Aquaculture: The farming of aquatic organisms, including
fish, molluscs, crustaceans and plants. Farming implies human intervention
in order to enhance production -- for example, stocking fish, feeding
them, or providing protection from predators. Farming also means
ownership of the fish stock being cultivated. Aquaculture operations
vary greatly from place to place, from rice paddy/freshwater fish
farms in Viet Nam to saltwater shrimp ponds on Ecuador's coast to
netcage salmon operations off the shores of Norway or Scotland.
However, most aquaculture occurs in the developing world and involves
the production of freshwater fish low on the food chain, such as
tilapia or carp.
Fish: FAO uses this term to refer to three types of aquatic
animals -- finfish, crustaceans, and molluscs.
Low-Income Food Deficit countries: Countries classified (i)
by the World Bank as low-income in terms of Gross National Product
(GNP) per caput and (ii) by FAO as having a trade deficit for food
in terms of calorific values.
Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries: A set of principles
and international standards of behaviour for the fisheries and aquaculture
sectors. The goal of the voluntary code is to ensure the effective
conservation, management and development of living aquatic resources.
It was drafted by FAO in cooperation with over 17O of its member
governments, inter-governmental organizations, fishing industry
representatives and non-governmental organizations. National governments,
in cooperation with their industries and fishing communities, have
the responsibility to implement the Code; FAO's role is to lend
support to those activities.
Food security: FAO defines food security as physical and
economic access by all members of a population at all times to sufficient,
safe and nutritious food in order to meet dietary needs and allow
an active and healthy life.
Sustainable development: The management and conservation
of natural resources, such as fish stocks, in a way that meets human
needs today while ensuring that the needs of future generations
will also be met. In the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors,
sustainable development seeks to conserve land, water, plant and
animal genetic resources and be environmentally non-degrading, technically
appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable to affected