An illustrated guide to the state of health of trees
Recognition and interpretation of symptoms and damage
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Abstract : Insect pests and diseases routinely affect the health of trees, and major outbreaks can give catastrophic environmental and economic impacts. The effective management of all tree health problems depends on their early detection. This guide will help readers recognize symptoms of ill health in trees and understand their general significance. The guide provides 140 photographs of symptoms from more than 50 tree species to be used as a basis for demonstating the effects of pest (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) influences on trees. It is not an identification guide to insect pests and diseases of trees, but aims to help people make visual assessments of tree health problems and to provide a preliminary diagnosis which in turn will assist in better planning and more effective management of forests and trees. The guide will be useful to anyone interested in tree health or responsible for managing trees.
 This document is also available in:
 Spanish: Guía ilustrada sobre el estado de salud de los árboles