 during the first year, according to a United States Government announcement. Included in the allocation is timber valued at £15,825,000, and timber equipment with a value of £425,000. The figure for timber shows a small reduction on the State Department's estimate announced in January last. At that time it was tentatively stated that the allocation for Great Britain would be £3,575,000 from April to June, 1948, and £14,250,000 from July 1948 to June 1949. During 4½ years' operation of the Marshall Plan this earlier estimate allotted Great Britain a total of £61,250,000 for wood.

The prewar consumption of wallboard in England is figured to be 14.6 million m2) of which 8 million m2) were covered by domestic production. A consumption of 15 million m2) is anticipated for 1948 of which 7 million m2) can be covered, by domestic production. The figures for the next three years are estimated to be 17 and 9 million m2) respectively.

The total of materials received during 1947 by the paper industry of Great Britain was 1,064,808 long tons against 950,141 tons in the previous year and nearly 2 million tons in 1938. Although wood pulp imports were lower in 1947 than in 1946, this loss was more than compensated by the receipts of esparto grass, although the grass does not offer such a high yield of fiber. Consumption of materials, comparing 1947 with 1946, showed a decline in pulpwood of approximately 23,000 tons, in wood pulp of 72,000 tons, and in straw of 106,000 tons. Consumption of esparto grass, rag, and waste paper was higher. Total production of all papers and boards during 1947 was 1,735,940 tons, actually 40 tons higher than the previous year. This was a very creditable performance in -view of the coal crisis in 1947.


One aspect of the wood pulp field which has been growing tremendously, is the manufacture of rayon. The rayon industry continued to grow even throughout the depression. In 1945, pulp consumption for rayon manufacture amounted to 400,000 tons, of which nearly 300,000 tons was wood pulp, the remainder being cotton linters. The decrease, percentage-wise, of wood pulp in rayon manufacture since 1942, again reflects the shortage of wood pulp in the country during this period. The possibilities for future growth of rayon-grade wood pulp consumption are almost fantastic. The American Viscose Company, which produces large quantities of rayon for automobile tires, anticipates the manufacture, of enough rayon cord for approximately 50 million passenger car tires in 1947. This amount is only about two thirds of the annual passenger car tire requirements of this country. The consumption of rayon cord for 1946 has been projected to give a figure for the year of 205 million pounds (93 million kg.), which is over 50 percent greater than the consumption in 1945. This amount is still only about one half the present rate of consumption of all types of tire cord, and is only one illustration of the numerous potentialities for wood pulp consumption in this field.


The fourth Five-Year Plan of the U.S.S.R., which was adopted on 16 May 1946, has as. its principal goals. not only rehabilitation of the regions devastated by the war and restoration of agriculture and industry but also progressive industrialization at the rate provided in the preceding plans.

The two major objectives are therefore still the same, namely: (1) development of nationalized industries, and (2) organization of agriculture on the basis of large, mechanized, collective farms.

The State Planning Commission of the U.S.S.R. has just drawn up a report on the development of the major industrial commodities during the -postwar period.

As regards wood and its by-products, production figures are as follows:




(Index 1945 = 100)







The percentages of actual production of forest products relative to planned production are as follows:








Pulp and paper



The prewar production of the U.S.S.R. and the targets for 1950 are:




(Million m3)




Sawmill products



Policy, Legislation, and Administration


Details of a Government -controlled corporation to exploit the timber resources of the Andaman Islands were given in the Indian Legislative Assembly at New Delhi by Mr. Jairamdas Daulatram, Minister for Food.

Mr. Daulatram said that Anamalais Timber Trust, Ltd., Hind Constructions, Ltd., palms Jain, Ltd., and Himabslingha Timber, Ltd. - the four promoting firms-and the Government, with shareholders from the public, would form a corporation named the Andamans Forest Industries, Ltd.

Out of the authorized capital, 51 percent of the shares would be held by the Government of India, 40 percent by the firms, and 9 percent would go to the public. Among the terms and conditions of the lease of the North Andamans forests were that the chairman of the board of directors would be one of the two Government directors, and he would be nominated by the Government.

The corporation will abide by the directions issued by the Government from time to time regarding the prices at which varieties of timber could be sold at the various markets.

The corporation would work the forests only according to instructions issued by the chief forest officer.


The Technical Institute in Buenos Aires has been asked by the Secretary of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce to study the question of establishing in the country paper factories utilizing national raw materials. A commission has been nominated which is going to the mountain region of Neuquen y Rio Negro where the genus Nothofagus grows, in order' to study whether that species can be used for pulp manufacture.

In addition, this Commission will visit other zones in Argentina in order to make a survey of the forestry species from which pulp products can be manufactured, the costs for labor, transport of the wood, and the manufactured products, and the possible location for one or several factories in that region.

In the five-year plan it is proposed to arrive in 1951 at the production of 50,000 tons of newsprint.


For some time past the Czechoslovak Government has been carrying out plans for the industrialization of Slovakia where labor and other conditions are favorable for the extension of existing industries. The timber industry has not been overlooked and in the development of the timber works and sawmills, work has recently been started on the building and equipping of the following large new concerns. At Vranov, in Eastern Slovakia, a new mill will produce parquet flooring, casks, veneer, plywood, as well as chemical cellulose and other cellulose products. This mill will use only broadleaved species for raw material. The second new concern is a large and modern sawmill being erected at Banska Bystrica in Central Slovakia. It is being built to a Swedish design and will be equipped with Swedish machinery at a total cost of about £1,250,000. The annual capacity is estimated to reach 99 thousand m3 ® (3,500,000 cu. ft.) of round timber. At Banska will also be built a separate factory for the production of wood-wool boards and other material. Other sawmills are also being contemplated. It is expected as a result of these developments that the total annual sales of Slovakian timber and timber products will increase from the present 5 million pounds to about 18 million pounds sterling.


The Forestry Research Commission whose work has been at a standstill since the beginning of the war has been once again appointed by the Ministry of Agriculture. It has been enlarged owing to the inclusion of representatives for the industry and workers. The Commission is appointed for a period of 5 years from 1 July 1947 and consists of: Director of the Norwegian Forest Experimental Department, Professor Erling Eide (Chairman), Hans R. Borch as representative for the Norwegian Forest Owners Association, H. H. Heiberg, as representative for the Norwegian Agricultural College, Nils N. Ihlen as representative for the Norwegian Forestry Association, Hans Th. Kiaer as representative for the industry, Klaus Kjelsrud as representative for the Forestry and Agricultural Workers Trade Union, Anton $mitt as representative for the Forestry Experimental Station on the West Coast, and K. Soerhuus as representative for the Ministry of Agriculture.


Plans of the State-owned forests of Poland anticipate for 1948 the afforestation of 97,500 acres (39,500 ha.) of land, an extension of the existing timber industry, and an increase in production. With regard to lumber production, it is anticipated that 9 new sawmills will be built and 68 reconstructed or modernized. Factories will be established near bigger sawmills for the manufacture of boxes, barrels, furniture, and parquet flooring, and for fuelwood from sawmill waste.


One of South Africa's industries now engaged on a big propaganda drive is the timber industry. It is not generally known that the Union is capable of producing high grade timber. Meanwhile the Union has to purchase a considerable quantity of its timber from overseas. About 17 months ago the Forestry Department decided to launch a plan for increasing native timber supplies of softwoods required for house-building and many other industries. The aim is to make the Union self-supporting up to 90 percent of its needs in the next half-century. It is intended to establish 35,000 acres (14,000 ha.) a year, but this objective will not be reached immediately. In the private field, the South African Lumber Millers and Shook Manufacturers' Association is planning the educative campaign. Had it not been for the relatively small supply of Union timber available during the war, the country would have been almost without any timber, for imports dried up altogether. Timber for various war needs was produced in the country. One of the most important steps taken by the Association is the decision to work together with the Forestry Department and South African Bureau of Standards. South African lumber is now graded according to the severe tests laid down by the Bureau. The following facts concerning the South African lumber industry will possibly be interesting: About 5,000,000 pine trees were felled last year for the building and packaging industries; 25,000,000 cu. ft. (708,000 m3) of round logs were sawn into timber; more than 60,000,000 wooden boxes were made from South African grown timber. Among the industries wholly or partially dependent on sufficient supplies of boxes for the distribution of their products are fruit, liquor, explosives and chemicals, soap and candles, biscuits, polishes, sauces, and oils. The lumber industry employs more than 11,000 people and pays wages exceeding £800,000 a year. The mechanical and physical properties of pine grown in South Africa are somewhat superior to those of imported timber, according to tests carried out at the Forest Products Institute in Pretoria. A very large quantity of. local timber is now required for the building industries and more will be needed as facilities improve for raising the pace of the postwar building program.


The U.K. Timber Control has recently issued licenses for the importation of varying quantities of no fewer than 26 species of wood from East Africa, which shows the possibilities opened up. by the future development of these territories. The development of timber resources' however, is a slow process, involving the use of much equipment in the form of tractors, Caterpillars, sawmill equipment, and other items which are in short world supply, but the Timber Control has received the greatest encouragement from the Government in its efforts to stimulate such supplies.


Control has come back into force since 1 March on exports of United States softwoods and hardwoods to a number of countries.

Thus, the licensing system has been resumed for continental European countries, Great Britain and Ireland, Iceland, Turkey, the U.S.S.R., Portugal including the Azores and Madeira, Tangier, Spain and Spanish possessions, and the Mediterranean islands.

Until further orders, no license is needed for exports to Canada and countries in Central and South America, a fact which leaves to some traders in Latin America the possibility of re-exporting U.S. timber, as they did during the war, to countries coming under the new regulations.

This action was taken by the U. S. Government in order that timber, an essential raw material, may be provided to those countries which need it most and to limit exports which would not be of a nature to contribute to universal reconstruction.

Book reviews

Woodflour. W. S. Dahl 119 pp. 21 shillings. The Mercury Press, Northampton, England. 1948.

Mr. Dahl, who has long been connected with the timber trade and woodflour marketing in England, has prepared a well-illustrated and instructive book dealing with woodflour, its manufacture and uses. He draws attention to the fact that a large percentage of the world's production of wood is wasted in manufacturing processes, and he pleads for a more complete utilization through wider and more efficient use of wood waste for fuel and through the manufacture of many products which can use sawdust and other wood waste as a basic raw material. There is also a chapter on lignin plastics and a note on the use of lignin as a reinforcing agent in natural or synthetic rubber.

There are a few inaccuracies, such as the comparison of a ton of sawdust and other waste with a ton of coal as fuel when referring to transport economy, and the reference to balsa as a "fungus wood." However, the description of woodflour manufacturing processes and of the wide variety of uses to which sawdust and woodflour are put is obviously the result of a close study of all phases of the production and utilization of woodflour.

An Outline of General Forestry (Third Edition, revised and enlarged, 1939, reprinted 1947). Joseph S. Illick. 297 pp. $1.25. Barnes and Noble, Inc., New York.

Professor Joseph S. Illick published the third edition of An Outline of General Forestry, revised and enlarged in order to follow the rapid development of ideas pertaining to forests and wood, as a general introduction to the sciences and techniques of forestry and the various branches of the conservation of natural resources which are closely allied therewith. Originally intended for students, this small book is of general interest to all persons concerned with forests and the problems of administration and management which they raise, with forest products, and the relationship of forests to the general economy of a country, of a region and of the globe. Although forest problems are studied with special reference to the United States, those of other countries are not overlooked, and the silvicultural trends and methods for the utilization of wood, both from a general standpoint and with respect to their various branches, are analyzed briefly but concretely and clearly. Numerous references appear at the end of each chapter.

La moderna tecnica delle costruzioni in legno. (The Modern Technique of Construction in Wood.) Dr. Ing. Guglielmo Giordano. 345 pp. + xv. Graphs and drawings published under separate cover as a supplement to accompany the book, 64 pp., 1,500 lire, including supplement. Editore Hoepli, Milan, Italy. 1947.

This excellent synthesis of mechanical wood utilization is not only the first important work on this subject in the Italian language, but also represents, for technicians of all countries, a practical, complete, and well-documented handbook.

The author deals first with the mechanical characteristics of wood (elasticity, resistance to compression, tensile strength, static bending, resistance to diverse dynamic stress, fatigue, wear, hardness, etc.). He continues with the grading of structural timber in each important class of stress, of the methods and processes of assemblage, and concludes the first part of the book by demonstrating the advantages of wood as a construction material.

The later chapters of the book deal with building materials derived from wood (plywood, laminated wood, sandwich, impregnated, and wallboard), then describes building codes, the characteristics of the main Italian species, and the standards for physical and mechanical tests.

The work is completed by a separate booklet containing 60 diagrams on different mechanical characteristics and 26 diagrams on different types of construction in wood.

Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters' Meeting, Minneapolis, 1947. 507 pp. + iv. $3.00. Society of American Foresters, Washington. 1948.

The complexities, problems, debates, and progress of American forestry are reflected in two annual publications. One is the Report of the Chief of the Forest Service, already reviewed in UNASYLVA (Vol. 11, No. 3, p. 155). The other is the Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters. Here, through the technical papers and reports of standing committees, a live and up-to-date cross-section is to be expected. Indeed, the partition of the whole field of forestry into divisions, each with its own set of papers, is indicative of the many-sided nature, employment, and interests of the Society and of its membership.

Ten divisions are listed: Education, Forest Economics, Forest Products, Forest Recreation, Forest Wildlife Management, Private Forestry, Range Management, Silviculture, Private Forestry in the Lake States, and Progress in Lake States Forestry. The number of papers ranges from 4 to 12 in the divisions, with a total of over 80.

The speakers included both seniors who have long contributed to American forestry and younger men who have produced results worth reporting. Both questions of policy and of reporting scientific progress are encompassed in the program.

The Division of Forest Economics included the paper on forest resource valuation by Bernard Frank, already published in UNASYLVA (Vol. II, No. 2, p. 55). It also included M. A. Huberman's report on "FAO and the World Wood Shortage," the most significant paper of the meeting in the field of international forestry.

The Society has done a useful job in making the proceedings readily available to all who wish to follow the always diverse, commonly controversial, and invariably interesting developments in American forestry.


The very well-known professor, Agnar Barth, died 4 May 1948. He was one of the leading authorities on forestry in Norway. He was born in 1871 and in 1899 he started teaching forest taxation at the Agricultural College in Aas, Norway. From 1931 to 1943 he was Professor in Silviculture and Dean at the same college. He wrote textbooks and numerous articles for technical periodicals and was always active in the discussion of Norwegian forestry problems.

Arthur Koehler, widely known scientist and authority on wood structure and identification at the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, retired on 30 June 1948. A member of the staff since 1914, Mr. Koehler has been chief of the Laboratory's Division of Silvicultural Relations He will be succeeded by Benson H. Paul, who has been on the laboratory Staff since 1922.

After almost twenty years at the Princes Risborough Forest Products Research Laboratory, Mr. E. H. Nevard is taking up a responsible position in the commercial world. While at the Laboratory he carried out research which led to stress grading of Baltic redwood and followed this with preliminary work on the strength of joints-a corollary of stress grading. During the past two years, Mr. Nevard has been in the external relations section of the laboratory investigating trade problems, lecturing to architects, engineers, and students, and answering the many enquiries sent to the laboratory. In his new appointment as Technical Liaison Officer with the manufacturers of Wolman Salts, Mr. Nevard will be advocating the efficient use of timber which can be effected not only by reducing dimensions in *accordance with stress grading but also by increasing its useful life by adequate preservation.

The Forestry Commissioners announce that Mr. W. L. Taylor, C.B.E., will relinquish, at the end of June, the appointment of Director-General, Forestry Commission. He will be succeeded by Mr. A. H. Gosling, who is at present Deputy Director- General, Mr. Taylor will continue to serve as a Forestry Commissioner, and for the present will devote the whole of his time to the work of the Commission. Mr. W. H. Guillebaud, the Commission's Director of Research and Education, will succeed Mr. Gosling as Deputy Director-General. In turn, Mr. James MacDonald, a Conservator of Forests on the Staff of the Director of Forests for Scotland, will become Director of Research and Education.

The Turkish Government has officially asked Professor Manfred Naslund, Chief of the Swedish Institute of Experimental Forestry, to organize a Forestry Experimental Institute in Turkey similar to that in Sweden.

Meetings and conventions

In May 1948 a conference of agricultural and forestry workers was held in Prague with the following countries participating: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, U.S.S.R., and Yugoslavia. The conference was organized by the Institute for International Collaboration in Agriculture and Silviculture, located in Prague.

This conference adopted a large number of resolutions which have a bearing both on silviculture and agriculture and which may be classified as follows:

1) General program of action of the Institute for International Collaboration in Agriculture and Silviculture.

2) Problems of co-operative movements, statistical control of the implementation of agricultural plans, organizing and planning forestry economy and wood industries.

3) Methodology of research and controls. Exchange of experiments and pest control and control of agricultural plant diseases and forest tree diseases.

4) Theoretical and practical education. Setting up centers of practical training for qualified forestry workers.

5) Publications, radio broadcasts, films on agricultural and silvicultural subjects. Expansion of publications issued by the Institute: Interagra and the Bulletin of the Institute.

The annual meeting of the Association of Finnish Sawmillmen was held in Helsinki on 6 April.

The opening speech was given by Professor M. Levon, Chairman, who stressed the importance of co-operation between the technical organizations in the timber industry.

An interesting event was the motion picture and lecture on British timber economy presented by Mr. Grugeon, technical timber expert of Messrs. Price and Pierce, London.

Mr. E. A. Jussila gave an account of the work of the committee appointed for the purpose of handling matters relating to sorting of planed goods.

Immediately after the meeting, a session of the Board was held. The Secretary, Mr. Kinnunen, wished to retire after having held the position for many years, and Mr. U. Rintakoski was elected general secretary, while Mr. K. Kivimaa was re-elected technical secretary. An executive committee was elected, consisting of Professor Levon, Mr. Kinnunen, Mr. Ojala, Mr. Vesa, and the two secretaries.

At the general Forest Week meeting in Stockholm on 8 March, Professor Manfred Naslund, Director of the Government Forest Research Institute, read a most interesting and instructive paper on "The Condition of our Forests and the Means of Increasing their Productivity."

Professor Naslund's paper was based on the results so far obtained in a comparison of the first general survey of the Swedish forests in 1923-1929 with the second, which has been going on since 1938 and has, to date, covered 75 percent of the forested area of Sweden.

The speaker said that the second survey had shown that the timber resources, while diminishing in the northern parts of the country and increasing in the south, had increased for the whole of Sweden by about 5 percent.

In order to make the future yield of the forests satisfactory, their stands of timber must be increased, and the only way of doing this is to cut less than the annual increment for some time to come and to secure the maximum possible new growth in present and future regeneration areas.

Calculations made at the Forest Research Institute indicate that the amount of merchantable timber-sawlogs and pulpwood-cut in upper and central Norrland ought to be reduced for a considerable time to come by no less than 30 percent compared with the annual cuts from 1936 to 1939. The general result of the calculations is that the total annual cut in the whole country must be reduced by about 5 percent compared with the period 1936 to 1939.

The first Inter-American Conference on the Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources, organized by the Pan American Union, will be held at Denver, Colorado, from 7 September to 20 September 1948. The statement which precedes the agenda of the conference stresses the close relationship which exists between renewable resources and the urgent need for remedying a tragic situation: "World populations have now increased until there are only about two acres-less than one hectare-of productive' land for each individual and, while the destructive practices mentioned above are daily causing these two acres to shrink, populations are mounting at the rate of about 50,000 people per day." The agenda is divided into six sections: Section I-Human populations and. productive capacity of the land; Section II - Renewable resources and international relations; Section III - Land use and the social sciences; Section IV - The dynamics of renewable resources; Section V - Education in conservation dynamics; Section VI - Making conservation effective.

A conference on the utilization and chemistry of bark will be held 17 September at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, under the auspices of the Northeastern Wood Utilization Council. Developments in bark utilization from pulp and paper mills, as well as from sawmills and lumbering operations, will be reviewed.

The United Nations Conference on Freedom of Information which met at the European Headquarters of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, during the period from 23 March to 21 April, 1948, included the following recommendation in its final report:

The United Nations Conference on Freedom of Information

Draws the attention of the Economic and Social Council to the harm and dangers which inadequate production of newsprint, and unequal distribution thereof, have on the exercise of freedom of information,

Recommends that the Economic and Social Council consider as soon as possible, in the light of the enquiries carried out by the Council and by UNESCO, practical measures to remedy the situation; and

Recommends that governments give their support to the UNESCO plan for aid to war-devastated countries; and

Invites UNESCO to extend such aid to other countries suffering from an acute shortage of newsprint.

In sixteen European countries surveyed, wartime loss of housing amounted to the equivalent of four and a half million dwellings. In the two and a half years since the end of the war, only 750,000 dwelling units were repaired or newly built-the equivalent of about one year's building activity before the war.

In order to make up for the remaining war damage and to satisfy the need for over eight million units created by the lack of building during the war, a construction effort equal to eleven years of building at the prewar rate would be required.

These telling figures about Europe's housing plight were given by the Housing Subcommittee of the Economic Commission for Europe, which met in Geneva from 13-15 May.

With the rate of building only about one third that which the countries themselves have declared necessary, the Sub committee described the building industry as one of the most backward in technology, design, and organization. Members charged that the gap between needs and supply is being widened. It suggested mechanization of the industry based on better design, which would give more homes at less cost.

The Subcommittee laid emphasis on the shortage of basic building materials, such as timber and steel, materials which are also required in much larger quantities than now available by other industries essential to the reconstruction of Europe.

Recognizing the many problems facing European housing, the Subcommittee established two working parties; one on programs and resources and the other on technical problems. The Subcommittee realized that more building materials must be produced and that more houses must be built with less materials.

The Working Party on Programs and Resources will give priority to the initiation of measures to promote exchanges of finished building materials and of equipment for producing such materials. It was recognized that comparatively small investments for equipment in certain countries should be able to yield considerable quantities of essential building materials.

The Working Party on Technical Building Problems will seek to promote economies through the rationalization of conventional construction methods. Provision has therefore been made for an exchange, among interested countries, of information on methods to save building materials, manpower, and time, and on possible suitable substitutions for materials which are scarce.

Three reports constituting the first general survey of the European housing situation are to be combined into a single report, which will be expanded and later in the year made available to all governments and to organizations and persons interested. in the housing field.

Delegations from the following countries participated in this first session of the Subcommittee: Austria, Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, Ireland, Poland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Yugoslavia. Observers were present from FAO and WHO.

THE Nations accepting this Constitution, being determined to promote the common welfare by furthering separate and collective action on their part for the purposes of

raising levels of nutrition and standards of living of the peoples under their respective jurisdictions,
securing improvements in the efficiency of the production and distribution of all food and agricultural products,

bettering the condition of rural populations,

and thus contributing toward an expanding world economy,

hereby establish the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations... through which the Members will report to one another on the measures taken and the progress achieved in the fields of action set forth above.

- Preamble to the Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FAO Member Nations


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