Trade and markets

Europe and Central Asia trade publications

Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in the post-Soviet countries 2017-2018
[Available in Russian]

This review is devoted to the analysis of agricultural trade policies in the post-Soviet countries. The aim of the review is to monitor the latest changes in trade policies of these countries, affecting the dynamics and structure of trade. The publication also includes a chapter reviewing the prospects of expansion the agricultural trade of some Central Asian countries with China and the Russian Federation. Another chapter of the publication examines the impact of climate change on agricultural trade in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

National programs and strategies in support of agri-food exports in the post-Soviet countries [Available in Russian]
This review focuses on the various aspects of post-Soviet countries' policies in support of agri-food products export. The report contains an analysis of agricultural exports of these countries in recent years. This includes the latest initiatives in the field of stimulating food supplies to the foreign market are considered, and the national legislation promoting exports is described. Moreover, the review consolidates information in relation to the export support systems within post-Soviet countries, including governmental institutions, state export support agencies and non-governmental institutions. The report also evaluates the key instruments and measures for agricultural exports promotion in countries of the region, in particular, to the financing of export promotion measures from the state budget.

Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in the post-Soviet Countries, 2016-2017
This document presents an English summary of the “Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in the post-Soviet countries 2016-2017” (FAO, 2018) available in Russian. The purpose of the publication is to provide an overview and analysis of the trends in agricultural trade and trade policies in the post-Soviet countries. The annual review serves to enhance transparency in agricultural trade policy measures, contributing to more stable and effective trade in the Europe and Central Asia region. This summary begins with an overview chapter presenting key developments in agricultural trade in twelve post-Soviet countries in 2016-2017, followed by regional strategies and programmes for agricultural export development, and includes short country chapters on Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

How to use the WTO instruments in the interests of agribusiness – A guide
[Available in Russian]

This guide provides an overview of instruments used in the WTO agreements which apply to trade in agricultural goods such as Agreement on Agriculture, Agreement on Application of SPS Measures, Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Trade Facilitation Agreement, and Understanding on Dispute Settlement. This publication provides agribusiness a broad set of trade and transparency instruments that can be used to improve market access opportunities. Transparency instruments in these agreements are useful for agribusiness in export market research and analysis. Trade remedies instruments and procedures are used to safeguard producers from unfair trade practices. Trade facilitation instruments improve administrative and customs procedures at all levels. This publication is part of a collection of knowledge resources for the FAO Regional Initiative on Improving Agrifood Trade and Market Integration in Europe and Central Asia.

Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in the post-Soviet countries 2016-17
[Available in Russian]

This review is the third in a series of publications devoted to the analysis of agricultural trade and trade policies in the post-Soviet countries. The purpose of the review is to study trends in the agri-food foreign trade and to monitor the latest policy changes in trade policies of these countries that affect its dynamics and structure. This publication also includes a chapter on review of strategies and programs on export promotion of agricultural goods developed by post-Soviet countries. In order to diversify agricultural markets in 2016-2017, many post-Soviet countries have intensified the development of such policy documents, considering the increase in exports, as a factor contributing to economic growth in the sector.

Review of Agrifood Trade Policies in the Post-Soviet Countries, 2015-2016: Summary Report
The document is based on the publication “Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in former Soviet Union countries 2015-16” available in Russian. The main economic and political factors influencing the patterns of agrifood trade in the region during 2014 generally continued to have an impact in 2015 and 2016. In particular, a further slowdown in economic growth was observed in all countries during 2015. In addition, the depreciation of all the national currencies against the US dollar and the euro, which began in 2014, continued in 2015 and, in some cases, in 2016. Due to weaker national currencies and falling consumer demand, the total value of imports of agrifood products in dollar terms decreased in many countries. The decline in demand for agrifood products in the region and lower international prices also contributed to the reduction in the value of agrifood exports from the region. At the same time, the last two years have been marked by stronger integration processes affecting agrifood trade among several countries in the region.

Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in former Soviet Union countries 2015-16 [available in Russian only]
This review is the second in a series of publications devoted to the analysis of the latest developments in agricultural trade and in trade policy in the post-Soviet countries. This publication includes a chapter on the impact of macroeconomic factors on agri-food trade in the post-Soviet countries. The chapter considers changes in the macroeconomic situation in the countries of the region in 2014-2016 and the main factors of its influence on agri-food trade.

Agricultural Trade Policies in the Post-Soviet Countries 2014/15: A Summary
The document is based on the publication Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in post-Soviet countries 2014-15. In the 2013-2014 period, most countries in the region registered a negative foreign trade balance in agrifood products

Review of Agricultural Trade Policies in former Soviet Union countries 2014-15 [available in Russian only] 
This publication has been prepared as part of the FAO Regional initiatives in Europe and Central Asia "Development of agricultural trade and market integration in Europe and in Central Asia.

Countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Agricultural policy issues in the context of the World Trade Organization
This report examines the experience and main issues of twelve of these countries in the context of the rules and commitments in agriculture under the World Trade Organization.

Ukraine’s agricultural sector after accession to the WTO
Iryna Kobuta, Vitaliy Zhygadlo, Aleksandr Sikachyna, 2015

Publications by partner organizations

Disclaimer | The views expressed in these papers do not necessarily reflect those of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Postgraduate Institute of the Academy of Financial Management of the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 

Scientific report Assessment of the impact of the Association Agreement / DCFTA between Ukraine and the EU on Ukraine's economy
For Ukraine, opening of the European market and the signing of the Association Agreement with the EU is definitely important and vital to ensure its further integration into the global economic space. 
English | Ukraine

Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO) 

Eastern breadbasket obstructs its market and growth opportunities
Because of its enormous land and yield potentials, the breadbasket of the East, i.e. Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan, are increasingly important for world grain markets. However, counterproductive market and trade policies, continual farm-level productivity gaps and deficits in marketing infrastructure consistently obstruct the breadbasket’s production and market potentials. 

Options and Constraints for Crop Diversification: A Case Study in Sustainable Agriculture in Uzbekistan
This article describes various opportunities but also constraints to greater crop diversification, and the impact on local sustainability in the Khorezm province of Uzbekistan in the Aral Sea basin.

Index-based insurance for climate risk management and rural development in Syria
This study analyses the agro-ecological, economic and social benefits of – and the institutional challenges to – establishing index-based insurance markets to catalyse rural development in Syria.

Impacts of climate change on farm income security in Central Asia: An integrated modelling approach
Increased risk due to global warming has already become embedded in agricultural decision making in Central Asia and uncertainties are projected to increase even further. Agro-ecology and economies of Central Asia are heterogenous and very little is known about the impact of climate change at the sub-national levels. 

How well does the crop insurance market function in Russia?
In this paper the authors aim to investigate the demand for crop insurance in Russia, identifying primary influencing factors.

All-Russian Institute of Agrarian Problems and Informatics, named after A. A. Nikonov 

Russian agriculture: the first year within the world trade organization
On the eve of Russia’s accession to WTO the debate held in the country about possible adverse effects of this step grew more fierce.

Russian agriculture: The impact of sanctions
On 7 August 2014 Russia introduced restrictions on import of food products from countries of the European Union, the US, Canada, Norway and Australia (hereinafter – retaliatory sanctions) in response to their sanctions against Russia driven by political developments in the Ukraine. This step astonished a lot of people in the country and even more so abroad as at the moment of enforcing retaliatory sanctions Russia remained a large-scale importer of foodstuffs. For many years one could observe an upward trend in imports of agricultural and food products that by 2013 amounted to $43.2bn.

Development of Methods for Evaluation of the Outcome of Russia's Accession to the WTO and Mechanisms of Adaptation of Support of Agricultural Policy to the WTO Requirements
The work provides in-depth analysis of state measures aimed at supporting Russian agriculture and its dealing with new challenges. 

The North-Western Institute of Management of The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA) 

The characteristic of foreign trade policy tools for subnational units
The article describes the directions of the external economic activity of the subnational governments in a number of states. 

Experience of the external economic policy at the subnational level at the developed federal countries
The influence of the subnational authorities policy at the federal countries in the field of government procurements, territories protection from diseases and social and economic development support on the sphere of the international trade regulation is investigated. 

Financial Support of the Enterprises Export at the Subnational Level: Experience of Canada Provinces for the Russian Regions (p. 95)
Studying of experience of the Canadian provinces answers to a question how Russia can prove legitimacy of the subsidies allocated for support of export now and in the future. 

Institute of Forecasting and Macroeconomic research of Cabinets of Ministers of Uzbekistan 

Activization of free economic zones as a source of industry growth in the long term
This article describes the role of free economic zones in the development of industrial production in developed and developing countries.

Business incubators: world experience and development in Vietnam and Uzbekistan
The article discusses the history of their development and role in the economy of individual countries, development of a business incubators’ network in Uzbekistan.

All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Economics

Agroindustrial complex of Russia under conditions of sanctions and necessity of providing the food security
The target of research has become assessing the consequences of sanctions, which concern the import to the Russian Federation of meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits, fish from the USA, Canada, Australia, Norway and countries of the European Union.

University of Georgia, Georgia 

Role and importance of food security in the concept of national security of Georgia
Sustainable and stable development of the country requires a safe environment. This aspect is of particular importance of Georgia's National Security Concept. On the basis of this document, measures are being taken to ensure the protection of fundamental national values and the implementation of national interests, as well as an adequate response to the threats, challenges and risks facing the country.

Bulletin (RU)