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Documents de travail sur les politiques commerciales et les produits de base

After Bali: WTO rules applying to public food reserves
This paper provides contextual background and analyses this decision from a legal perspective. It finds that, at best, Decision 38 provides a starting point for a WTO Work Programme for food security, for review at the Eleventh Ministerial Conference which will probably take place in 2017.

WTO domestic support disciplines: options for alleviating constraints to stockholding in developing countries in the follow-up to Bali
This paper provides first a succinct description of existing WTO provisions on domestic support applicable in general and the special treatment of developing countries including provisions for stockholding operations. 

Low levels of genetically modified crops in international food and feed trade: FAO international survey and economic analysis
The low level presence (LLP) and adventitious presence (AP) of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in internationally traded food crops have been a major issue of discussion recently. This paper presents the findings of a survey to evaluate the issue and examine the impact of LLP on trade flow.

Policy developments affecting jute and hard fibres markets and their implications for production and trade
This document examines the existing policy framework impacting production and trade of jute, abaca, coir, kenaf and sisal (JACKS). Policy discussion in this document is heavily biased towards producing countries, most of which are Least Developed Countries (LDC), because of the importance of these fibres to the economy of these countries.

Market structure and distribution of benefits from agricultural exports: The case of the Philippine mango industry
This paper relies on both qualitative and quantitative information to analyze the main determinants of the size and distribution of trade benefits among trading firms in the mango export industry in the Philippines.

Analysis of trade impact on the fresh pineapple sector in Ghana
The objective of this report is to determine, analyze and establish the level and distribution of trade impacts (benefits or losses) for firms and farmers engaged in the production and export of fresh pineapple from Ghana.

Trade and R&D spillover effects: Implications for firm level analysis in the agricultural sector
This paper provides a critical review of the economic literature on the relationship between international trade and research-and-development (R&D) spillovers with the aim of exploring ways to estimate the R&D spillover effects of agricultural trade at firm and industry levels

Investigating the structures of agricultural trade industry in developing countries
This paper reviews the theories and evidence on the structure of agricultural trade industry in developing countries. Based on a literature survey, the paper seeks to determine the causes leading to the industry structure and how the structure affects the distribution of trade impacts among firms.

Structural changes in the sugar market and implications for sugarcane smallholders in developing countries - Country case studies for Ethiopia and the United Republic of Tanzania
This study looks at the contribution of the sugar sub-sector to smallholder’s livelihood based on field survey samples collected from sugar producing regions in Tanzania and Ethiopia.

Food safety regulations and export responses of developing countries: The case of Turkey’s fig and hazelnut exports
Looks at the growing importance of food safety standards as trade regulations and their effect on exports. 

The impact of commodity development projects on smallholders’ market access in developing countries - Case studies of FAO/CFC projects
This report examines the role of commodity development projects, especially those funded by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) and supervised by FAO, in improving opportunities for market participation by smallholders.

The development of global diets since ICN 1992: influences of agri-food sector trends and policies. FAO commodity and trade policy research working paper 34
The scope of this report is to discuss dietary and nutritional changes and their causes since the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) 1992, with particular reference to developments on international food markets and policies.

A contribution to the analyses of the effects of foreign agricultural investment on the food sector and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa
Manitra A. Rakotoarisoa, FAO commodity and trade policy research working paper 33, November 2011

This paper analyzes the likely effects of foreign agricultural investment in Sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on the impacts on the food sector by simulating the effects of the reduction of investment risks triggering an entry of foreign investment flow.

Food export restrictions: review of the 2007-2010 experience and considerations for disciplining restrictive measures
Ramesh Sharma, FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 32, May 20
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Experiences on food export restrictions during 2007-2010 and related studies and makes some proposals for disciplining export restrictions through the ongoing Doha Round negotiations.

Resource-seeking Foreign Direct Investment in African Agriculture
Ann-Christin Gerlach and Pascal Liu, FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 31, September 2010

Although there has been much debate about the potential benefits and risks of international investment, there is no systematic evidence on the actual impacts on the host country.

Hedging cereal import price risks and institutions to assure import supplies
Alexander Sarris, FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 30, December 2009

The recent world food price spike raised to the fore the issues of how countries can manage their basic staple food imports in times of crises.

The use of organized commodity markets to manage food import price instability and risk
Alexander Sarris, Piero Conforti and Adam Prakash, FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 29, November 2009

The paper explores the possibility of insuring the price risks of wheat and maize imports of Low Income Food Deficit countries (LIFDCs).

Agricultural Input Subsidies in Malawi: Good, Bad, or Hard to Tell?
Edward F. Buffie and Manoj Atolia, FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 28, August 2009

This paper analyzes how agricultural input subsidies affect poverty and economic development in a dynamic general equilibrium model fully grounded in optimizing behavior.

Threshold cointegration in the sugar-ethanol-oil price system in Brazil: evidence from nonlinear vector error correction models
George Rapsomanikis and David Hallam. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 22

In this paper, the possibility of nonlinear dynamic adjustment in the sugar-ethanol-oil nexus in Brazil is examined.

Estimating price elasticities of supply for cotton: a structural time-series approach
Ben Shepherd. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 21

The Kalman Filter is used to estimate a structural time-series model of cotton supply for 30 countries and 16 aggregated regions.

Market access and preferential trading schemes: evidence from selected developed and developing countries
Piero Conforti and Luca Salvatici. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 20

Analysis of the degree of protection faced by exporters in the EU, Japan, the US, China, India and Brazil, and identification of the contribution of products' groups to the observed degree of market access.

The role of agriculture in reducing poverty in Tanzania: A household perspective from rural Kilimanjaro and Ruvuma
Alexander Sarris, Sara Savastano and Luc Christiaensen. FAO Commodities and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 19

This paper explores how farm productivity affects poverty, and how various factor market constraints affect farm productivity.

Producer demand and welfare benefits of rainfall insurance in Tanzania
Alexander Sarris, Panayiotis Karfakis and Luc Christiaensen. FAO Commodities and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 18

Explores empirically the issue of the demand, namely the willingness to pay (WTP), for rainfall-based insurance, in the context of a poor agrarian economy, with rural households significantly dependent on agricultural commodity risks.

Household vulnerability in rural Tanzania
Alexander Sarris and Panayiotis Karfakis. FAO Commodities and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 17

This paper develops a measure of rural household vulnerability that combines existing approaches to estimating idiosyncratic risks with an approach to measuring covariate risk arising from crop production.

The use of organized commodity markets to manage food import price instability and risk
Alexander Sarris, Piero Conforti and Adam Prakash. FAO Commodities and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 16

Insuring the price risks of wheat and maize imports of low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs) as a way to insure one part of their external commodity risks.

The impact of domestic and international commodity price volatility on agricultural income instability in Ghana, Vietnam and Peru
George Rapsomanikis and Alexander Sarris. FAO Commodities and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 15.

The extent to which commodity price volatility affects the income of producing households and their vulnerability to poverty and food insecurity depends on household diversification patterns and the degree of their exposure to markets.

Linkages between domestic and international maize markets, and market based strategies for hedging maize import price risks in Tanzania
Alexander Sarris and Ekaterini Mantzou. FAO Commodities and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 14

The paper analyzes the domestic regional maize markets in the United Republic of Tanzania as far as their spatial integration is concerned, as well as their influence from world prices.

Food import risk in Malawi: simulating a hedging scheme for Malawi food imports using historical data
Wouter Zant. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 13

During the 1980s and 1990s least developed countries (LDCs) encountered increasing difficulties in maintaining national food security

The effect of direct payments of the OECD countries in world agricultural markets. Evidence from partial and general equilibrium frameworks
Piero Conforti. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 12

The effect of direct payments granted to OECD farmers on world agricultural markets is one of the controversial issues in the Doha Development Agenda.

The impact of import surges: country case study results for Senegal and Tanzania
Ramesh Sharma, David Nyange, Guillaume Duteutre and Nancy Morgan. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 11

Measuring the impacts of import surges is a difficult task, but simple case studies illustrate some of the fundamental issues.

Agricultural trade liberalization in the Doha round. Alternative scenarios and strategic interaction between developed and developing countries
Piero Conforti and Luca Salvatici. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 10

The paper explores the impact of an agricultural trade agreement, simulating alternative liberalization scenarios, and studying the outcomes of the interaction between the strategies of country groups in the negotiations.

The EU cotton policy regime and the implications of the proposed changes for producer welfare
Giannis Karagiannis. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 9

A new European Union (EU) policy regime has been announced for cotton for introduction in 2005. The orientation is towards a scheme which includes a mix of coupled and decoupled measures.

The impact of domestic and trade policies on the world cotton market. Daneswar Poonyth, Alexander Sarris, Ramesh Sharma and Shangnan Shui. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 8
There is a long tradition in the quantification of the impact of agricultural trade distortions on global markets, trade, and individual countries, notably in the context of the ongoing multilateral trade negotiations.

Price transmission in selected agricultural markets
Piero Conforti. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 7

The paper provides evidence on price transmission in a number of agricultural markets, both per se and in support of analytical efforts in the area of agricultural trade policy analysis.

The marketing potential of date palm fruits in the European market
Pascal Liu. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 6

Europe, and in particular the European Union (EU) is a key market for date exporters.

World markets for organic citrus and citrus juices
Pascal Liu. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 5

The world market for certified organic citrus (fresh and juice) is presently small and production accounts for less than 1 percent of global citrus production.

Agricultural Policy Indicators
Timothy E. Josling and Alberto Valdés. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 4

Methodological approach for use by FAO to collect, analyze and monitor agricultural policy indicators (API) for developing countries.

Quantifying appropriate levels of the WTO bound tariffs on basic food products in the context of the Development Box proposals
Ramesh Sharma. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 3

Many developing countries in their WTO negotiating proposals on market access have called for the option for them to set appropriate levels of bound tariffs, as special and differential treatment, for selected products vital for food and livelihood security.

The WTO and environmental and social standards, certification and labelling in agriculture
Cora Dankers. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 2

This paper reflects on the GATT/WTO legal aspects of social and environmental standards and voluntary certification and labelling programmes in agriculture.

The Brazilian ethanol programme: impacts on world ethanol and sugar markets
Tatsuji Koizumi. FAO Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 1

The Brazilian government has now abolished all the sugar market intervention measures except for the control on the ethanol-gasoline blend ratio.