This is the published article version of an earlier working paper with the same name. The paper uses a newly constructed cross-country database composed of comparable income aggregates to examine the full range of income generating activities carried out by rural households. The analysis paints a clear picture of multiple activities across rural space in countries on all four continents, though less so in the included African countries. For most countries the largest share of income stems from off-farm activities, and the largest share of households has diversified sources of income. Diversification, not specialization, is the norm. Nevertheless, agricultural sources of income remain critically important for rural livelihoods in all countries.