K. The FAO world seed campaign
443. The Conference noted with appreciation the progress report on the World Seed Campaign presented by the Director - General in accordance with Resolution No. 15/57 of its Ninth Session. It endorsed the program of further action to be undertaken by the Organization for the period 1960 - 61.
444. It was recognized with satisfaction that the great majority of Member Governments had already made considerable progress in the preparation of their national programs, seventy - four governments having decided to participate in, and contribute actively to, the Campaign.
445. Member Governments that had not yet responded to the Director - General's invitation in Note verbale G/A - 30 of 3 April 1958, were requested to take an early, decision as to their possible participation, and to inform the Director - General as soon as possible of the activities they, planned to undertake within the broad framework of the Campaign.
446. It was considered that everyone concerned with the World Seed Campaign should bear in mind that the use of highquality seed of improved varieties should be regarded not only as one of the most effective and cheapest means to increase crop and tree production, but also as of equal importance in increasing total agricultural productivity by reducing the costs of production and improving the quality of the final produce.
447. The Conference greatly appreciated the comprehensive reports presented by the delegations of thirty - eight member countries regarding the national and international activities which their respective governments had already undertaken or were considering initiating, particularly during the "World Seed Year - itself.
448. Particularly welcome was the valuable assistance offered for 1959, 1960 and 1961 by several governments in the form of training facilities and experts in breeding and seed improvement, and in certification and distribution of seeds and seed potatoes, either under ETAP, the Colombo Plan, or as direct intergovernmental aid, and in the form of international, regional and national training centers, courses and seminars, fellowships and study tours.
449. Such assistance was considered to be among the most constructive means for promoting the aims of the Campaign. Since the benefit of training courses and seminars largely depended on the ability of trainees to apply the newly - gained knowledge and experience in their home countries, the Conference requested participating governments to select the most suitable candidates for any further courses or seminars which might be offered and to ensure that the trainees were enabled on their return to take an active part in national seed campaigns.
450. The Conference also welcomed the support given by many Member Governments in the form of technical equipment for seed processing, equipment for education and extension work, audio - visual aids, technical publications, and publicity material. Such equipment and material could be distributed either directly, to the recipient countries or through the Organization.
451. The Conference expressed its appreciation of the valuable support and assistance of other specialized agencies, and of the many international, regional, and national organizations - governmental and nongovernmental. The response and co - operation of such organizations was commended to others which had not yet become actively associated with the Campaign.
452. In accordance with a recommendation of the Twenty - Ninth Session of the Council, the Conference emphasized the need for adequate precautionary measures in order to avoid the introduction of pests and diseases wherever seed for breeding, testing and other experimental purposes was exchanged between countries. In this connection, the Conference recommended that seed introduced for experimental purposes should be channelled through National Seed Campaign Committees or any other authorized national body that was in a position to collaborate closely with the official services for plant protection and quarantine, so that the prescribed measures of protection could be carried out; and further, that in view of the possible introduction of seed - borne diseases which could not be readily detected, such introduced seed should be grown, at least in the first instance, under the immediate supervision and control of competent technical officers in the recipient countries. Finally, the introduced seed should be treated in donor countries before being delivered or shipped.
453. The Conference expressed interest in the preparation and dissemination by the Organization of lists of recommended varieties of agricultural and horticultural crops, together with names and addresses of the breeders, stations, or firms concerned, but recognized that the collection of this type of information would need much more time and preparation than was available for the proposed FAO Study on Agricultural and Horticultural Seeds. It was, however, stressed that the bibliography of the study should contain all information available in member countries in the form of lists of recommended varieties of crop species.
454. Noting the desirability, of facilitating international trade in seeds and having been informed that all member countries of OEEC had voluntarily adopted, for an initial period of five years, a Scheme for the Varietal Certification of Herbage Seed Moving in International Trade, the Conference urged its member countries outside the sphere of operation of OEEC which were interested in international trade in herbage seed to adopt the scheme and apply it also on a voluntary basis for a similar period (see Resolution No. 39/59).
455. The Conference commended the FAO World Seed Campaign ,News which had been well received in member countries and requested the Director - General to continue issuing this and other relevant publications at appropriate intervals through 1960 and 1961.
456. The Conference approved the tentative plan of the Director - General to convene a World Seed Congress in 1961 in Rome, possibly combined with an International Seed Film Festival and Competition, together with other events which could attract the attention of a wide public through publicity media. A condition would be that the necessary funds be found either through savings within the Organization during the biennium 1960 - 1961 or from outside sources.
(456a). Recognizing that the activities initiated under the Campaign are of a long-term nature, the Conference stressed the need for continuous action beyond the World Seed Year itself, particularly in countries and regions which had not been able to make substantial technical achievements in the short time available and which would still require considerable guidance and assistance.
457. Noting the recommendation of the Twenty - Ninth Session of the Council and recognizing that each individual government was free to decide on the particular period in the World Seed Year in which its activities should reach a climax, the Conference adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 43/59
Designation of the World Seed Year
Considering the decision taken by its Ninth Session in Resolution No. 15/57 to launch a world campaign for the promotion of the use of first - class seed of superior crop and tree varieties,
Appreciating the preparations made and the substantial assistance offered or planned by Member Governments and participating international, regional and national organizations for the World Seed Campaign, on a national and international level,
Designates the year 1961 as the "World Seed Year", but emphasizes that the activities initiated under this Campaign should continue to be an integral Part of the Freedom - from Hunger Campaign; and
Urges Member Governments and Participating organizations to keep the Director - General informed of their own activities in the World Seed Campaign, so that a report thereon may be presented to its Eleventh Session.
L. FAO/UNICEF relations
458. In considering FAO/UNICEF relations, the Conference devoted its attention to financial issues, since the resources available to FAO through the Regular Program and ETAP are proving insufficient to meet the demands for assistance to Member Nations arising in connection with jointly assisted projects. The FAO Program and Finance Committes, the FAO Council and the joint FAO/UNICEF Policy Committee had considered these problems and their reports were before the Conference (C 59/22 and C 59/23). The UNICEF Executive Board had likewise considered the problems and its chairman presented a statement to the Conference on the subject.
459. The FAO Council at its Thirty - First Session had endorsed the proposal of the Program and Finance Committees that the Director - General should initiate discussions with UNICEF relating to the provision by UNICEF of funds required to finance the technical support of UNICEF projects both in the immediate future and on a long - term basis, including the financing by UNICEF of project personnel. In this connection, the Council had agreed that the Director-General should be authorized to adopt as a basis for such discussions the recommendations of the two committees that the Organization should follow the same general policy with respect to the extent of its contribution from Regular Program funds to UNICEF programs as it had adopted toward ETAP, namely, that administrative and operational costs should be borne by the program to which they relate.
460. The Conference noted that, broadly speaking, FAO/UNICEF co - operation was covering two main fields of activity, expanded aid to maternal and child nutrition, and milk conservation; and that in regard to both these programs, the broad division of responsibilities between the two organizations had in the past been that UNICEF provided supplies and equipment not available within the assisted country, as well as material help for the. training of national personnel, while FAO had specific technical responsibilities for the planning of the projects and in the follow - up action, including the provision of project personnel through ETAP. FAO also was providing technical advice to UNICEF. This co - operative relationship between FAO and UNICEF was comparable to that developed between UNICEF and WHO, and between UNICEF and the United Nations Bureau of Social Affairs, being based on the recognized principle that organizations should have separate and not overlapping functions.
461. The Conference at its Eighth Session in 1955 had voted additional funds to enable FAO to carry out its share of jointly - assisted projects. In regard to the program of expanded aid to maternal and child nutrition, the UNICEF Executive Board in September 1958 had agreed to make available to FAO in 1959 a sum of $75,000 to enable new appointments to be made to the FAO staff for program planning and liaison work with UNICEF, on the understanding that the Director - General of FAO would request the FAO Conference to assume these costs in the 1960 - 61 budget. The Executive Board had taken this action, since it had recognized that difficulties arose as a result of differences in budgetary cycles and that certain costs might have to be assumed by UNICEF if they had not been foreseen at the time of the preparation of the co - operating agency is budget, and could not therefore have been taken over until the next budget period. The FAO Program and Finance Committees had been unable to recommend the inclusion in the regular budget for 1960 - 61 of the full sum of $150,000 to replace the subvention of $75,000 received from UNICEF for 1959 but recommended the inclusion of $120,000. It had not been possible to make allowance in the Regular Program budget for an), parallel increase in connection with the milk conservation program, and this remained a potentially difficult problem.
462. The Conference noted that during 1959 the UNICEF Executive Board had allocated $7.4 million for aid to nutrition projects, including milk conservation, to be implemented in 1960 and subsequent years; this sum was more than double the average of $3.2 million a year allocated in the preceding two years. This greater allocation would impose an increasing burden on FAO for the support of jointly - assisted projects, in regard to both FAO's Regular Program budget and the funds available through ETAP.
463. With regard to the provision of project personnel not covered by ETAP funds in 1960, the UNICEF Executive Board at its session in September 1959 had provided a sum of $238,000 to meet the estimated costs for project personnel and fellowships required to service projects jointly assisted by FAO and UNICEF in excess of the amounts provided in the 1960 ETAP program. The Board had been reluctant to approve this action and had done so to ensure that projects aided by UNICEF would be on a sound technical basis during 1960. It had recognized that an additional allocation might be necessary in 1961 if ETAP funds were not sufficient in that year. The decision had been taken on the understanding that the allocation would be regarded as an interim measure, which would in no way influence decisions regarding future long - term financial relations.
464. The Conference noted that UNICEF had in the past had somewhat similar financial difficulties vis - à - vis WHO, arising out of jointly - assisted health projects. For an interim period UNICEF had underwritten the cost of certain WHO technical personnel required to carry out projects jointly assisted by the two organizations. This situation had, however, been adjusted and since 1957 WHO had included in its annual budget full provision for costs of international personnel for projects assisted jointly with UNICEF. This arrangement was based on the view that the financial responsibilities of the agencies should correspond to the functional tasks which each organization assumed; that the contribution of governments to one organization should not become an indirect subsidy to another international organization also depending on government contributions; and that because UNICEF did not exercise functional supervision of international project personnel, its assumption of financial responsibility for them was wrong in principle. Discussions in the UNICEF Executive Board in September 1959 on financial relations with FAO had indicated that the Board still held these views and considered that they should apply in the case of FAO/UNICEF - assisted projects. The Board had likewise taken a formal decision requesting the Executive Director to:
"use his strongest endeavors to assure inclusion in Plans of Operations of undertaking from beneficiary governments that they will request the appropriate technical assistance from the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, such requests to be placed in their Category 1 application."
465. The Conference reaffirmed the importance it attached to the various programs for the improvement of maternal and child nutrition jointly assisted by FAO and UNICEF, and expressed its appreciation of the action taken by the UNICEF Executive Board in September 1959 to solve the immediate financial problems which would arise in 1960 and 1961 with respect to project personnel. It emphasized, however, the need for making long - term arrangements based on a set of principles acceptable to both organizations. The growing number of jointly - assisted projects made it particularly necessary that such principles should be evolved as soon as possible.
466. At present there were wide differences between the positions taken by the FAO Council as noted in para. 459, and the UNICEF Executive Board as noted in para. 464, and it was essential that these differences should be reconciled. In evolving appropriate principles, consideration should be given to the relations between FAO and UNICEF respectively and other United Nations organizations with which they collaborated.
467. In the circumstances, the Conference reached the following conclusions:
1. It strongly welcomed the discussions to take place in 1960 between the Director-General of FAO and the Executive Director of UNICEF.
2. The Director - General, in conducting these negotiations, should have wide latitude, although he will be broadly guided in such consultations by the recommendations of the Council and its Committees. In this connection the Conference was informed by the Chairman of the UNICEF Executive Board that, on the UNICEF side, similar latitude would be extended to the Executive Director, bearing in mind the general guidance provided by the Executive Board.
3. Every effort should be made to evolve mutually acceptable principles which would be applied in the preparation of the FAO budget for 1962 - 63 and reported to the Council at its next session in November 1960 and to the Conference in 1961.
4. Governments represented in both organizations should meanwhile examine carefully their positions, to enable them to give full and sympathetic consideration to any proposals put forward by the executive heads of the two organizations, and to speak with one voice in the governing bodies concerned.
M. Expanded technical assistance program
468. The Conference took the occasion of the Tenth Anniversary of the Expanded Technical Assistance Program (ETAP) to express once again strong support for the program and to commend the Director-General for the work done under it. The Conference noted that, as of September 1959, 1,773 FAO experts recruited from over 40 countries had served in the field; that some 1,600 fellowships had been awarded; that approximately 100 training centers had been organized; and that the number of countries and territories served by FAO had grown from 48 in 1953 to 68 in 1960.
469. In reaffirming its confidence in the value of ETAP, the Conference expressed some concern regarding the fact that the continuous and increasing support by participating countries had been more than offset by the rising costs of the program and the increase in the number of recipient countries. It therefore urged participating governments to increase their contributions wherever possible, so as to arrive at a situation whereby the gap between demands and resources would not continue to widen, as was the case for 1959 and 1960, but would rather decrease.
470. The Conference, recognizing that ETAP as a whole was based on decisions made by each recipient country individually, nevertheless expressed some concern over the modest decline in FAO's share. In this connection, recipient governments were urged, in requesting assistance, to take full account of the primary role of food and agriculture in a developing national economy.
471. The Conference took note of the decision of the Economic and Social Council to initiate two - year programming on an experimental basis. In view of the necessity of reconciling biennial programming with annual pledging, the Conference felt that the conservative approach, whereby two annual programs, each with its own planning target, would be negotiated for the period 1961 - 62, as recommended by ECOSOC, was fully justified.
472. The Conference noted the Director-General's proposals for assisting governments in improving the content of the Program, and in the evaluation and better programming of technical assistance. There might well be great value both for recipient countries and FAO in the experimental procedure, whereby the Organization would prepare country, studies of a few selected countries, based on a careful analysis of available data at Headquarters and on field visits by, small expert teams, which would then be presented to, and thoroughly discussed with, the government officials concerned, who in turn would indicate and develop their ideas. The Conference, stressing the principle that programming for technical assistance based on the result of such studies should remain in the hands of the governments concerned, concurred with the Director - General's proposals and asked to be informed of their outcome at its Eleventh Session.
473. In this connection the Conference also welcomed the initiative of certain Member Governments which had taken measures to provide for a review and appraisal of all external aid programs in agriculture, both bilateral and multilateral, in the light of a careful appraisal of their own priority, requirements. Such measures were important for achieving maximum benefits from external aid and bringing about fuller co - operation between all external aid programs in the field of food and agriculture.
474. The increasing demand for field experts with the advent of the United Nations Special Fund required, in the view of the Conference, not only a simplification in administrative procedures but more effective use of the experts by the recipient countries. It commended to governments the need for an improvement in the formulation of expert work programs, in their servicing facilities and, particularly, in the provision of counterpart personnel. It requested the Director-General to take into account the desirability of recruiting experts who have knowledge and experience of an environment similar to that of the country of their assignment and to improve the briefing of experts, particularly on the cultural, economic and other aspects of the country in which they would serve.
475. The Conference noted that the problem of recruitment and its procedures, including vacancy notices, would be studied at a forthcoming session of the FAO Council. Nevertheless, it felt that it should call to the attention of governments, particularly those in countries which so far had provided many experts, the need to continue to facilitate the release of technical personnel for field assignments of the Organization.
476. The Conference recognized that recipient countries expected to receive the recommendations of experts soon after the completion of their assignment, and regretted the delay which had often occurred in the submission of their final reports. It was, however, glad to note that the Director-General agreed that experts should discuss their findings and recommendations with the government before their departure, and that they could leave with the government, where feasible, a first draft of their final report.
477. With regard to fellowships, the Conference was unanimous in expressing the opinion that close and effective contact between the technical officers of the Organization, the fellows and their respective host institutes, was necessary. No changes should, however, be made in the existing procedure, whereby questions of management and administration, particularly with regard to the awarding of fellowships and the placement of fellows were centrally co-ordinated both in FAO and in many host countries.
478. The Conference reaffirmed its strong support for fellowships under ETAP, and emphasized the need for the training of 1 middle - grade technicians. For this purpose the usefulness of regional training centers was commended. The decline in the number of fellowships requested was regretted, although it was appreciated that assistance for the training of personnel was also available through other programs. The Conference felt, however, that it was desirable for recipient governments to undertake a review of their over - all training needs and relate them to the facilities offered by, all sources of external aid. This would promote coherent national training programs and their consequent improvement.
N. United Nations Special Fund
479. The Conference considered the report of the Director - General (C 59/37) on the United Nations Special Fund, established in October 1958 by the United Nations General Assembly under Resolution 1240 (XIII).
480. The Conference noted that the United Nations Special Fund would enlarge the scope of the programs of technical assistance of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and that, in accordance with the guiding principles and criteria for the operation of the Special Fund, its activities would be complementary to those of ETAP.
481. The Special Fund commenced its activities in 1959, based on a total of contributions for that year of $26 million, which participating governments had pledged. The Conference was informed that of the first 13 projects which the Governing Council of the Special Fund had approved at its Second Session in May 1959, five would be implemented by FAO, the Managing Director of the Fund having requested, and the Director - General of FAO having agreed, that the Organization would - act as executing agency for them. The Conference was further informed that among the 32 proposed projects which the Managing Director intended to submit in December 1959 to the Third Session of the Governing Council for approval, there would be 12 for which FAO would act as executing agency. Thus, it appeared that FAO would be responsible for the execution of approximately, one third of the total activities of the Special Fund during its first year of operation.
482. The Conference recognized that the advent of the United Nations Special Fund and the participation of the Organization in its activities was of the utmost importance, since it constituted a unique opportunity for accelerated development of agriculture in many countries. It was therefore gratified to note the considerable number of Special Fund projects in the broad field of agriculture among those approved and contemplated during 1959. Most of them were for the development of improved land and water utilization. The importance for many countries of land and water use was fully recognized by the Conference, but it nevertheless was impressed with the possibilities of Special Fund assistance for other aspects of agricultural development which so far had not been sufficiently explored by the countries eligible for such assistance.
483. In this connection the Conference wished to stress the importance for agricultural development of research, education and demonstration; there was great scope for utilizing the assistance of the Special Fund in those fields and this was worthy of attention by Member Governments.
484. One of the principles and criteria established by the General Assembly in Resolution 1240 (XIII was that the Special Fund should give due consideration to the urgency of the needs of the requesting countries. The Conference noted, however, that this principle should be considered together with other established principles and criteria, and particularly those regarding the technical arid economic soundness of projects, their full integration into national development plans and the active participation by recipient countries.
485. The Conference was gratified to learn that satisfactory working arrangements had been established by the Director-General arid the Managing Director of the Special Fund, which had resulted in a signed agreement outlining the conditions under which the Organization would act as executing agency for a number of the Special Fund projects. There had also been close co - operation in the preparation of the first draft plans of operation for the projects approved by the Second Session of the Governing Council of the Special Fund and for which FAO would act as executing agency.
486. The Director - General also informed the Conference that, after considerable negotiation, agreement had been reached between him and the Managing Director on the amount of funds which the Organization would receive to offset additional agency costs to be incurred by FAO in implementing the Special Fund projects for which it would be responsible. In this connection the Conference fully endorsed the attitude taken by the Finance and Program Committees and by the Council, that the Special Fund should allocate to the Organization sufficient funds to offset these additional costs. It noted that the Managing Director of the Special Fund had to take into account the General Assembly resolution which, inter alia, proposed that the specialized agencies should make their existing facilities available to the Managing Director without charge, except when clearly identifiable expenses were involved. The Conference recognized that the Organization would have to carry, out a number of activities which could not be clearly identified and for which it would be difficult to request payment. It therefore expressed the hope that the Director-General and the Managing Director would in future continue to negotiate the amount for agency costs on the basis of mutual understanding, taking into account that the other programs of the Organization were equally important and should not be unduly affected by, work performed for or on behalf of the Special Fund.
487. It was noted that the Organization as executing agency would be held fully responsible for the efficiency and quality of implementation of Special Fund projects assigned to it. In this connection the Conference was gratified to learn that the Director - General intended to subcontract certain projects or parts thereof to national institutes or private firms.
488. Finally, the Conference recognized that, as a result of financial contributions of participating governments being made in different currencies, their balanced utilization was a problem for the solution of which the Managing Director of the Special Fund had requested the full co - operation of the Director - General. This meant that the Director - General would not be entirely free as to the type of currency to be utilized for a number of Special Fund projects. The Conference hoped with the Director - General that recipient countries would understand and accept this, particularly since the Director - General had given his assurance that he would not sacrifice quality of work for the sake of better currency, utilization.
489. In conclusion, the Conference fully endorsed the steps taken by the Director-General to co - operate with the Managing Director of the Special Fund and adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 44/59
United Nations Special Fund
Having noted the establishment of the United Nations Special Fund by Resolution No. 12 - 40 (XIII) of the United Nations General Assembly,
Having considered the report by the Director-General (C 59137) on the United Nations Special Fund and on the participation of the Organization under the authorization of Resolution No. 5/29 of the FAO Council in several projects of the Special Fund,
Approves of the arrangements as set forth in Resolution No. 5129 of the FAO Council for participation of the Food and Agriculture Organization in the activities of the United Nations Special Fund;
Notes with satisfaction that the Food and Agriculture Organization will act as executing agency for several Special Fund projects falling within the terms of reference of the Organization; and
Requests the Director - General:
(a) to continue to take all necessary steps to associate FAO as closely as possible with all Phases of Preparation and implementation of projects falling within the competence of the Organization which the Special Fund might undertake; and
(b) to ensure that FAO activities in association with the Special Fund will not unduly affect the other Programs of the Organization.
490. The Conference approved the program of work in the field of commodities for 1960 - 61 and expressed its appreciation of the volume and quality, of the work accomplished during the previous two years.
491. It was noted that in general the proposed program of work followed well established lines and that the keynote of the future would be the consolidation and strengthening of the services rendered by, the Commodities Division, with special emphasis on developments in international commodity trade, national and international commodity policies and their effects, with particular reference also to effects on national agricultural economics and international agricultural aspects.
492. It was noted further that a substantial part of the work in commodities was determined by the requirements of the CCP and of its subsidiary bodies, and that the priorities to be accorded to various aspects of the program would, to a large extent, emerge from the needs of the CCP. To this end the orientation of work would continue to be flexible. The work being done on commodity intelligence and research was well conceived, and it was essential that it should continue, with only, such changes of emphasis as developments in the agricultural situations and in the commodity problems facing governments would render necessary,. The resources available were now fully extended and savings of effort in some directions were more than matched by increasing requests for work in others, with the result that the list of commodities receiving regular and continuous treatment could not be added to. Nevertheless, it was hoped that from time to time some attention might be given to commodities not now covered under the Regular Program, such as spices and hides and skins.
493. The Conference also suggested that special attention might usefully, be given to the supply of, and demand for, protein - rich foodstuffs other than milk, with special reference to the protein needs in the diets of underdeveloped countries and to the possible continuation of the present shortage of dried skim milk supplies available on special terms for welfare purposes.
494. Satisfaction was expressed at the attention being given in the program of work to trend studies and projections, particularly of production and demand. Work of this character is of growing importance for governments, since it is essential for an understanding of the commodity outlook and as a tool for economic planning, and it was urged that this interest of governments should be fully reflected in the execution of the program. The risks inherent in this type of work were recognized, particularly in the case of the long - term projections. For this reason, the Conference attached particular importance to the studies that had been set in motion for improving the techniques available for work of this kind. It was also noted that close working relations were being maintained with other interested Divisions, as well as with a number of international organizations which were also engaged in work of this nature, and that the work done on trend studies is of use to other sections of FAO and various organizations.
495. Particular importance was attached to a suggestion made by the CCP at its Thirty - First Session, that a study should be undertaken on the longer - term trends in rice production, consumption and trade. In this respect, the Conference adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 45/59
Study of Trends in Rice Production, Consumption and Trade
Noting the valuable work accomplished by the CCP Consultative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of Rice;
Believing that a study of trends in rice production, consumption and trade would help to provide a firmer basis for national policies for this commodity;
Welcomes the suggestion made by the Committee on Commodity Problems at its Thirty First Session that such a study should be undertaken;
Requests the Director - General to prepare such a study for consideration by the Consultative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of Rice; and
Urges Member Governments to co - operate fully with the Director - General in the Preparation of such a study.
496. The successful working arrangements developed with other intergovernmental organizations, such as the United Nations and its regional commissions, and the commodity councils and study groups, were commended, and it was urged that they should be continued and developed. Such arrangements help to strengthen the work and, at the same time, contribute to the efficient use of government funds. It was appreciated that the services rendered from time to time to nongovernmental professional organizations were fully repaid in the improved contacts with commodity trade circles that resulted from such collaboration.
497. While on the whole the Organization was now able to provide fairly adequate specialized commodity coverage, insofar as regular servicing and current information and intelligence were concerned, attention was drawn to some areas where strengthening was needed, particularly in the period beyond 1961. These areas included the analyses of commodity trends and of national and international commodity policies. Special attention was drawn to the importance of national commodity stabilization policies and to the need for moving toward the study of new techniques and solutions which would take into account the new realities of international trade, such as trade on special terms, the influence of regional trade arrangements and other particular market situations.
498. With reference to the milk program, the Conference was informed that as the Organization's cooperation with UNICEF expanded, there was a growing need for undertaking field surveys under the joint auspices of the two organizations, covering the technical, nutritional and economic aspects of dairy development. The Organization was unable at present to play its full part in providing for the appropriate coverage of the economic aspects of these surveys.