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Production of medicinal, culinary and aromatic
plants in Turkey

M. Kizmaz, Director of Research and Planning Division
General Directorate of Forests

 

INTRODUCTION

Due to Turkey's varied climate and geographic conditions, a vast number of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants grow in the country. Of the 11 000 plant species existing in Europe, 9 500 grow in Turkey, of which 3 000 are endemic. The NWFP derived from the leaves, flowers, seeds, roots and corms of plants which grow in the 8.8 million ha of forest land, provide the essential input for medicines, cosmetics, perfumery and various foods.

Collection of NWFP is strictly controlled and efforts are undertaken to minimize the effects of forestry operations which affect endangered species. Sustainable forest management permits the collection of plants species that grow in abundance, particularly in areas where such harvesting can improve the living standards of the local population. Where no management plans exist or where there is no market demand, such collection is forbidden.

In recent years, efforts have been made to encourage the cultivation of NWFP and production methods have been developed. Table (1) shows the 1996 production figures for some of the most important NWFP in the country.

 

PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

Figures for NWFP production are calculated through unit price, contract and daily payment in the forest village cooperatives, where these exist, or by external surveys where organized production programs do not exist.

Where a production program does not exist, an inventory of woody, herbaceous and tuberous plants is made, either annually or periodically. As part of Turkey's five-year plan, attention was paid to the trend in demand of domestic and foreign markets for NWFP. By the end of 1996, 62 plant species had been surveyed and production capacities determined. On the basis of this inventory, production plans for some plant species are prepared and local populations are encouraged to concentrate on production of these species which are sold at tariff price. Production plans indicate suitable drying and storage facilities, rotation and production techniques, while propagation methods (vegetative or generative) are also included in the plans. In this context, the "FAO Forestry and Food Security in Near East and Mediterranean Regions" project, aimed at the reproduction of medicinal and aromatic plants in Konya, was carried out successfully. The new project entitled "The Development of Non-wood Forest

Products in the Black Sea Area" has also been able to grow medicinal, aromatic and bulbous plants in forest areas.

In Turkey, the production of medicinal and aromatic bulbous plants in their natural sites for sustainable management aims to:

Bulbous plants

Bulbous plants have landscape and cultural as well as medicinal and cosmetic importance. In particular, export for ornamental purposes has increased compared with domestic consumption for other purposes. However, often bulbs are collected irrespective of size. This indiscriminate harvesting causes economic loss and endangers species. A regulation made by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs came into force to regulate over harvesting and export of bulbs. According to this regulation, a steering committee established from among representatives of various related ministries, universities and NGOs decides the quota and restricts some plant species to be collected annually. The firms are informed of quota and production areas by the governmental organization. Thus damage resulting from over production is, to some extent, prevented.

The collection of bulbous plants for export depends on the tariff price and is undertaken by specially authorized forest dwellers. The bulbs are transported only with the permission of local forest district authorities and are labelled with an origin and phytosanitary certificate.

Some of the most important bulbous plants exported are: Corms of Galanthus L. for flowers; Eranthis pyemalis (L) Salisb for flowers; Anemone blanda schott et Kotschy for flowers; Leucozum aestivum L. for flowers and medicine; Cyclamen hederifolium Aitom for flowers; Fritillaria imperialis L. for flowers; Sternbergia colcihicifolia waldst et Kit for flowers; Sternbergia candida Mathew et T. Baytop for flowers; Sternbergia schubertii schenk for flowers; Lilium candidum L for flowers; Tulipa humulis Herbert for flowers; Geranium tuberosum L for flowers; Colchicum sperciosum stev. for flowers; Muscari Miller for flowers; Ornithogalum nutans L for flowers; Allium noseum L for flowers; Gladiolus L for flowers; Urginea maritima (L) Baker for medicine;Pancratium maritimum L for flowers; Narcissus seratinus L for flowers.

The collection of the following species is forbidden at all times: Orchis sp., Centiana lutea L., Rocus sativus, Crocus sp., Arisarum vulgare tang. Stenbergia lutea, Stenbergia Candida.

Mushrooms

There are at least 100 000 fleshy mushrooms species in Turkey as estimated by Guler in 1988. Approximately 100 of these are edible. Some of them such as Morchella spp., Boletus edulis, Cantherellus cibarus, Lactarius songuifluis and Amenita coesdria are not cultivable. Others, such as shirtake mushrooms that have significant importance, can be cultivated. Waste materials used for the production of saprophytic mushrooms are very profitable in the villages.

The mushrooms collected for export and consumption in domestic markets in Turkey are:

  1. Morchella esculata
  2. Boletus edulis Fr.
  3. Boletus luteus Fr.
  4. Boletus bovinus (Linn) Fr.
  5. Boletus elegans Fr.
  6. Boletus badius Fr.
  7. Amanita caesarea (Fr) Quelet
  8. Armillania mella (Fr) Kummer
  9. Lactarius volemus (Fr.) Fr
  10. Lacttarius deliciosus (Fr) S.F. Gray
  11. Chroogomhus rutillus (Fr) O.K.Miller
  12. Agaricus campestris Fr.
  13. Fistlina hepatica Fr.
  14. Pleurotus connucoprae (Pers.) Rolland
  15. Lactarius salmohicolor Heim et Leclair
  16. Hydnum repandum (L.ex.Fr) Fr.
  17. Morchella conica var delisiosa Fr.
  18. Tricholoma terreum (Fr.) Kummer.
  19. Sparasis crispa (Wulf. Ex. Fr) Fr.

 

PROTECTION OF NWFP SPECIES

Due to the industrial processing of natural raw materials, demand for medicinal and aromatic plant production is increasing rapidly. Because of this demand, over production has been permitted, incompatible production techniques have been used, and early collection has been taking place. Thus the destruction of species is increasing rapidly and some important endemic species are consequently in danger of extinction. As a result, some regulations have been introduced related to production techniques and effective protection and control of excessive production, including certificates for collection and export.

The level of industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants in Turkey is low. These plants are therefore exported as raw material whereas most of the finished products are imported as industrial goods. As a result, the followings problems arise:

In addition, endemic plants which are of prime importance in terms of market demand require:

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Encourage companies dealing with the trade of medicinal, culinary and aromatic plants to set up a fund which should be used to support research and developments covering the rehabilitation of MAP ecosystems.

  2. Implement production plans which introduce proper production techniques for plants included in the NWFP inventories.

  3. Revise the production plans at the end of the rotation period by comparing new plans with previous ones.

  4. Promote the contribution of private companies to the cultivation of medicinal culinary and aromatic plants.

  5. Enforce export quotas in order to prevent over production resulting from high demand and market competition.

  6. Draw up legal and organizational regulations in order to prevent destructive illegal collection.

  7. Encourage the cultivation of native plant species by forest dwellers by providing forest villagers with training, technical and financial assistance.

  8. Determine the market value of potential NWFP.

  9. Develop processing activities in Turkey using innovative techniques and quality standards to bring products up to international market levels.

  10. Develop the medicinal, culinary and aromatic plants industry by providing required establishment and support.

  11. Strengthen international cooperation and obtain external financial resources to support innovative cultivation techniques.

  12. Provide training in the utilization of NWFP and employ trained personnel locally.

  13. Improve preservation and storage methods to maintain a high quality of the products.

  14. Inform custom officers about species banned and train them to be conversant with export quotas.

  15. Take account of the conservation of gene resources and the sustainability of bio-diversity in production, conservation and breeding plans.

 

REFERENCES

Anonymous. (1995). Orman Tali Urunlerinin Uretim va Satrs Esaslari. OGM. Iseletme ve pazarlama Dairesi Baskanligi Tebling No: 283

Anonymous. (1996). Orman Urunlerinden Faydalanmak Isteyenlere Verilecek Izinlere Ait Yonetmelik. OGM. Isletme ve Pazarlama Dairesi Baskanligi Teblig. No: 289

Anonymous. (1991). Turkiye’nin Ekonomik Deger Tasiyan Geofitleri uzerinde Taksonomik ve Ekolojik Arastirmalar. OGM. Isleme ve Pazarlama Dairesi Baskanligi Yayin No: 669

Anonymous. Uikemizdeki Bazi Onemli Orman Tali Urunlerinin Teshis ve Tanitm Klavuzu. OGM. Yayin No: 659

Isik, K. (1996). Biyolojik Cesitlilik ve Orman Gen Kaynaklarimiz. Orman Bakanligi Yaym No: 103

Kayacik, H. (1981). Orman ve park Agaclarinin Ozel Sistematigi 2 Cilt. I.U.Or.Fak. Yayin No: 287 224 S. Istanbul

Kayacik, H. (1982). Orman ve park Agaclarinin Ozel Sistematigi 3. Cilt. Kurtulmus, Matbaasi 291 S. Istanbul

Sumer, S. (1987). Turkiye’nin Yenen Mantarlari Erus Matbacilik Topkapi Ticaret Merkezi No: 289 Cevizlibag-Istanbul

Yaltirik F. (1989). Otsu Bitkiler Sistematigi. Dilek Matbaasi Istanbul.

 

Table (1) : Production figures for some important NWFP

PRODUCT
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Resin Ton

390

320

290

330

355

240

113

Storax Kg.

1.000

1.000

1.000

700

2.000

3.000

1.000

Leaves of Laurus nobilis L. Ton

2.108

2.049

2.890

3.498

4.325

3.890

6.763

Resinous wood Ton

5.200

2.200

2.200

1.200

1.200

1.200

5.550

Incense Kg.

800

800

1.600

1.050

800

-

800

Leaves of Salvia sp. Ton

575

760

807

842

802

975

450

Leaves of Thymus sp. Ton

4.796

5.552

7.354

7.444

11.149

8.328

2.235

Seeds of P.pinea (with coat) Ton

519

1.046

717

421

529

629

412

Mushrooms Ton

825

1.384

740

433

127

165

61

Leaves of Rhus L. Ton

99

113

13

51

45

25

19

Leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Ton

81

195

270

297

434

398

450

Leaves of Laurocerasus officinalisalis Roemer Ton

124

47

59

41

10

67

73

Flowers of Tiatal L. Ton

391

310

135

78

352

458

28

Fruits of Castanea sativa Mill Ton

35

83

171

174

259

160

350

Corms of Galanthus L. Ton

24

11

29

15

56

4

2,8

 

Table (2) : Uses of NWFP in Turkey

  

PLANT NAME

PRODUCT

USES

1. Pinus brutia Ten resin paint, polishing paper, chewing gum
2. Liquidambar orientalis
Mill
styrox Medicine, perfume
  Liquidambar orientalis
Mill
incense used in mosques
3. Laurus nobilis L. leaves foods, perfume, leather and alcohol
4. Pinus pinea L. fruit foods
5. Quercus infectoria Oliv.
Subsp. Infectoria
gall Paint, textile dyes, medicine, leather, ink
6. Quercus thaburensis Decne fruit medicine, leather, textile dyes
7. Juniperus Communis L.
Subsp. Naa.
fruit medicine, alcohol
8. Tilia tomentosa moench
Tilia platyphyllos scop
Tilia rubra DC.
flower

barks

foods, medicine, cosmetic, rush mat
9. Betula pendula Roth leaves, barks, twigs medicine
10. Eucaluptus sp. leaves, barks medicine, foods (liquor)
11. Ceratonia siliqua L. fruit
seeds
foods, medicine, textile dye, cosmetics, alcoholic drinks, paper
12. Castanea sativa Mill fruit,
bark
Foods, medicine
leather, textile dye
13. Rhamnus petiolaris Boiss fruits foods, paints, medicine, textile dye
14. Cerasus mahaleb L. fruits,
seeds
foods, cosmetic, medicine, textile dye
15. Pistacia terebinthus L. gum turpentine, wood,
fruits, gull
medicine, textile dye, alcoholic drinks
16. Pistacia lentiscus L. gum foods, medicine, perfume, alcoholic drink, paints, polish, chewing-gum
17. Rhus L. leaves
fruits
medicine, textile dye, leather, foods,
18. Erica arborea L. twig with flowers, roots,
twig
medicine, tobacco pipe
19. Astragalus spp. L. gum Pharmaceutics, medicine, textile, glue
20. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. roots, rhizomes medicine, beer, foods
21. Salvia officinalis L. leaves medicine, cosmetics
22. Centiana lutea L. roots of 4 – 5 years old plant medicine
23. Dryopteris-flix-mas   (L)
schott
rhizomes medicine
24. Viburnum opulus L breaks, leaves,fruits alcoholic drinks, medicine
25. Atropa belladonna L. leaves
roots
fruits
medicine, chemistry
26. Althea officinalis L. flowers
leaves
roots
medicine
27- Ricinus communis L. seeds
oil of seed
medicine, plane engine oil
28- Vitex agnus-castus L. flowers with twig
seeds
medicine, textile dye
29- Simmondsia chinensis
(Link) schneied
seeds foods, cosmetic, shoe polish oil, car polish oil
30- Galanthus L. corn
herbaceous stem
medicine
31- Rhamnus frangula L. barks
flowers
medicine
32- Capparis ovata, C. spinosa L. buds foods, medicine, alcoholic drinks
33- Laurocerasus officinalis
Roemer
fresh leaves
fruits
foods, medicine,
alcoholic drinks
34- Foeniculum vulgare Mill
Subsp vulgare
seeds foods, medicine, perfumes, alcoholic drinks
35- Origanum heracleoticum L. branch
flowers
leaves
medicine
36- Matricaria chamomilla L. flowers medicine, cosmetic
37- Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves flowers medicine, cosmetic
38- Lavandula officinalis L. flowers medicine, cosmetic
39- Valeriana officinalis L. rhizomes, roots medicine
40- Gypsophilla L. roots foods, medicine, cleaning material
41- Thymus sp. flowers,
leaves
medicine, chemistry, perfume, cosmetic, foods
42- Digitalis grandiflora L. leaves medicine

 


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