L. Possible joint Session of the United Nations Commission on International Commodity Trade and the Committee on Commodity Problems
110. The Conference was informed by the Director - General of the request addressed to him by the Secretary - General of the United Nations for the views of FAO on the holding of a joint session of the United Nations Commission on International Commodity Trade (CICT) and the Committee on Commodity Problems (CCP). The request arose from Resolution 726 (XXVIII) of the Economic and Social Council and envisaged a joint session of the CICT and CCP for the purpose of studying the first substantive report on prospective production of, and demand for, primary commodities. The Director - General, who had previously referred the matter also to the CCP at its Thirty - Second Session, had put the question to the Conference in order that he might take account of its views in his reply to the Secretary - General.
111. The Conference stressed the importance of maintaining and promoting the closest possible co - ordination between the CICT and the CCP 11 was noted that satisfactory arrangements already existed for close cooperation between the secretariats of the two bodies but that there would be advantages in further co - ordination by governments. The Conference considered that the holding of a joint session could help to strengthen co - operation, and hoped that such a joint session could be held in Rome on the occasion of a normal session of the CCP
112. The Conference, therefore, resolved as follows:
Resolution No. 12/59
Possible joint Session of CCP and CICT
Having taken note of resolution 726 (XXVIII) of the Economic and Social Council requesting the Secretary - General of the United Nations to seek the views of FAO on the subject of a joint session of the FAO Committee on Commodity Problems and the United Nations Commission on International Commodity Trade, for the purpose of studying the _first substantive report on prospective production of, and demand .for, primary commodities, and having noted also the communication on the subject addressed by the Undersecretary for Economic and Social Affairs to the Director - General of FAO ,Conscious of the importance of such studies of prospective Production of, and demand for, agricultural commodities, in order to assist governments in formulating their agricultural policies,
Conscious of the need fir the closest possible co - operation between the two bodies,
Considering that a joint session, if held under the conditions envisaged by the Committee on Commodity Problems in the Report of its Thirty - Second Session, could help to strengthen this co - operation,
Invites the Director - General
(a) to inform the Secretary - General of the United Nations that FAO is in favor of the holding of a Joint session of the two bodies, provided that the practical problems involved in the proposal are solved;
(b) to work out with the Secretary - Genera 1 the practical details for the convening of such a joint session, and particularly its provisional agenda; and to give further thought, at the same time, to the Possibility of including other questions of mutual interest to the two bodies;
Further invites the Director - General to consider ways of strengthening, within the approved budget of the Organization, FAO's studies on prospective Production of, and demand for, commodities.
M. Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign
113. The proposal for a Freedom - from Hunger Campaign, conceived by the Director - General and first sketched at the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in the summer of 1958, came before the Conference after subsequent consideration by the United Nations Administrative Co - ordinating Committee (ACC), the FAO Council, and the latter's ad hoc Committee. The proposal was endorsed by ECOSOC at its summer session in 1959.
114. The Conference noted that in spite of all the efforts of both governments and international organizations, particularly since the Second World War, for the relief of poverty in the world, progress had been very slow. Vast areas had not succeeded in escaping from the grip of stagnation at very low levels of economic development and many of the inhabitants still lived under conditions of want and malnourishment. The population of many countries was growing at a faster rate than in earlier periods, and gains attained in increased output and income tended to be offset by the pressure of increasing population. At the same time, the rapid agricultural and industrial progress in more highly developed countries, notably, in North America and Western Europe had demonstrated how greatly the application of scientific methods and the establishment of proper economic and social environment could multiply human productivity and increase food output; but this productive power in highly developed countries could not be fully used because of a lack of buying power among many potential consumers.
115. It was recognized that economic and agricultural conditions could not be radically transformed in a few years; yet, if a much more rapid tempo of development could be stimulated in the less developed parts of the world, it should help to break the stagnation and lead to sustained growth.
116. As indicated in the list of proposed background documents (set out in Appendix 11 of Doe. C 59/15), the Campaign would not only consider ways of increasing agricultural production and income and of raising buying power for food but also recognize the need for industrial development so as to increase purchasing power and ability to buy, food, especially in the less developed countries. These broad tasks would involve wider use of scientific methods, more purposeful reorientation of investment resources and the breaking of institutional bottlenecks that impede progress in many, countries. The improvement of nutrition as well would compose not only, the problem of providing more and better food but also the social implications of better nutrition for various groups such as farmers and fishermen. Besides the fundamental efforts of national governments themselves, active co - operation would be needed from the United Nations and its specialized agencies and from all citizen groups devoted to humanitarian ideals. The Campaign would thus serve to promote a climate of opinion throughout the world in which the problems of hunger and want would be faced realistically, their causes analyzed objectively, and appropriate remedies boldly and courageously applied.
117. As presented to the Conference, the proposed campaign covered four categories of work: (i) information and education; (ii) research; (iii) national action programs; and (iv) FAO guidance and technical assistance to bilateral programs, when requested.
118. In the informational and educational phase, basic background papers were to be prepared by FAO and other co - operating international organizations. With these studies as background information, a world wide debate would need to be conducted with the aid of, and through, all the relevant nongovernmental organizations and citizens groups, with a view to clarifying what needed to be done and to developing a climate of informed public opinion to support and insist upon the necessary action at all levels. The nongovernmental organizations would also help to raise funds for carrying on the effort and for helping to finance the national programs themselves, and would be invited to participate in a World Food Congress in 1963.
119. Research programs included specific investigations in individual countries or regions to establish the basis for future action. These research programs would help to clear the way for specific action projects based upon them, as indicated below.
120. In the less developed countries, the national action programs would include specific projects requested by individual governments or regional groups of governments. These projects would be financed in part by grants from the organizations raising the funds, or by FAO from funds contributed for the Campaign, or by foundations, international financing institutions, or other sources. The action projects would thus reinforce the efforts under way in countries to increase production, improve distribution, or take other specific steps toward freeing people from hunger and malnutrition. Much of the success of the Campaign would thus depend upon the steps taken by individual countries themselves to develop such projects and to secure and to arrange financing for them from their own or outside resources.
121. In the FAO guidance and technical assistance phase direct help would be provided to both country and regional research and action programs established in consequence of the Campaign. This assistance would be given only upon the request of the countries conducting the projects or of the organizations providing funds for them. Through that phase, FAO could help, when requested, in the selection, formulation, and implementation of action projects, even where the funds for such projects were granted directly from the donor organization to the recipient country.
122. The broad general lines of the Director - General's proposal received unanimous support during the Conference's discussions. The less developed countries stressed particularly the direct help which national action projects, if adequately financed, could give them in coping with the problem. The more highly developed countries recognized the importance of this phase but also stressed the importance of the educational and informational phase as tending to create a wide appreciation of the measures that needed to be taken to move toward freedom from hunger, and of the basic objectives for which FAO had been created, thus promoting a spirit of re - dedication of the Organization and its members to the achievement of those objectives, and making the people in all member countries more aware of FAO's work; and they also stressed the need for a far wider understanding and support of the objectives and activities of the Organization, as well as of other international organizations concerned with related aspects of the problems involved.
123. The Conference felt, after a thorough debate, that the title suggested by the Director - General, " Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign, " was the best English title: it conveyed the sense of urgency and would attract widespread support, yet it recognized that the entire problem could not be solved in one limited period. It was agreed that this title could not be precisely translated into other languages, and that each country would select the title that best conveyed the spirit of the campaign; and in French and Spanish the titles would be " Campagne mondiale contre la faim" and " Campaņa Mundial contra el Hambre. "
124. The broad lines set forth by the Director - General for the organization of the Campaign were generally supported. This included an advisory campaign committee of governments, an advisory conference of co - operating nongovernmental organizations, and appropriate national bodies in each country. Appreciation was expressed for the tentative arrangements for co - operation which had already been established with the United Nations, other related international organizations and the specialized agencies, and for their co - ordination through ACC; and also for the expressions of support conveyed by representatives of those organizations and of a number of nongovernmental organizations attending the Session. Appreciation was also expressed for the efforts already made toward raising funds for the same purpose as this Campaign by church groups, both in Austria and in Germany, and for the initial contribution to FAO for the campaign already pledged by the Catholic Bishops of Germany out of funds so raised.
125. With respect to methods of financing the Campaign, it was stressed by a number of delegations that the cost of the additional staff work by FAO on the central conduct of the programs should be carried in the Organization's regular program and budget as soon as possible, inasmuch as the Campaign would largely constitute an expansion of FAO's activities for the attainment of its recognized basic objectives. The Conference agreed that the leadership in the program should be maintained in FAO, as the principal agency dealing with these problems in the United Nations family of agencies. The need for setting up a special campaign trust fund for voluntary contributions with a view to broadening the activities in this field was also generally agreed. It was recognized that it was impracticable to raise the 1960 - 61 budget, and that reliance would have to be placed on voluntary contributions from all potential sources, including governments, nongovernmental organizations, religious groups, foundations and other appropriate bodies, to provide for additional FAO staff and action and research programs in 1960 - 61. A number of delegations were opposed to a direct appeal to governments for voluntary contributions; others also stated that at this stage their governments were not in a position to contribute. The Conference, however, decided to authorize the Director - General to appeal to governments for voluntary contributions.
126. The Conference felt that much more precise planning would be needed with regard to specific activities in the Campaign, in order to promote more practical co - operation between governments and organizations. In this context the Conference emphasized the importance of the proposed advisory, campaign committee of government representatives.
127. Great emphasis was placed by, practically all speakers on the importance of the action to be taken outside FAO if the Campaign was to fulfil its aims. The governments themselves would need to do much of the work, especially, in underdeveloped countries, where not only would action programs be developed and carried through but where also strong efforts would need to be made to improve the institutional framework for agricultural and industrial development and to encourage and attain higher levels of savings and investment from domestic sources. Similarly, in more highly developed countries the Campaign should lead to greater willingness to aid the development of agriculture and industry in less developed countries, both through the action of governments and the voluntary action of private groups and foundations. The support of citizens' organizations at all levels and of all types and of FAO's sister agencies, was regarded as essential if the program was to stimulate the necessary interest and promote widespread understanding and support for more vigorous policies for the future. Finally, along with the recent easing of tensions in world politics, the Campaign should contribute to a greater comprehension of common problems among all co - operating countries and their peoples, and to a greater readiness in each country, to adjust its operations, policies and actions toward a program of co - operation and mutual help to all its fellow nations and their peoples.
128. In this spirit the Conference adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 13/59
Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign
(a) that a large part of the world's population still does not have enough to eat, and an even larger part does not get enough of the right kinds of food,
(b) that the increase in food production only barely exceeds population growth,
(c) that the increase in food production per capita is least marked in the less developed parts of the world,
(d) that food production in developed countries is being held back by limited marketing possibilities abroad and that even so, surpluses If some commodities have accumulated in some countries, and
(e) that under its Constitution FAO is the principal agency within the United Nations family of international agencies responsible for the encouragement of and aid to countries in raising levels of food production, consumption, and nutrition,
1. Welcomes and approves the proposal for a Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign along the general lines suggested by the Director General;
2. Expresses appreciation of the co - operation in . the Campaign promised by the United Nations and the specialized agencies;
3. Authorizes an international " Freedom from - Hunger Campaign " extending from 1960 through 1965, under the leadership and general co - ordination of FAO and with invitations to participate, as appropriate and approved by FAO to (i) member countries of FAO; (ii) member countries of the United Nations and the United Nations specialized agencies, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and these agencies themselves; (iii) international nongovernmental organizations that have established consultative relationship with FAO, the United Nations or the other specialized agencies; (iv) religious groups; and (v) individuals and private organizations within the member countries specified in (1) and (ii) above;
4. Emphasizes that the objectives of the Campaign can only be reached if the less developed countries develop effective and useful action projects to this end, and that the formulation and vigourous prosecution by them of such projects will increase the support for the Campaign in the more highly developed countries;
5. Approves the creation of a Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign Trust Fund, to be administered in accordance with FAO's regulations, and for purposes and activities of the Campaign;
6. Authorizes the Director - General to appear for voluntary contributions to:
(a) member countries as specified in para. 3 (i) and (ii);
(b) international nongovernmental organizations;
(c) religious groups;
(d) private foundations or organizations in such member countries;
(a) Authorizes the - Director - General, in the case of countries whose governments are not in a position to contribute directly to the Trust Fund, to discuss with these governments other ways in which they might be able to support the Campaign,
(b) Invites each member country to set up or utilize appropriate national bodies to promote and co - ordinate the Campaign in that country;
(c) Authorizes the Director - General to carry on the Campaign with the funds available, in consultation with the Advisory Campaign Committee mentioned in para. 9 below;
8. Authorizes the Director - General to make preparations for a World Food Congress in 1963 immediately before the Twelfth FAO Conference Session, on the 20th anniversary of the Hot Springs Conference, when the Campaign will reach its climax;
9. Establishes an Advisory Campaign Committee composed of the representatives of ten Member Nations to be designated by the Council, plus the chairmen of the Council, the Program Committee and the Finance Committee, as ex officio members, this Committee to serve until the Eleventh Session of the Conference, with the following terms of reference: to advise and assist the Director - General in the development of a detailed program for the Campaign, taking into account the suggestions made by the Director-General to the Tenth Session of the Conference and the observations thereon by the Conference at that Session, and to report to the Council, and to establish a subcommittee of technical and economic experts on research needs and projects under the Campaign, selected for their competence and experience it various fields of work of FAO
10. Authorizes the Director - General, after consultation with the ,Advisory Campaign Committee, to convene such meetings of representatives of governments or of such bodies mentioned in 7 (b) above as have been established, as may be considered by the Committee and the Director-General to be necessary or desirable, in order to review the progress and financial position of the Campaign;
11. Authorizes the Director General to invite the nongovernmental organizations specified in para. 3 (iii) above to participate in an advisory committee of nongovernmental organizations, which shall on request consult with the Director-General and with representatives of other cooperating international organizations concerning plans for the Campaign and the activities of nongovernmental organisations in assisting in the Campaign, at the same time providing an opportunity for the organizations represented to consult with one another;
12. Requests the Director - General (a to Prepare reports to the Council concerning the detailed development of the Campaign and to present to the Conference in 1961 a detailed report on the current status of the Campaign and on proposed activities and their financial implications; and (b) to include in his financial proposals to the Eleventh Session of the Conference, separate provision for such funds as he may consider necessary to meet that Portion of the FAO expenses for the Campaign for the 1962 - 63 biennium as cannot be covered by the Campaign Trust Fund;
13. Requests the Council to keep the progress of the Campaign under review, to review reports from the Advisory Campaign Committee, and from the Program and Finance Committees on the progress of the Campaign and its relation to the other work of FAO and to present to the Conference its comments and suggestions on the further development of the Campaign.
N. Social welfare
129. The. Director - General, in introducing the discussion on the report dealing with FAO's role in rural welfare (C59/5), recalled his reasons for proposing to the Ninth Session of the Conference the initiation of an independent appraisal of the Organization's program of work to determine its adequacy, with respect to the objective of welfare. Since the assumption of his office he had been concerned particularly, with achieving a more effective orientation toward the welfare objective as inscribed in the Organization's Constitution, and had sought for ways and means of strengthening the Organization's work toward that end.
130. The Ninth Session of the Conference, in Resolution 32/57, had authorized the Director - General to proceed with the proposed appraisal. Some doubts had been expressed and the assignment had admittedly been a difficult one. What constituted welfare in the widest sense was a difficult matter of definition but material conditions of living were clearly - important, and here FAO bad an important contribution In make.
131. The Director - General was therefore convinced that the efforts put into an undertaking of this nature, no matter how difficult, would prove their worth by providing better guidance on practical steps to be taken in serving the welfare purpose more efficiently.
132. Detailed information concerning the manner in which the consultant (Dr. Santa Cruz of Chile) had discharged the task was provided in the introductory note to the report (C 59/5). It also contained the observations of the Director - General on the consultant's findings, conclusions and recommendations. As the Director - General reiterated to the Conference, the document had, in his opinion, served its purpose, inasmuch as it had brought into clearer focus the role which FAO could play in promoting the welfare of rural people and had indicated the manner in which this role could be strengthened, firstly, by intensifying certain specific activities and, secondly, by an improved co - ordination of them.
133. The Conference was unanimous in expressing its appreciation of the report. It congratulated the Director - General on his initiative in having the study carried out and in having entrusted it to a person of outstanding competence and authority. The findings of the study would be of value not only in shaping the Organization's future work but also in guiding other international organizations, Member Governments, and nongovernmental agencies concerned with human betterment.
134. With equal unanimity, the Conference paid tribute to the consultant for having accomplished an admittedly difficult and highly important task in an expert, objective and realistic manner. He had succeeded in putting into proper perspective and relationship the different elements and requirements of programs designed to promote human welfare through international assistance. The great merit of the report was that a single document encompassed all the essential facts, considerations and implications related to the planning and implementation of such programs.
135. The Conference agreed that, as the report rightly pointed out, welfare did not constitute an additional and separate activity but that many types of programs for which FAO was responsible were expected to contribute to that end. Thus, welfare should be regarded as the common objective inspiring many of FAO's activities. Some of these activities had, however, a direct and immediate impact upon the welfare of rural populations and these called for special attention. Such measures and programs would include those aimed at equitable distribution of land, provision of credit facilities, of extension services in agriculture and home economics, the establishment of co - operative organizations, the establishment of small rural industries, and recognition of the place of industrialization generally in the broad field of economic development, improved pricing, marketing and distribution of agricultural products, as well as improvements in the level of education.
136. In order to serve the welfare purpose most effectively, the activities of the Organization would have to be undertaken in the right order of priorities and combined in the right proportion and balance. They must also be co - ordinated, not only, among the units of the Organization but with the activities of the United Nations and the other specialized agencies. It was equally necessary to evaluate carefully the programs undertaken by FAO itself.
137. Although concerted action was not limited to one particular type of program or field of work, the Conference noted that special significance was to be attached to it in regard to community development activities. This group of activities had recently received greater emphasis because by its very nature it constituted a direct and integrated approach to rural welfare, especially in the underdeveloped countries. The Conference concurred in the consultant's view that FAO would do well to strengthen those of its activities which were considered to be integral parts of community, development programs. In this connection several delegations pointed out that efforts and assistance in the field of community development should attach due importance to the need for eliciting and stimulating the. active participation of the people themselves and the promotion of their self - help endeavors in raising their levels of living. Agrarian reform (which is dealt with separately in this report), was also repeatedly emphasized as meriting high priority in any program which was to raise agricultural productivity, farm incomes and levels of living.
138. The Conference further pointed out that effective assistance to Member Governments depended on a thorough and sound knowledge of economic, cultural and social conditions obtaining in the countries concerned. Mention was made of the role of rural sociology in collecting, analyzing, evaluating and disseminating knowledge of this type. It was suggested that the attention of FAO experts should be called to the importance of social factors and that their observations and experience should be drawn upon to improve current knowledge in regard to them. The part which women could play in promoting rural welfare was often overlooked and it was emphasized that this aspect should receive increased attention.
139. In view of the merits of the consultant's appraisal and the points of wider interest he had raised, some delegations expressed the desire to see the report made available for wider circulation to persons and organizations outside FAO, if necessary, in an abridged version.
140. At the end of the debate the Conference adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 14/59
Having considered the report of the consultant appointed in terms of Resolution 32/57 of the Ninth Session of the Conference to review the effectiveness of FAO's activities in promoting the objective of welfare inscribed in the Constitution;
Expresses high appreciation of the manner in which the report makes clear FAO's role in this field, and places it in the general perspective of international action;
Agrees generally with its findings that the principal means necessary for strengthening FAO effectiveness in discharging its tasks and responsibilities in the field of welfare lie:
first, in orienting all activities of the Organization to the ultimate objective of promoting the warfare of people in general and of rural populations in particular;
second, in devoting increased attention to a number of activities which have a direct impact on rural welfare as enumerated in the report, particularly those which constitute essential ingredients in programs of community development;
third, in improved co - ordination of all aspects and phases of the Organization's work, both internally within its own units, as well as externally with the work undertaken by other international agencies, bearing in mind, in particular, the series of resolutions adopted by ECOSOC on the development and co - ordination of the economic, social and human rights program, activities of the United Nations and the specialized agencies, and in the national governments;
Notes with satisfaction that these requirements are already taken into account in the Forward Appraisal of FAO future programs and in modifications recently introduced in the Organizations structure;
Commends the Director - General for the action he has initiated on the above lines which, as it develops, may be expected to strengthen FAO role in the field of rural welfare and
Requests the Director - General to arrange a wider circulation of the consultant's report or an abridged version thereof and to report to the Conference and Council from time to lime, as he may consider appropriate, on further developments f significance for the promotion of the objective of rural welfare.