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International Development Strategy (IDS), including Regional and National Development.

87. The Conference discussed this part of the item on the basis of the full text of Resolution 35/56 as adopted by the United Nations General Assembly setting out the International Development Strategy for the Third UN Development Decade, and of the Secretariat document "Regional and National Development Strategies, Some Selected Issues for the 1980s". The Conference appreciated the role of the Organization in promoting the greater emphasis given to the sector in the new IDS as compared with the Strategy for the previous decade.

88. The Conference noted that these two papers were complementary: the IDS set out the agreed global frame of goals and approaches, while the FAO document examined prominent issues in food and agriculture which would have to be tackled at national and regional levels for the global objectives to be met.

89. The Conference reaffirmed the crucial importance of the success of the IDS and expressed its strong support for its objectives and goals. Some members pointed out that too often in the past, desirable targets had been agreed to by the international community, but the hopes thus raised had then been dashed by the harsh actualities of experience. Members recalled in particular the World Food Conference goal of abolishing hunger within a decade. More recently a number of international conferences hat explored the requirements for improvement in economic and social conditions.

90. The Conference agreed with the stress laid by the new IDS on the key role of food and agriculture in improving the quality of life and raising the economic growth of developing countries.

91. The Conference stressed that action was now essential. Indeed, the new decade had got off to a slow start with gross domestic product in most developing countries rising at rates well below the overall target of a 7 percent annual increase for the decade as a whole. This lag would need to be made up. Attainment of the overall growth target and the target of 4 percent annual growth in agricultural production would require not only a major effort on the part of developing countries to mobilize internal resources and put them to use efficiently but also a strong commitment on the part of the international community, particularly developed countries to create an international environment in full support of those efforts. The developing countries accepted that the main responsibility for achieving a faster economic growth and self-reliance fell on them, but for success they needed the cooperation of all countries in meeting this responsibility.

92. The Conference affirmed its support for the core of action at the international level as defined in the food and agricultural component of the IDS. Amongst the key components, special emphasis was generally put in the improvement in access to external markets for the agricultural exports of developing countries, including processed products, attainment of the targets for financial, technical and food assistance, with a larger share being allocated to agriculture; and the strengthening of international arrangements, at present very limited, for food security. Some members also pointed to the potential addition to resources available for agricultural development which could come from a limitation on expenditure on armaments.

93. The Conference welcomed the Summary by the Co-Chairmen of the International Meeting on Cooperation and Development held at Cancún, Mexico, concerning global negotiations and the contribution it could make to translate the IDS into concrete action at the international level. In view of its contributions to the formulation and elaboration of international, regional and national development strategies for food and agricultural development, the Conference considered that the global negotiations as and when they are launched should make appropriate use of FAO's wide range of expertise and experience.

94. The Conference noted that its next session would have the opportunity to consider how FAO might best contribute to the UN Review and Appraisal of DD3 scheduled for 1984. Members noted that since the IDS was a guide for action, it would be appropriate for the Organization to give its views to the UN in accordance with paragraph 175 of the IDS on the reasons for successes and failures in reaching the objectives of the Strategy.

95. Action at the international level could provide a framework for more effective action to be taken at national and regional levels. The Conference believed that the issues and proposals in the Secretariat document 1/ were generally in line with the priorities of the IDS and that their implementation would contribute to the realization of the goals and objectives of the Strategy. By their very nature, most problems related to agricultural and rural development and increased food production would have to be tackled at the country level. National approaches to such problems must take full cognizance of the stage of development of the country. The Conference stressed that it was essential that national policies took an integrated approach to agricultural and rural development Any improvement achieved under a piecemeal approach was only too likely to be at the cost of worsening other problems.

96. The Conference noted the special problems which were faced by small developing islands and by land-locked countries in their efforts to accelerate rural and agricultural development. The UN International Development Strategy for the Third Development Decade recognised the need for special efforts to offset major handicaps faced by these countries due to special geographical and economic constraints as well as frequency of natural disasters. The Conference urged upon the international community and donor countries to adopt special measures that would enable these countries to overcome obstacles which they faced in their efforts to accelerate their rural and agricultural development.

97. The Conference agreed that the issues selected for examination in document C 81/22 included some of the most critical of those faced by developing countries in carrying out their food and agricultural development strategies. It stressed, however, that technical issues must always be examined within their socio-economic context and that national strategies must be related to the stage of development of the country concerned. The sharing of information on experience by countries at similar stages of development could help them to formulate more effective strategies. Is was also felt that learning from the early experience of countries which were more developed could also provide useful information.

98. The dominant theme in the discussion by the Conference was the need to focus on increasing food production, especially in low-income food deficit countries. Production-oriented strategies remained of the highest priority and should be conceived within the framework of overall development planning which included goals of social equity. Countries should review all policies affecting agriculture and give due importance to the strengthening of national planning capabilities.

99. The Conference noted that many countries enjoyed considerable potential for increasing food production. Choices, however, must be made between commodities for domestic consumption as against those for exports as well as between production of agricultural raw materials, including biomass for commercial energy, and food commodities. In most developing countries priority must be given to expanding production of the basic food crops, and in particular of cereals, but the specific situation of the country must always be taken into account. While a high degree of self-sufficiency in food grains constituted the basic objective of most national food strategies in developing countries, the potential of the livestock sector in solving food problems, particularly in Africa, was also stressed. In this connection, the control of animal diseases, such as trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases in Africa, was considered to be of central importance for the livestock strategy.

100. The Conference emphasized the importance of concentrating much of the development efforts on small farmers, both because of their significant share in total output in many countries and because they constitute the majority of the rural poor. The Conference stressed the important role of farmers associations and cooperatives and reiterated its support for the WCARRD Programme of Action and the need for its speedy implementation. There must be full participation of rural people, including women, in the institutions whose activities could so largely contribute to development.

101. The importance of providing farmers with packages of appropriate technology and the credit to purchase such inputs as fertilizers was noted as well as the related reed of strengthening national agricultural research and extension. Progress was critically dependent on the wider dissemination of known technologies. Such technologies must be spread to more farmers in a greater number of countries and over a wider range of crops and livestock production. These efforts should be backed up by vigorous location-specific research by national institutions supported by international organizations and research networks. Conference recognized the increasing difficulties developing countries were experiencing because of the constant rise in current expenditure associated with the necessary expansion of public services infrastructure.

102. The importance of low-cost technology for the development of crop and dairy farming, the up-grading of equipment or tools for cultivation, improved management of soil and water, including prevention of waterlogging and salinity, ant evolution of appropriate cropping patterns, including exploitation of untapped cropping potential, were all emphasized by the Conference. Irrigation development must encompass rehabilitation of existing schemes as well as the expansion of new small-scale works. Long-term development strategies would also need to include, where appropriate, large-scale irrigation projects despite the heavy capital investment which was involved.

103. The preparation of cost-effective projects in food and agriculture with a greater degree of people's participation, as well as commitment of external resources for financing not only investment costs but also recurrent and local costs in low income developing countries, was critical for the implementation of the national development strategy. FAO's role in extending assistance to Member Nations in all these important areas, as well as in preparing cost effective projects for external financing, was highlighted.

104. The Conference was informed that FAO, studies had shown that given the imperative need for faster growth in output there was no alternative to the modernization of production technology for sufficiently higher yields to be obtained and one of the key inputs involved was fertilizer. Furthermore, in a period of energy shortages or high costs, it was essential for agricultural uses of commercial energy to be assured. The Conference emphasized that at the same time increased attention should be given to the development of alternative or supplementary ways of improving and maintaining soil fertility, often relying on the use of various organic materials, as well as to measures for economy and improved efficiency in the use of inorganic fertilizers and other chemical inputs to production. Even with a high rate of increase of fertilizer application, rates in developing countries would still remain significantly below those in developed countries,

105. The Conference noted the central role of price policies in any strategy for increasing food production In many cases food price policies had favoured urban populations and had contributed to the undesirable acceleration of rural/urban migration. The Conference recognized, however, that developing countries faced a dilemma in regard to the pricing of food since their poor consumers could not pay high prices. Nevertheless, price relationships must be such as to stimulate production and where necessary they should be accompanied by special measures to protect the nutritional standards of the rural and urban poor. More efficient marketing and confidence as to the level and stability of future prices were also potent means of improving incentives to producers, particularly in view of the risks they faced in changing production techniques.

106. The Conference stressed the importance of training as an integral part of national and international strategies and some members thought that this issue was not given sufficient emphasis in the IDS or in the document on regional and national strategies. The improved production technologies which were the basis of higher yields demanded that farmers be able to make effective use of modern inputs.

107. The Conference underlined the need for a better production performance to be linked to improved distribution. Nowhere in the whole development process wee the importance of linkages greater than in the production - distribution - consumption, sequence. A development strategy, either national or international, which concentrated unduly on production could not lead to sustained growth and could not solve undernutrition. The dynamics of consumption must take account of changes such as urbanization and the influence of imported food which create new patterns of demand and thus have repercussions on domestic supply.

108. Realising that concepts of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries had been further evolved during the 1970s, the Conference stressed that these concepts needed to be translated into increasingly practical measures through viable programmes and projects. In addition to the expansion of trade amongst developing countries, in which agricultural commodities and production requisites could feature prominently, there were a number of other promising forms of economic and technical cooperation. These included the establishment of regional and inter-regional research networks for agricultural products, the promotion of joint ventures for the production and distribution of fertilizers, and the creation of regional food security schemes. Care must be taken that these activities were not inconsistent with national development strategies. Efforts to promote regional approaches should be extended also to small island economies.

109. The Conference believed that its discussion of regional and national development strategies of agricultural development had further emphasized the key role of external assistance for their implementation. While such resources were not large in comparison with those mobilized within the country, members referred to many instances in which they were the indispensable catalysts for increased production or improved nutrition. Finally, the Conference appealed to all contributors to IFAD to ensure that its funds were immediately replenished.

110. The Conference accordingly adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 3/81



Noting with concern that IFAD funds have not yet been replenished,

Noting also the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 35/36 on the International Development Strategy for the Third UN Development Decade which inter alia urged the replenishment of IFAD resources by the end of 1980,

Stressing that IFAD is the only financing institution within the United Nations system entirely oriented towards assisting agricultural and rural development projects,

Appreciating the impact of the projects financed by IFAD on food production and rural development in developing countries,

Recognizing with appreciation the increasing collaboration between FAO and IFAD and the effective support given by FAO's Investment Centre for the preparation of projects for financing by IFAD

Urges the Member States of IFAD to take urgent steps to finalize the agreement on the replenishment of IFAD resources before the end of 1981 and thus assure the continuity of its operations.

(Adopted 24 November 1981)

D. Energy in agriculture and rural development

111. The Conference recognized that, although the use of commercial energy in agriculture was at present relatively small, it was of crucial importance. Moroever, to achieve the desirable rates of growth in crop and livestock production, large increases in the use of commercial energy and energy intensive inputs would be required in developing countries. The Conference recommended that the energy needs for agriculture in developing countries be assured.

112. Noting the rising costs of fossil fuels and of related agricultural inputs, the Conference stressed that efforts should be made to ensure Fret efficiency in the use of fertilizers, pesticides, mechanical equipment. and water lifting devices.

113. The Conference emphasized the need to make more effective use of locally available and renewable resources, such as the recycling of organic matter, biological nitrogen fixation, small-scale hydropower, draught animals, biogas and the application of solar and wind energy in agriculture, fisheries and forestry.

114. The Conference expressed general support of the Nairobi Programme of Action on new and renewable sources of energy and particularly welcomed the priority given to rural energy, and requested FAO to assist member countries in the implementation of the Programme of Action.

115. The Conference noted that in some countries there was an increasing interest in energy cropping, based upon sugar cane, maize and cassava. The Conference recognized that energy cropping in agriculture needed to be approached with caution so as not to endanger food supplies, or lead to an increase in prices, as this could have a detrimental effect on world food security. In this connexion, it was stressed that, to the maximum extent possible, energy cropping should aim at utilizing non-food crops and/or agricultural waste. It was recognized, however, that decisions in this respect should be based on the resources available in the countries concerned. It was considered useful that FAO monitor the developments in this field.

116. The Conference emphasized the unique importance of wood as a source of energy for rural people and for most of the urban poor in developing countries. Considering the increasing number of people living under fuel wood shortages, the Conference recognized the priority attention required by the fuel wood crisis and the vital links between fuel wood land use, the maintenance of environmental stability for continued food and crop production, and rural development.

117. The Conference stressed that action is urgently needed to restore or increase fuelwood supplies, particularly through accelerated tree planting, preferably based on multipurpose and fast-growing species. The objectives of the Nairobi Programme of Action in this respect were fully endorsed. In addition, emphasis was placed on the need to tackle the fuel wood problem within the context of an integrated approach to forestry which encompasses all the contributions of forests and trees to rural development and to environmental stability; the active participation of rural people in benefits as welt as in efforts, was viewed as essential.

118. The Conference emphasized the need to relate the contribution of wood energy to long-term world wood balances and to multi-purpose forestry for rural development; this could be reviewed within the Committee of Forestry. Some important aspects were also stressed, such as the role of women, the improvement of conversion technologies and the use of forestry and agricultural residues. Attention was also drawn to the need for rationalization of the exploitation of forestry resources and the marketing of fuelwood The Conference recommended that priority he attached to FAO programmes in these areas which already largely incorporate the recommendation: of the Nairobi. Programme of Action.

119. The Conference noted that. some countries were already providing special support to FAO programmes. related to fuelwood and forestry through trust funds and urged other potential donors to do the same.

120. The Conference took note of the experience gained in different countries in the development of new and renewable sources of energy. It was recommended that FAO should promote the exchange of information and experience and that, with regard to developing countries, a TCDC approach should be encouraged.

121. The Conference expressed its support for the cooperative network on rural energy which had been set up ill the European region. It was felt that the benefits of this programme could also be extended to developing countries through the transfer of appropriate technologies.

122. The Conference emphasized the need to develop overall national. energy policies.. taking into account varying conditions in different countries. It stressed that each country would need to adopt a selective approach so as to develop the most appropriate new and renewable sources of energy in the light of its situation and its requirements for rural development.

123. The Conference stressed that aspects of environmental conservation and of economic feasibility should be taken into account in the planning and development of new and renewable sources of energy so that short-term gains would not out-weigh long-term needs.

124. The Conference endorsed the priority on energy which the Director-General had proposed in his 1982-83 Programme of Work The Conference noted that within FAO, activities related to energy. will be coordinated through the lnter-departmental Working Group on Natural Resources and the Human Environment. The Conference recommended that, within the framework of the Nairobi Programme of Action, FAO take a lead in identifying needs and problems and in promoting appropriate action related to rural energy.

125. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 4/81



Recognizing the several functions the forests fulfill., such as the supply of wood for fuel and building materials, shelter, land stabilization, water quality enhancement and forest ecological, reserves,

Noting that the consumption of wood in the world is rapidly increasing,

Recognizing that the ongoing deforestation, in particular in tropical areas, threatens to destroy the productive capacity of soils and the ecological balance in general,

Nothing with concern that the available forest resources in the world are rapidly decreasing,

Stressing the fact that timely planning for long-term objectives is essential for forestry to meet future needs,

Noting that many communities already suffer from the lack of the most basic products and other benefits from the forests,

Noting that much gain can be obtained by the development of community forest areas and village forestry programmes,

Considering the socio-economic importance of the involvement of the local population in solving the problems of wood supply and particularly fuel wood,

Noting that the guidelines established by the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development emphasize the key role of forestry in rural development,

Noting that "there will be food as long as there are forests",

Recognizing the leading role of FAO within the United Nations system in forestry, primary forestry industries and rural development,

1. Calls upon Governments to take into account the key role of forestry in rural development and to devise and pursue policies to preserve the environmental and ecological heritage, so that resources of nature are used wisely by the present generation and handed down to posterity;

2. Supports the Director-General's Forestry Strategy for Development which is designed to assist Member Nations in giving full weight to the key role of forestry in rural development, with special reference to the conservation and regeneration of species important to all people.

(Adopted 24 November 1981)

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