VI. Activities and programmes of the organization
A. Programme of work and budget 1980-81
B. Review of the regular programme 1978-79
C. Review of field programmes
D. Medium-term objectives
E. Technical and economic cooperation among developing countries
F. Action arising out of the world conference on agrarian reform and rural development (WCARRD)
G. Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development
H. Relations and consultations with international organizations
A. Programme of work and budget 1980-81
Special action programmes
Level of the budget
Chapter 1: general policy and direction
Chapter 2: technical and economic programmes
Chapter 3: development support programme
Chapter 4: technical cooperation programme (TCP)
Chapter 5: support services
Chapter 6: common services
Chapter 7: contingencies
144. The Conference recalled its endorsement, at its Nineteenth Session, of the Director-General's proposals for a new dimension of and a new orientation of the work of the Organization.
145. Foremost among the concerns of the Conference had been the implementation of a New International Economic Order, the urgent and concrete requirements of all Member Nations, the pressing needs of developing countries, steps towards an appropriate decentralization of FAO and the greater use of national institutions.
146. The Conference noted that the Council at its Seventy-fifth Session had agreed that the strategies and priorities proposed by the Director-General in his Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1980-81 were fully in accordance with the world situation and previous policy guidance by the Council and Conference.
147. The Council at its Seventy-fifth Session had further agreed that the proposals followed the policies laid down in 1976 with regard to decentralization to the country level, the increasing use of consultants and especially of national institutions in the implementation of programmes, including Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC) and the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP). They provided a larger proportional increase to activities in the field, including a small increase in the TCP, than for Headquarters.
148. The Conference further noted that the Council, at its Seventy-sixth Session, had agreed that the full Programme of Work and Budget followed the strategies and priorities previously endorsed by the Council and had transmitted the Director-General's proposals in their entirety for approval to the Conference.
149. With this background in mind and taking into account the views expressed by members during its current session, the Conference unanimously approved the policies, strategies, programmes, priorities and actions proposed by the Director-General for 1980-81.
150. The Conference noted with approval that the Council bad authorized the
Programme and Finance Committees to study a certain degree of duplication in various major
Conference documents at their sessions in 1980. The Council then would be able to take
151. The Conference further noted with approval that the Director-General had applied the zero-based budgeting approach in his examination of all programmes at programme element level in the preparation of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget and the derivation therefrom of the full Programme of Work and Budget. The Director-General had thereby taken full advantage of opportunities to shift resources among Programmes and Sub-Programmes, which had contributed to an improved allocation of base resources in the preparation of the Programme of Work and Budget for 1980-81.
152. The Conference reaffirmed the basic importance of decentralization and considered that the Programme of Work and Budget proposed by the Director-General for 1980-31 appropriately applied and extended this policy in all its important aspects.
153. It therefore endorsed the proposals of the Director-General to continue with the process of decentralization, and in particular: the increase of FAO Representatives to 62 in the biennium 1980-81; the increase in resources in 1980-81 for the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP); the stress on TCDC, and the increased use of consultants and national institutions of those countries.
Special action programmes
154. The Conference endorsed the validity and effectiveness of the Special Action Programmes including those for Food Security, Prevention of Food Losses, Trypanosomiasis, Exclusive Economic Zones, Fertilizer, Seeds, the Control of the Desert Locust and other pests, and Rural Development.
155. As regards the FAO/UNDP programme, action had been taken in 1979 to overcome problems in the approval and implantation of projects. Consequently the value of delivery of operational programmes for 1980 and 1981 was expected to reach respectively $150-155 million and $170-180 million.
156. It was however noted that, notwithstanding this increase, delivery in real terms would only be equivalent roughly to the delivery level of 1975. The Conference expressed concern that FAO's share of the UNDP programme continued to decline and requested the Director-General to keep the matter under close review in consultation with the Administrator of UNDP.
157. Tentative forecasts indicated that the total biennial 1980-81 figure for activities financed from non-UNDP extra-budgetary resources would reach $178 million, an increase of about 10 percent per annum over the expected Trust Fund delivery of $148.4 million for the biennium 1978-79. The Conference welcomed this upward trend and was confident that FAO could continue its excellent work in executing field programmes of development assistance for the benefit of developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, and the most seriously affected.
158. The Conference also fully supported efforts to obtain additional extra-budgetary resources for the Special Action Programmes for the Prevention of Food Losses, Food Security, Fertilizer Supply, Meat and Milk Development, Exclusive Economic Zones, Trypanosomiasis, and Seed Improvement and Development, and called upon member states to contribute generously.
159. In the light of the urgent requirements, the proven effectiveness of FAO's operational programmes, the need for follow-up of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) and the implications of the Programme of Action adopted by United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD), the Conference called upon Member Governments to re-examine their policies concerning extra-budgetary contributions to FAO and to increase them significantly in the next biennium and beyond.
Level of the budget
160. The Conference generally recognized the proposed budget level was the logical consequence of its unanimous endorsement of the Director-General's proposed policies, strategies, programmes, and priorities. While being desirous of increasing the provision for a number of priority programmes, some members suggested that selective reductions could be made in administrative areas and/or in costs.
161. On the other hand, the Conference noted with concern that since the budget had been prepared, the Organization had been called upon to respond to heavy new programme demands. These included in particular the follow-up to WCARRD and to UNCSTD. In addition, inflation had notably accelerated since the original cost estimates had been prepared, as a result of which the cost estimates were now considerably underbudgeted in the base used for 1980-81. Thus it would be difficult to contain the cost increases even at a higher level than now included in the Programme of Work and Budget.
162. The very great majority of members considered therefore that the budget level in relation to the needs of developing countries and FAO's capability in meeting those needs, should have been higher. The proposed level had been considered by the Director-General to provide the best balance between the various considerations involved and represented the absolute minimum required to implement the approved programme.
163. As regards the question of the rate to be used, the Conference noted that the lira had risen to 820 to the US dollar as compared to 879 used previously in calculating the Programme of Work and Budget. Recalling previous Conference practice of revaluing the budget at the prevailing rate, the Conference decided to revalue the budget at 820 to the US dollar and approve a total budget level at the rate of $319 020 000, and to adopt the following revised Appropriations Resolution:
BUDGETARY APPROPRIATIONS 1980-81
Having considered the Director-General's Programme of Work and Budget and the conclusions of its Commissions,
Approves the Programme of Work proposed by the Director-General for 1980-81;
Resolves that for the financial period 1980-81:
1. Appropriations are voted for the following purposes:
|Chapter I - General Policy and Direction||22 125 000|
|Chapter 2 - Technical and Economic Programmes||125 393 000|
|Chapter 3 - Development Support Programmes||40 168 000|
|Chapter 4 - Technical Cooperation Programme||32 638 000|
|Chapter 5 - Support Services||45 209 000|
|Chapter 6 - Common Services||12 607 000|
|Chapter 7 - Contingencies||600 000|
|Total effective working budget||278 740 000|
|Chapter 8 - Transfer to Tax Equalization Fund||40 280 000|
|Total Appropriations (Gross)||319 020 000|
2. The appropriations (gross) voted in paragraph 1, shall be financed by assessments on Member Nations, after deduction of Miscellaneous Income in the amount of $7 600 000, thus resulting in assessments against Member Nations of $311 420 000;
3. In establishing the actual amounts of contributions to be paid by individual Member Nations, the assessment of each Member Nation shall be reduced by any amount standing to its credit in the Tax Equalization Fund provided that the credit of a Member Nation that levies taxes on the salaries, emoluments and indemnities received from FAO by staff members shall, be reduced by the estimated amounts of such taxes to be reimbursed to the staff member by FAO;
4. The contributions due from Member Nations in 1980 and 1981 shall be paid in accordance with the scale adopted by the Conference at its Twentieth Session, which contributions, after the deduction of amounts standing to the credit of Member Nations in the Tax Equalization Fund, result in net amounts payable totaling $274 535 000 as set out in Appendix E to this Report.
(Adopted 28 November 1979)
Chapter 1: general policy and direction
164. The Conference approved the modest programme increases in this chapter, which provided mainly for full Arabic documentation in the Conference, Council, Programme and Finance Committees.
165. The Conference noted the greatly increased requirements for inter-agency liaison arising from the restructuring of the Economic and Social Sectors of the UN system, which inter alia required the establishment of a new FAO representation in Geneva, the cost of which would be more than offset by reductions in New York.
166. Some members suggested that further reductions could be made in meetings, documents and publications; priority should however continue for the production of material which would facilitate the transfer of science and technology to developing countries.
Chapter 2: technical and economic programmes
167. The Conference was informed of a number of issues relevant to the implementation of a number of programmes.
168. Four themes had emerged to which the Conference wished to call attention. These were:
(1) the impact which all forms of energy (new sources of energy, production of energy by agriculture) might have on agricultural and rural development, especially in the least developed countries (LDC) and most seriously affected countries (MSA);
(2) the special plight of several relatively less advantaged target groups including poor farmers, low income workers, and rural women;
(3) the critical need to bridge the gap between actual and potential levels of food production;
(4) the generation of opportunities for gainful employment in rural areas.
(i) Programme 2.1.1. - Natural Resources
169. The Conference endorsed the proposals in the Natural Resources Programme and approved the increase which was proposed.
170. The Conference supported the work on rehabilitation of existing irrigation and drainage schemes and the extension of irrigation areas, irrigation studies and the improvement of water management at the farm level.
171. The Conference noted that FAO's role in remote sensing activities was mainly of a catalytic nature, bringing together the needs of developing countries and the availability of technical data from developed country sources. It considered that remote sensing techniques were extremely valuable in surveying and evaluating natural resources as a basis for agricultural forestry and fisheries development.
172. The Conference noted the importance of activities on genetic resources in plants, animals, fisheries and forestry. It approved the shift in resources between and within sub-programmes proposed by the Director-General and endorsed the emphasis in the programme on field activities, training, investment orientation and the increase in food production at the small farmers level.
173. It further emphasized the importance of soil conservation, and the more effective use of fertilizers and urged donors to augment the resources of the International Fertilizer Supply Scheme.
174. The Conference expressed concern over soil erosion and land degradation and agreed that high priority should be given to this Programme.
175. It was suggested that energy conservation and management, especially of renewable inanimate and biological sources, should find explicit recognition among the activities referred to in the programme.
(ii) Programme 2.1.2. - Crops
176. The Conference endorsed the proposals of the Director-General in this programme.
177. In particular, it emphasized seed production and welcomed the support given by the Committee of the Whole of the UN General Assembly to this activity and for the $20 million target for contributions to the Seed Improvement Development Programme (STDP).
178. The Conference also emphasized that increased priority should be given to food crops and horticulture, and to activities involving increased production and improved quality of both rainfed and irrigated rice. It felt that work on other grains as well as tuber crops should not however be neglected. It was also suggested that industrial and cash crops should receive adequate attention.
179. The Conference placed high priority on the Prevention of Food Losses (PFL) and called upon member countries and other donors to increase their extra-budgetary contributions to ensure that the agreed targets of $20 million for the Special Account could be met and that FAO's action programme could proceed on an assured and continuing basis.
180. The Conference supported the Programme for Desert Locust Control,
including the proposed priorities, shifts in emphasis and budget increases and expressed
FAO's prompt and effective action in this area.
181. The Conference endorsed a selective approach towards mechanization in farming. It noted with approval the studies in progress on the relationships between energy and agriculture and the identification of alternative sources of energy for developing countries but stressed the need for further efforts in this area.
182. It welcomed the network of national institutions in applied research in the
Asia and Pacific Region and the cooperation with the United Nations Industrial Development
(UNIDO) on small-scale industries, as an essential component in rural development.
(iii) Programme 2.1.3. - Livestock
183. The Conference gave full support to the Director-General's proposals for
Programme, which included increased stress on TCDC and national institutions.
184. It agreed that increased attention should be given not only to the preservation of animal genetic resources but also to assistance to countries in replenishing stocks which had been decimated and to the control of important animal diseases.
185. The Conference widely supported the Director-General's proposed Programme for the Control of African Trypanosomiasis, which would coordinate the various concerned units within FAO and would ensure close coordination with WHO, OAU, and other interested organizations, agencies and institutions.
186. The Conference also emphasized other animal health activities and noted with approval the present and proposed work on African Swine Fever in response to the spread of this disease in Latin America and the general need to strengthen emergency disease-control methods at the sub-regional level.
187. The Conference considered that more priority should be given to the production of poultry, sheep, goats and other small animals, as recommended by WCARRD.
188. The Conference agreed that the schemes for International Meat Development and the Coordination of Dairy Development, as well as the Artificial Insemination and Breeding Programme, which had recently been evaluated, should be continued. It took note with appreciation of the extra-budgetary resources which had already been contributed to these schemes and called for the provision of adequate extra-budgetary support for integrated rural poultry development, to which it gave high priority.
(iv) Programme 2.1.4. - Research Support
189. Concern was expressed about the low volume of research support in Latin America. It was noted that the figures for extra-budgetary funds reflected, in large measure, the decision made by countries in the course of country programming. More emphasis should be given however to this region.
190. The Conference endorsed the support provided in the programme to the Technical Advisory Committee to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), as well as the activities of the Research Development Centre which strengthened national research capability and provided the focal point for the research support activities of the organization. These were emphasized in all technical programmes.
191. The Conference supported the cooperative network system among European research institutions with which 15 developing countries were associated.
192. The Conference approved the inclusion of agricultural application of isotope research among the priority programmes.
193. It approved the continuing activities of CARIS (Current Agricultural Research Information System) on a decentralized basis at regional and national levels. It was requested that in the regions where decentralization could not at present take place, coordination work should continue to be carried out at Headquarters.
194. The Conference recognized the relevance of programme 2.1.4 to the follow-up of the UN Conference on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) and noted with satisfaction that the Director-General had established an Ad Hoc Working Group to advise him on follow-up action.
(v) Programme 2.1.5. - Rural Development
195. The Conference approved the strategies, priorities and activities proposed for rural development and welcomed the increased allocation made to it for 1980-81. Some members felt that this was not however sufficient to match the demands for follow-up of WCARRD.
196. The Conference agreed that the Declaration of Principles and Programme of Action as adopted by WCARRD provided a framework for national and international policies to improve nutrition, to eradicate rural poverty, to attain growth with equity and achieve a greater degree of people's participation in development. There was unanimous support for the crucial role of FAO in these objectives.
197. The Conference emphasized that the objectives and strategies of WCARRD represented a consistent set of general guidelines for specific programmes at the country level which should take into account the goals, limitations and specific situations of each country concerned.
198. The Conference welcomed the designation, in the WCARRD Programme of Action, of FAO as the lead agency within the United Nations System to provide follow-up to the World Conference. It was recognized that effective cooperation had already been achieved by the members of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development in their joint activities.
199. The Conference noted with satisfaction the formal establishment of the Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific and moves to establish similar centres for the Africa, Latin America and Near East regions, and stressed that FAO should provide the technical assistance required by these centres and their associated national centres to enable them to function effectively.
200. The Conference emphasized the need for appropriate technology and adequate services, marketing and credit, particularly for small farmers, and the crucial importance of training.
201. The crucial importance of Women in Rural Development was stressed, particularly as rural women were often also farm producers and operated elements of the marketing/processing chain. It was felt that national programmes for rural women should be fully supported, together with training of women in village extension services, and that more attention should be given to national rural youth programmes.
202. The Conference reaffirmed the importance of agricultural education, extension and training. Since training was a part of most FAO programmes, it was emphasized that there was a need to coordinate these activities both within FAO and in countries. It noted that this had been started within FAO by the Inter-Departmental Working Group on Training. it was suggested that this Working Group might also examine the adequacy of on-going efforts in training at the levels of (a) policy formulation, (b) task implementation, and (c) farmers and fishermen. While a very high majority of field projects already had education, extension or training components, the follow-up to WCARRD would require an even greater emphasis on those in rural communities.
203. The Conference recognized the need for the exercise of discretion by the Director-General in making any necessary readjustments to ensure adequate flexibility in pursuing the mandate of WCARRD.
(vi) Programme 2.1.6. - Nutrition
204. The Conference approved the increased emphasis given to this programme, reflecting a higher priority for nutrition, and noted that resources were proposed to allow for a larger scale response to country requests for assistance, toward the formulation and implementation of national nutrition policies and programmes.
205. The Conference emphasized the need for integration of nutrition with agricultural and rural development and for further work on the methodologies for the introduction of nutritional considerations in agricultural and rural development policies and projects.
206. The Conference expressed its concern at the low level of extra-budgetary resources in relation to the needs of developing countries, particularly with regard to Asia and the Pacific.
207. Particular emphasis was laid on the need to develop and use nutrition indicators to monitor progress in agrarian reform and rural development, as explicitly recommended by WCARRD.
208. The Conference stressed the need to strengthen the existing mechanisms
Secretariat to ensure that nutritional objectives were incorporated and effectively pursued in FAO's planning and execution of agricultural programmes and projects.
209. The Conference also agreed that continued emphasis should be given to training and education for nutrition at all levels, and welcomed the introduction of nutrition in the curricula of educational institutions, a process which would be further pursued through the ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition.
(vii) Programme 2. 1.7. - Food and Agricultural Information and Analysis
210. The Conference noted this programme included one of the mandatory activities of the organization and did not receive significant amounts of extra-budgetary resources.
211. It was felt however that the collection and analysis of statistics and other data, directed towards the requirements of member countries, on commodities, public expenditure and price supports in agriculture, food production and distribution was vital to the successful conduct of the Organization's activities. The Conference supported the proposals to strengthen the Global Information and Early Warning System.
(viii) Programme 2.1.8 - Food and Agricultural Policy
212. The Conference stressed the importance of action-oriented and country-focussed activities.
213. The Conference recognized that Agriculture: Toward 2000 would be highly
valuable in the formulation of FAO policies, in assistance to Member Nations and in the
formulation of a new
International Development Strategy.
214. It was felt that the Organization should continue to ensure that agricultural and rural development received due recognition in system-wide activities of the United Nations. How ever, as system-wide activities were increasing in scope and magnitude, it was emphasized that priority should be given to those activities which were of more concrete benefit to developing countries.
215. The Conference strongly supported the Director-General's Plan of Action on World Food Security and considered it should be pursued with vigour together with continued assistance especially to LDCs and MSAs under the Food Security Assistance Scheme.
216. High priority was also placed on policy and planning assistance as well as commodity support to countries, together with continued cooperative work in support of the UNCTAD Integrated Programme on Commodities.
(ix) Major Programme 2.2 - Fisheries
217. The priorities and general thrust of Major Programme 2.2 were supported by the Conference, which expressed its satisfaction with the manner in which the programme was being reoriented to meet the new challenges of fisheries development and management. The Conference in particular approved the organizational adjustments within the Fisheries Department, proposed by the Director-General so as to strengthen the Organization's capacity to provide advice on policy and planning.
218. The Conference noted that many countries had declared Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) or Extended Fishing Zones (EFZ) and that most of the world's fisheries were already or would soon come under the jurisdiction of coastal states.
219. The Conference agreed on the importance of FAO's Fisheries Programme
and approved the
Director-General's initiatives in this sector, especially in relation to the EEZS.
220. The Conference noted that the demand for fish as food was expected to double by the end of the century.
221. The Conference agreed that special efforts should be made in order to develop inland fisheries and aquaculture. Those countries which did not have the opportunity for marine fisheries should in particular be helped in developing inland fisheries within their overall rural development programmes.
222. The Conference recognized that the establishment of EEZs required increased cooperation among nations in managing and developing fisheries because of shared fish stocks and the scarcity of human and financial resources in the developing countries. Coastal countries would be responsible for conservation and management of the fishery resources as well as for their allocation and use in order to secure the maximum economic and social benefits.
223. The Conference noted that most developing coastal and island states needed additional knowledge and expertise to cope with these new responsibilities and welcomed the response of the Director-General to this new situation. It urged FAO to respond to the rapidly increasing requests from countries for assistance ranging from stock assessment to surveillance and enforcement. Interference by multinationals should be guarded against.
224. The Conference approved the Director-General's proposed programme to meet developing countries' needs arising out of the establishment of EEZs. The FAO programme would mainly be delivered through sub-regional and inter-regional field projects, and while UNDP would be expected to provide core funding, efforts should be made to find other sources of funding, including IFAD and OPEC as well as bilateral donors.
225. The Conference noted FAO's tentative estimate that a net investment of about $30 000 million would be required in developing coastal countries between now and the year 2000 to enable them to take advantage of fisheries development opportunities in their EEZs. The Conference agreed that FAO's programme of assistance would provide an essential basis for planning for, and justification of, these investments.
226. The Conference noted with satisfaction that the major beneficiaries of the FEZ programme would be the small-scale coastal fishermen. Large roving commercial fleets from distant waters should respect the sovereignty of coastal developing countries over their EEZs.
227. While the resources allocated to inland fisheries and aquaculture under the Regular Programme were comparatively small, the Conference endorsed the direction of the FAO aquaculture field programme at the country level, the Inter-Regional Aquaculture Coordination and Development Programme and regional projects such as the South China Sea Programme, which had aquaculture components.
228. In addition, the Conference noted that FAO had three active regional bodies exclusively devoted to inland fisheries, the Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa (CIFA), the Committee for Inland Fisheries of Latin America (COPESCAL), and the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC), as well as the Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission which was concerned both with marine and inland fisheries.
229. The Conference was satisfied that an appropriate balance was being maintained between marine and inland fisheries programmes.
230. The Conference noted that FAO would need to respond to a rising demand for assistance in formulating national policy and plans as well as regulations and legislation for fisheries management.
231. With regard to pollution and other environmental aspects which affected fish and fish habitats, the Conference considered that FAO had long been a leader in this field in collaborating with UNEP, WHO IMCO and IOC, and had participated in the Mediterranean Action Plan, and in projects in the Gulfs, South-East Asia and South-East Pacific, including counter measures against the immediate effects of oil- spills.
(x) Major Programme 2.3 - Forestry
232. The Conference agreed with the long-term goals of the Forestry Programme to increase the economic and social benefits derived from Forestry through emphasis on investment promotion and the evolution of dynamic management systems, harmonising human needs with environ mental balance.
233. The Conference welcomed the increased emphasis of the Forestry Programme on rural community development and agreed that afforestation should continue to receive priority, especially for fulwood production, the protection of watersheds and the control of desertification in arid zones. Attention was drawn to the need for holding meetings of the Working Party on Management of Mountain Watersheds.
234. The Conference agreed with the creation of a new programme, Forestry for Rural Development, for which resources had been provided by redeployment and transfers. This programme should have major bilateral support.
235. The Conference welcomed the increased emphasis on new approaches which integrated agro-silvo-pastoral practices into the overall forest management system.
236. The Conference endorsed the continuing activities, especially those aimed at the conservation and expansion of vegetative cover, the re-establishment of destroyed forests, the establishment of windbreaks and shelterbelts, the protection of soil and water, and the prevention and control of forest fires.
237. It was felt that training programmes should be continued with emphasis on improvements in curricula, teaching methods and closer institutional cooperation.
238. The Conference further endorsed the priority activities under the programmes of Forest Resources and Environment, Forest Investment and Institutions, and Forest Industries and Trade, in which the emphasis should continue to be placed on small-scale mills.