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The El Niño phenomenon infographic

Sep 2015
The designations employed and the presentation of material in the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

An El Niño state occurs when the central and eastern equatorial Pacific sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are substantially higher than usual. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) defines an El Niño event when the NIÑO 3.4 area has sea-surface temperatures at least 0.5 ºC higher than normal for five consecutive three-month-averaged periods.

During the last 25 years, Somalia has been affected by six moderate-to-strong El Niño events: 1991-2, 1994-5, 1997-8, 2002-3, 2006-7, and 2009-10 in which floods of different magnitudes were reported. The 1997/98 was the strongest followed by that of 2006.

Author: FAO SWALIM