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Medicinal, aromatic and culinary plants of Tunisian
flora

R. Chemli
Faculty of Pharmacy

 

Table (1) : State of vascular flora of Tunisia

Group

Family

Genus

Species

Pteridophyted

7

19

29

Gymnospermes

2

4

7

Chlamydospermes

1

1

4

Monocotyledones

18

71

427

Dicotyledones

87

547

654

Total

115

742

2103

 

Table (2) : Natural reserves

Reserves Governorate

Area (ha)

Dar Fatma Jendouba

15

Ain Zana Jendouba

47

Majen Dj. Chitane Bizerte

10

Ain Chrichira Kairouan

122

Dj. Toiati Kairouan

960

Khechem of Kaleb Kasserine

307

Etella Kasserine

95

Dj. Serdj Siliana

94

Dj. Bouramli Gafsa

50

El haouaria Nabeul

1

Dj. Khroufa Beja

125

Chikly Tunis

3

Sebkhat Kelbia Sousse

8000

Kneiss Sfax

5850

 

Table (3) : National Parks

Parks Governorates Area (ha)
Zembra – Zembretta Nabeul

391

Bouhedma Gafsa – Bouzid

16488

Chaambi Kasserine

6723

Ichkeul Bizerte

12000

Boukornine Ben Arous

1939

El Feija Jendouba

2637

Jbil Kebili

150000

Didi toui Medenine

6300

 

Table (4): Value of exported essential oils in Tunisia 1993 – 1996.

Product Value
(1000 DT) and quantity (tons)
1993 1994 1995 1996
Orange oil Value
Quantity

225.7
0.5

381.3
0.2

773.7
0.4

239.9
0.5

Other citrus oils Value
Quantity

14.0
0.2

18.6
0.2

7.4
0.1

58.4
1.0

Rosmarin oil Value
Quantity

1016.1
71.6

1209.1
83.2

596.0
26.5

1026.2
55.4

Menthol oil Value
Quantity

103.2
2.3

73.3
1.5

141.2
2.8

135.0
5.5

Oil of white artemisia Value
Quantity

2.8
0.1

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

Other essential oils Value
Quantity

705.9
3.0

434.7
81.6

451.2
1.9

478.0
26.2

Citron essential oil Value
Quantity

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.1
0.1

Lavender oil Value
Quantity

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

11.2
2.1

Concentrated solutions Value
Quantity

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

8.6
0.0

Total Terpenoid products Value
Quantity

1.8
0.1

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

Water of orange flowers Value
Quantity

87.9
67.3

104.8
81.3

157.2
128.1

166.7
127.4

Other water solutions of essential oils Value
Quantity

2.3
0.0

8.0
0.0

21.2
0.0

24.8
1.4

Other aromatic oils Value
Quantity

52.6
22.5

35.1
8.3

184.0
42.6

63.3
6.8

Total (1000 DT)  

2212.2

2264.9

2349.9

2223.8

Total (Tons)  

167.6

256.3

202.5

226.5

DT = Tunisian Dinar (1DT = 1.02 US-$, average exchange rate in 1993-96)

 

Table (5): Tunisian exports of essential oils to importing countries

Countries Value (1000 Dt)/
Quantity (tons)
1993 1994 1995 1996
Algeria Value
Quantity

19.9
4.542

14.3
1.100

82.2
33.255

26.1
1.205

Germany Value
Quantity

37.2
2.535

122.6
26.861

32.1
1.105

152.4
8.144

Saudi Arabia Value
Quantity

2.5
0.100

2.4
0.300

5.6
0.650

3.2
0.320

Belgium Value
Quantity

11.5
0.800

8.8
0.442

13.6
0.790

33.5
1.650

Spain Value
Quantity

133.3
10.800

159.7
11.500

39.8
2.001

190.6
9.861

France Value
Quantity

2558.1
124.860

2302.7
131.365

3305.8
148.134

2086.4
165.844

Italy Value
Quantity

33.8
1.011

8.1
0.266

6.6
0.043

9.0
0.400

Libya Value
Quantity

11.2
0.440

4.4
2.410

16.1
1.920

77.9
14.033

United Kingdom Value
Quantity

111.8
7.329

70.2
3.735

94.5
1.618

351.3
15.806

Switzerland Value
Quantity

273.7
8.738

278.6
6.865

295.7
4.934

124.4
4.075

U.S.A. Value
Quantity

126.8
4.640

318.2
71.972

91.7
1.636

94.9
0.061

Taiwan Value
Quantity

0
0

0
0

0
0

7.8
0.400

Benin Value
Quantity

0
0

0
0

0
0

1.8
0.531

Senegal Value
Quantity

0
0

0
0

0
0

11.0
3.375

Jordan Value
Quantity

0
0

0
0

0
0

8.1
1.400

Others Value
Quantity

1.4
2.442

5.0
0.100

75.0
7.200

74.7
0.043

Total Value   

3321.1

3291.9

4058.7

3253.1

Total Quantity   

168.237

256.916

203.290

227.148

DT = Tunisian Dinar (1DT = 1.02 US-$, average exchange rate in 1993-96)

 

Medicinal plants of Tunisian flora    

  1. Agrimonia eupatoria
  2. Agropyrum repens Boiss.
  3. Ajuga iva L.
  4. Alchemilla arvensis L.
  5. Alnus glutinusa Gaertn.
  6. Aloc vera L.
  7. Althaea officinalis L.
  8. Ammi majus L.
  9. Ammi visnaga L.
  10. Anenome coronaria L.
  11. Anethum graveolens L.
  12. Artemisia campestris L.
  13. Artemisia herba alba Asso
  14. Artemisia vulgaris L.
  15. Asparagus officinalis L.
  16. Asteriscus pygmaeus Coss.
  17. Astragalus armatus Will.
  18. Astragalus caprinus L.
  19. Ballota hirsuta Murb.
  20. Bellis annua L.
  21. Borago officinalis Benth.
  22. Brassica nigra Coss.
  23. Calendula arvensis L.
  24. Calmintha officinalis Monch
  25. Capparis spinosa L.
  26. Capsella bursa pastoris L.
  27. Carthamus tinctorius L.
  28. Centaurea calcitrapa L.
  29. Centaurea cyanus L.
  30. Centaurea nicaeensis All.
  31. Centaurium umbellatum Beck.
  32. Ceratonia siliqua L.
  33. Chenopodium album L.
  34. Cichorium intybus L.
  35. Cistus crispus L.
  36. Citrullus colocynthis Schard.
  37. Clematis flammula L.
  38. Cleome arabica L.
  39. Crataegus oxyacantha L.
  40. Cupressus sempervirens L.
  41. Cynara cardunculus L.
  42. Cynoglossum cheirifolium L.
  43. Cynomorium coccineum L.
  44. Datura metel L.
  45. Datura stramonium L.
  46. Diplotaxis harra Boiss.
  47. Dryopterx filix mas Schoot.
  48. Ecballium elaterium L.
  49. Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.
  50. Erica multiflora L.
  51. Erigeron canadensis L.
  52. Euphorbia helioscopia L.
  53. Ferula communis L.
  54. Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.
  55. Fumaria officinalis L.
  56. Geranium robertianum L.
  57. Aucium corniculatum Curt.
  58. Globularia alypum L.
  59. Hedera helix L.
  60. Hertia cheirifolia OK.
  61. Hyosayamus albus L.
  62. Hyoscyamus niger L.
  63. Hypericum perforatum L.
  64. Inula viscosa Ait.
  65. Jasminum fruticans L.
  66. Juglans regia L.
  67. Juniperus oxycedrus Ball.
  68. Juniperus phoenicea L.
  69. Laurus nobilis L.
  70. Lavandula dentata L.
  71. Lavandula multifida L.
  72. Lavandula stoechas L.
  73. Linum usitatissimum ssp.
  74. Lipidium sativum L.
  75. Lippia citriodora Kunth.
  76. Lithospermum arvense L.
  1. Malva sylvestris L.
  2. Mandragora autumnalis Spreng
  3. Marrubium sp.
  4. Matricaria aurea L.
  5. Melilotus sp.
  6. Melissa officinalis L.
  7. Mentha aquatica L.
  8. Mentha pulegium L
  9. Mentha rotundifolia L.
  10. Mentha viridis L.
  11. Mercurialis annua L
  12. Morus sp.
  13. Myrtus communis L.
  14. Nerium oleander L.
  15. Nicautiana glauca Graham.
  16. Nitraria tridentata Asch.
  17. Origanum glandulosum Desf.
  18. Origanum majorana L.
  19. Papaver rhoeas L.
  20. Papaver somniferum L.
  21. Parietaria officinalis L.
  22. Peganum harmala L.
  23. Pergularia tomentosa L.
  24. Periploca laevigata Ait.
  25. Phlomis sp.
  26. Pinus halepensis Miller.
  27. Pistacia lentiscus L.
  28. Pistacia terebinthus L.
  29. Pituranthos scoparius Benth.
  30. Plantago albicans L.
  31. Plantago lanceolota L.
  32. Plantago major L.
  33. Plantago psyllium L.
  34. Polygala sp.
  35. Polyganum aviculare L.
  36. Populus alba L.
  37. Populus nigra L.
  38. Quercus coccifera L.
  39. Quercus ilex L.
  40. Quercus suber L.
  41. Reseda alba L.
  42. Retama raetam Webb.
  43. Rhamnus frangula L.
  44. Rhus oxyacantha Schusb.
  45. Ricinus communis L.
  46. Rosa canina L.
  47. Rosa gallica L.
  48. Rosmarinus officinals L.
  49. Ruscus aculeatus L.
  50. Ruta Chalepensis L.
  51. Ruta montana L.
  52. Salix alba L.
  53. Salvia officinalis L.
  54. Salvia sclaraea L.
  55. Sambuscus nigra L.
  56. Scilla maritima L.
  57. Solanum dulcamara L.
  58. Solanum nigrum L.
  59. Solanum sodomaeum L.
  60. Solidago virga aurea L.
  61. Sonchus tenerrimus L.
  62. Stachys officinalis L.
  63. Taraxacum officinalis Wigg.
  64. Teucrium capitatum L.
  65. Teucrium polium L.
  66. Thymus capitatus L.
  67. Thymus hirtus ssp algeriensis Boiss.
  68. Urtica sp.
  69. Valeriana tuberosa L.
  70. Verbena officinalis L.
  71. Viola odorata L.
  72. Viola tricolor L.
  73. Vitex agnus castus L.
  74. Vitis vinifera L.
  75. Zizyphus lotus L.

Essential oil plants of Tunisian Flora

  1. Anethum graveolens L.
  2. Apium graveolens L.
  3. Calmintha officinalis L.
  4. Carum carvi L.
  5. Cuminum cyminum L.
  6. Cupressus sempervirens L.
  7. Foeniculum vulgare Mill
  8. Jasminum fruticans L.
  9. Juniperus oxycedrus L.
  10. Juniperus phoenicea L.
  11. Laurus nobilus L.
  12. Lavendula multifida L.
  13. Lavendula stoechas L.
  14. Lavendula dentata L.
  15. Lippia citriodora Kunth
  16. Matricaria aurea L.
  17. Matricaria pubescens Desf
  18. Melissa officinalis L.
  19. Mentha aquatica L.
  1. Mentha pulegium L.
  2. Mentha rotundifolia L.
  3. Myrtus communis L.
  4. Origanum glandulosum Desf
  5. Origanum majorona L.
  6. Pinus halepensis Mill
  7. Pinus Pinaster Solland
  8. Piturantos Scoparius Coss ofDur
  9. Rosa canina L.
  10. Rosmarinus officinalis L.
  11. Ruta chalepensis L.
  12. Ruta montana L.
  13. Salvia Sclaraea
  14. Salvia officinalis L.
  15. Thymus capitatus L.
  16. Thymus hirtus Willd
  17. Thymus Vulgaris
  18. Verbena officinalis L.
  19. Viola odorata L

Alimentary Plants

  1. Apium graveolens
  2. Asparagus acutifolius.
  3. Beta Vulgaris
  4. Bunium incrassatum
  5. Capparis spinosa
  6. Ceratonia siliqua
  7. Corchurus olitorius
  8. Cynara cardunculus
  1. Ficus carica
  2. Malva sylvestris
  3. Opuntia ficus indica
  4. Oxalis cernua
  5. Portulaca oleracea
  6. Sonchus tenerrimus
  7. Trefesia ivalispora
  8. Ziziphus lotus

Plants used for spices

  1. Allium roseum
  2. Anethum graveolens
  3. Carthamus tinctorius
  4. Carum carvi
  5. Coriandrum sativum
  6. Cuminum cyminum
  7. Foeniculum vulgare
  1. Laurus nobilis
  2. Lavandula multifida
  3. Nigella sativa
  4. Origanum majorona
  5. Rosmarinus officinalis
  6. Sinapsis alba
  7. Thymus capitatus

Forage plants

  1. Acacia radiana
  2. Acacia tortilus
  3. Anthyllus sericea lagasca Sp
  4. Arthrophytum schimittianum
  5. Asragalus tenuifolius
  6. Atriplex halimus
  7. Calligonum comosum
  8. Ceratoniza siliqua
  9. Dactylus glomerata
  10. Ebenus pinnata
  1. Gymnocarpos decander
  2. Hedysarum carnosum
  3. Lotus creticus
  4. Medicago sativa L. ssp tenatina
  5. Rhantherium suaveolens
  6. Salsola vermiculata
  7. Stipa parviflora
  8. Stipa tenecissima
  9. Teragnnolobus purpureus
  10. Ziziphus lotus

Honey plants

  1. Acacia cyanophylla
  2. Alnus glutinosa
  3. Arbutus unedo
  4. Arbutus unedo
  5. Artemisia herba alba
  6. Borago officinalis
  7. Clematis flammula
  8. Erica arborea
  9. Erica multiflora
  10. Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  11. Eucalyptus gomphocephala
  1. Genista tricuspidata
  2. Hedera helix
  3. Lavandula stoechas
  4. Lavandula stoechas
  5. Melilotus macrocarpa
  6. Opuntia ficus indica
  7. Populus alba
  8. Rosmarinus officinalis
  9. Smilax aspera
  10. Thymus capitatus

Plants used as a source for dyes

  1. Lawsonia inermis L.
  2. Punica granatum L.
  3. Opuntia Ficus indica L.
  1. Alkanna tinctoria Tausch.
  2. Rubia tinctorium Bouquet.

Toxic plants

  1. Atractylis gummifera L.
  2. Atropa belladona L.
  3. Bryonia dioica Jacq.
  4. Citrullus colocyntis Schard
  5. Datura stramonium L.Ecballium elaterium Rich.
  1. Hyosyamus niger L.
  2. Mercurialis annua L.
  3. Nerium oleander L.
  4. Ricinus communus L.

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