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Currently there are two journals providing regular, up to date coverage of agroforestry: Agroforestry Systems (published in cooperation with ICRAF by Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk, POB 566, 2501 CN, The Hague, Netherlands) and The International Tree Crops Journal (published in cooperation with the International Tree Crops Institute by A.B. Academic Publishers, POB 97, Berkhampsted, Herts, HP4 2PX, England). The Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports contain much useful information on agroforestry tree species (published by the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, POB 680, Waimanalo, Hawaii, USA). The Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau Forestry Abstracts are another source of regular information on agroforestry.

General Concepts and Regional Overviews

For the historical roots of agroforestry, see Smith (1950) for tree crop horticulture, King (1968) for forestry, and Bene et al. (1977) for a seminal statement of the need for integrated agroforestry. For a more recent and comprehensive assessment of the scope and institutional context of agroforestry research see Lundgren (1982). ICRAF has published the proceedings of a number of international meetings on agroforestry (Mongi and Huxley, 1979; Chandler and Spurgeon, 1980; Hoekstra and Kuguru, 1983) which are now out of print, but are available at libraries or in microfiche from ICRAF. Descriptions of regionally important systems are contained in CATIE (1979), ICAR (1981), MacDonald (1982), Hecht (1982), Weber and Hoskins (1983), NAS (1983), Olofson (1983) and Schirmer (1983) among others. Chambers (1984) has highlighted the importance of agroforestry for low-resource farmers and Raintree (1983) has described an adoption-oriented strategy for research. For bibliographies see Majisu and Labelle (1982) and Aterrado et al. (1982).

Agroforestry Science and Practice

For treatment of more technical aspects of agroforestry, see Huxley (1983), Cannel (in press), Nair (1984) and various ICRA Working Papers. The Agroforestry Systems journal carries a regular series of system descriptions from ICRAF’s Agroforestry Systems Inventory, along with other descriptive and experimental reports of varying technical levels. The NAS (1980, 1983a) publications provide useful information on multipurpose trees and Burley and Carlowitz (1984) report the deliberations of a recent international workshop on multipurpose tree germplasm.

Agroforestry Methodology

For assistance in the identification and development of promising agroforestry systems and projects, various guidelines and resource materials relating to ICRAF’s “Diagnosis and Design” (D&D) methodology are available (CIRAF 1983a, 1983b; Raintree, 1984; Huxley and Wood, 1984; Rocheleau, 1985). D&D case studies are regular additions to ICRAF’s Working Papers series, along with accounts of land evaluation (Young, 1984) and economic methods in agroforestry (Hoekstra, 1985; see also Arnold, 1983 and Raintree, 1983). Huxley (1984) has compiled a manual on the exploration and assessment of multipurpose trees.


Arnold, J.E.M. 1983 Economic Considerations in Agroforestry Systems. 1(4): 299-312

Aterrado, V.R., E.R. Raies and J.C. Sison. 1982 Agroforestry: An Abstract Bibliography. Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. Los Baños.

Bene, J.G., H.W. Beall and A. Cote. 1977 Trees, Food and People: Land Management in the Tropics. IDRC. Ottawa.

Burley, J. and P. von Carlowitz. 1984 Multipurpose Tree Germplasm. ICRAF. Nairobi.

Cannel, M.G.R. (in press) Attributes of Trees as Crop Plants. Proc. IUFRO/ITE Workshop. July 1984. Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology. Edinburgh.

CATIE 1979 Proceedings of the Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America. Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Enseñanza. Turrialba, Costa Rica.

Chambers, R. 1984 To the Hands of the Poor: Water, Trees and Land. Discussion Paper No. 14. Ford Foundation. New Delhi.

Chandler, T. and D. Spurgeon (eds.). 1980 International Cooperation in Agroforestry. ICRAF. Nairobi.

Hecht, S.B. 1982 Amazonia: Agriculture and Land Use Research. CIAT. Cali, Colombia.

Hoekstra, D.A. and F.M. Kuguru (eds.). 1983 Agroforestry Systems for Small-Scale Farmers. ICRAF and BAT. Nairobi.

Hoekstra, D.A. 1985 The Use of Economics in Diagnosis and Design of Agroforestry Systems. Working Paper No. 29. ICRAF. Nairobi.

Huxley, P.A. 1983 Plant Research and Agroforestry. ICRAF. Nairobi

Huxley, P.A. (ed.). Research Methodology for the Exploration and Assessment of Multipurpose Trees: Source Materials and Guidelines. ICRAF. Nairobi.

Huxley, P.A. and P.J. Wood. 1984 Technology and Research Considerations in ICRAF’s Diagnosis and Design Procedures. Working Paper 26. ICRAF. Nairobi.

ICAR 1981 Proceedings of the Agroforestry Seminar. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New Delhi.

ICRAF 1983a Draft Guidelines for Agroforestry Diagnosis and Design. ICRAF Working Paper No. 6. ICRAF. Nairobi.

ICRAF 1983b Draft Resources for Agroforestry Diagnosis and Design. ICRAF Working Paper No. 7. ICRAF. Nairobi.

King, K.F.S. 1968 Agro-silviculture (the taungya system). Bulletin No. 1. Dept. of Forestry. University of Ibadan. Ibadan, Nigeria.

Lundgren, B. 1982 The Use of Agroforestry to Improve the Productivity of Converted Tropical land. Prepared for the U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. ICRAF. Nairobi.

MacDonald, L.H. (ed.). 1982 Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics. United Nations University. Tokyo.

Majisu, L. and R. Labelle. 1982 A Selected Bibliography of Agro-forestry. ICRAF. Nairobi.

Mongi, H.O. and P.A. Huxley (eds.). 1979 Soils Research in Agro-forestry. ICRAF. Nairobi.

Nair, P.K.R. 1984 Soil Productivity Aspects of Agroforestry. Science and Practice of Agroforestry No. 1. ICRAF. Nairobi.

NAS 1980 Firewood Crops (Vol. 1). National Academy of Sciences. Washington.

NAS 1983a Firewood Crops (Vol. 2). National Academy of Sciences. Washington.

NAS 1983b Agroforestry in the West African Sahel. National Academy of Sciences. Washington.

Olofson, H. 1983 Indigenous Agroforestry Systems. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 11: 149-174.

Raintree, J.B. 1983a Strategies for Enhancing the Adoptability of Agroforestry Innovations. Agroforestry Systems 1(3): 173-188.

Raintree, J.B. 1983b Bio-economic Considerations in the Design of Agroforestry Cropping Systems. In: P.A. Huxley (ed.). Plant Research in Agroforestry. ICRAF. Nairobi.

Raintree, J.B. 1984 A Diagnostic Approach to Agroforestry Design. In: K.F. Wiersum (ed.). Strategies and Designs for Afforestation, Reforestation and Tree Planting. PUDOC. Wageningen, Netherlands.

Rocheleau, D. 1984 Criteria for Re-appraisal and Re-design: Intra-household and Between-househould Aspects of FSRE in Three Kenyan Agroforestry Projects. Presented at the Annual Farming Systems Research Extension Symposium. 7-10 October. Kansas State University. Manhattan, Kansas.

Schirmer, A. 1983 The Role of Agroforestry in the Pacific. Proc. of a Conference held at the University of the South Pacific. Suva, Fiji.

Smith, J.R. 1950 Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture. Devin-Adair. New York.

Weber, F. and M. Hoskins. 1983 Agroforestry in the Sahel. Dept. of Sociology. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg, Virginia.

Young, A. 1984 Land Evaluation for Agroforestry: The Tasks Ahead. Working Paper No. 24. ICRAF. Nairobi.

J.B. Raintree and R. Labelle
March 1985

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