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The FAO Component of the Consolidated Appeals 2011: Sudan
In 2010, the Sudan held its first national elections in two decades, reflecting the considerable progress made since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005.
CAP 2011 – List of Countries
However, continued insecurity in some parts of the country forced hundreds of thousands from their homes. At the same time, greater stability in other areas encouraged people to return to their places of origin, requiring support to rebuild their livelihoods.
In Darfur, ongoing insecurity meant that some 4.6 million people required aid. However, continued attacks on humanitarian workers hampered efforts to reach those most in need. In the Three Transitional Areas (Abyei, Blue Nile and South Kordofan), threats of violence and the return of displaced people strained existing infrastructure, while eastern Sudan continues to have some of the lowest human development indicators in North Sudan, exacerbated by the flow of refugees from neighbouring countries.
In 2010, populations throughout Southern Sudan faced food insecurity and poverty, linked to decades of conflict, the disruption and loss of economic activities, displacement, and the erosion of livelihoods. Uncertainty surrounding the 2011 referendum disrupted some trade, pushing food prices upward and may create unrest in some areas; while in western states, the resumption of violence by the LRA forced tens of thousands to flee their homes.
Challenges facing food security and livelihoods
Some 60 to 80 percent of North Sudanese rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. However, the sector is dominated by traditional, low technology practices and chronic food insecurity plagues households across the country.
Darfur is particularly vulnerable to food insecurity due to violence, drought, pests, floods, crop and animal diseases. In 2009-10, this was exacerbated by soaring food prices and food deficits caused by low productivity. In eastern Sudan, long dry spells in 2008 and 2009, and heavy rains in 2007 and 2010 affected crop production and pastures. Agricultural production in the Three Transitional Areas was constrained by climatic conditions (drought, floods) and ongoing tensions between nomadic and settled groups over access to and use of deteriorating natural resources.
In Southern Sudan, a massive food gap emerged in 2010 linked to low crop production (partly due to poor rains in 2009), insecurity, deteriorating terms of trade for livestock producers, and widespread displacement. Seasonal flooding in some states further aggravated the worrying food security situation. In 2010, 3.3 million people faced moderate to severe food insecurity. However, the timely onset of rains improved prospects for agricultural production and food security in 2011. With 80 percent of Southern Sudanese relying on agriculture to meet their food and income needs, urgent support is required for crop and livestock production.
As co-leads of the Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL) Cluster in the Sudan, FAO and WFP work closely with the Government and other stakeholders to build the affected populations’ capacity to prepare for and effectively respond to threats and food security shocks. FAO provides technical guidance and support and facilitates the availability of information in areas such as agriculture, livestock, fisheries, forestry and wider food security. This enables partners to better anticipate, prepare for and respond to agriculture and livestock emergencies.
Despite improvement in the coordination of FSL interventions in 2010, Cluster members’ capacities were stretched as they responded to the protracted crisis and several sudden-onset emergencies (floods, outbreaks of crop pests and livestock diseases). In 2011, FAO will continue coordinating partners’ interventions to avoid duplication; ensure full integration of cross-cutting issues into programming; and promote gender equality, as well as early recovery interventions and disaster risk reduction and management.
In eastern Sudan, the Three Transitional Areas and Darfur, FAO will continue to support agricultural production by distributing essential inputs (seeds, tools, small-scale agroprocessing equipment, veterinary medicines) and providing training (in crop and livestock production, basic veterinary techniques, disease surveillance, etc.). Efforts will be made to rehabilitate agricultural infrastructure and promote better natural resource management.
In Southern Sudan, FAO will work to improve the livelihoods of vulnerable populations by distributing agricultural inputs (seeds, tools and animal traction equipment) and providing technical assistance and training in improved production techniques. Veterinary drugs and vaccines, cold chain equipment, laboratory equipment and fishing gear will also be distributed. Training will be provided to strengthen disease early warning and surveillance systems, and laboratory diagnosis.