List of Working Papers
|Baumann P., (July 2002) Improving Access to Natural Resources for the Rural Poor: A critical analysis of central concepts and emerging trends from a sustainable livelihoods perspective. FAO, LSP WP 1, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme. |
Assumes some basic knowledge of the SLA and familiarity through examining current debates around poverty, vulnerability and livelihood issues related to access to natural resources; main features of the sustainable livelihoods approaches and relate them to current thinking about access to natural resources.
|Cotula L., (August 2002) Improving Access to Natural Resources for the Rural Poor: The experience of FAO and of other key organisations from a sustainable livelihoods perspective. FAO, LSP WP 2, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme. |
Identifies FAO’s activities concerning access to natural resources (ANR), containing a brief overview of FAO’s ANR activities by department, with particular regard to those that are most relevant for SLA. This paper focuses on some case studies and identifies other organizations that use explicitly or implicitly a sustainable livelihoods approach in relation to ANR.
|Karl M., (August 2002) Participatory Policy Reform from a Sustainable Livelihoods Perspective: Review of concepts and practical experiences. FAO, LSP WP 3, Participation, Policy and Local Governance Sub-Programme. |
Examines ways to bridge this gap through the development and application of tested strategies and institutional mechanisms to support the participation of the rural poor in policy making.
|Warren P., (December 2002) Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development: An initial exploration of Concepts and Issues. FAO, LSP WP 4, Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development Sub-Programme. |
Focuses in the development of small rural enterprises in the framework of a more comprehensive analysis of the way in which agricultural intensification and off-farm diversification have combined each other in orienting rural people adaptive response to shortand long-term environmental, economic-political and socio-cultural change.
|Cleary D., with contributions from Pari Baumann, Marta Bruno, Ximena Flores and Patrizio Warren (September 2003) People-Centred Approaches: A brief literature review and comparison of types. FAO, LSP WP 5, People-Centered Approaches in Different Cultural Contexts Sub-Programme. |
An overview of some people-centred approaches to rural development that are being used, or have been used, in different areas of the world. The approaches covered here are the sustainable livelihoods approach, as is being developed by the UK’s Department for International Development (DfID); the land management approach (gestion de terroirs); the farming systems approach; and some approaches that have been emerging from Latin America, and in particular territorial planning approach (ordenamiento territorial)
Also available in Spanish.
|Seshia S. with Scoones I., Environment Group, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK (November 2003) Understanding Access to Seeds and Plant Genetic Resources. What Can a Livelihoods Perspective Offer? FAO, LSP WP 6, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Uses a livelihoods perspective to facilitate understanding of the role played by seeds and plant genetic resources (PGRs) in rural people’s livelihoods and considers how a livelihood perspective may strengthen understanding of issues of access
|Biggs S. D., and Messerschmidt D., (December 2003) The culture of access to mountain natural resources FAO, LSP WP 7, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
It looks at sustainable livelihoods approaches to access to natural resources in mountain areas and concentrates on access by poorer and marginalized groups to policy processes whereby long-term sustainable access to resources is achieved. The authors have opted to concentrate on one country, Nepal and to focus on access to forest resources.
|Evrard O., (Janvier 2004) La mise en oeuvre de la réforme foncière au Laos : Impacts sociaux et effets sur les conditions de vie en milieu rural (with summary in English) FAO, LSP WP 8, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Describes the results of a study funded by FAO on the impacts of the land reform in Laos on land access and rural livelihoods, focusing more particularly on the northern regions. The study draws on interviews with Lao Government officials and foreign experts in Vientiane during October- November 2003 and an analysis of existing literature.
|Ellis F., Allison E., Overseas Development Group, University of Anglia, UK (January 2004) Livelihood Diversification and Natural Resource Access. FAO, LSP WP 9, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme, Livelihood Diversification and Enterprise Development.
Provides a synopsis of the livelihoods approach, summarises ideas and recent evidence concerning livelihood diversification, links diversification to natural resource access considerations, considers policy environments pertinent to both diversification and natural resource access, and proposes policy areas that could form the basis of action oriented research initiatives in this area.
|Hodgson S., (March 2004) Land and Water – the rights interface. FAO, LSP WP 10, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Analyses the linkages between rights to land and water. These natural resources are usually administered within different sectors and under different legal frameworks yet rural livelihoods of the poor are often dependant on access to both water and land.
|Mitchell R. and Hanstad T., Rural Development Institute (RDI), USA, (March 2004) Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor. FAO LSP WP 11, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme. Also available in Bahasa.
Examines ways in which the poor can use small amounts of land to establish homegardens to advance important livelihoods objectives. Where land is scarce, access to even small plots can benefit families by improving nutrition, providing a source of additional household income, and enhancing the status of women in the household.
|Hanstad T., Nielsen R., Brown J., Rural Development Institute (RDI), USA, (May 2004) Land and Livelihoods: Making land rights real for India’s rural poor. FAO LSP WP 12, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Identifies issues that are central to consideration of land access in rural India and provides suggestions for opportunities for positively impacting the livelihoods of the rural poor.
|Fisher R.J., Schmidt K., Steenhof B. and Akenshaev N., (May 2004) Poverty and forestry: A case study of Kyrgyzstan with reference to other countries in West and Central Asia. FAO LSP WP 13, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
It uses the case study of Kyrgyzstan to show how access to forests in West and Central Asia can contribute to poverty reduction using a sustainable livelihoods approach. The study supports FAO's Forestry Outlook Study which aims to better understand the dynamics and relationships between societies and nature and particularly the role of the forestry sector in socio-economic development
|Cotula L. and Toulmin C. with Vlaenderen H.V., Tall S.M., Gaye G, Saunders J., Ahiadeke C. and Anarfi J.K. (IIED) (July 2004). Till to tiller: Linkages between international remittances and access to land in West Africa. FAO LSP WP 14, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Explores the linkages between international remittances and access to land in the home countries, with a focus on West Africa. Given the complexity of these linkages and due to time and resource constraints, this research project was designed and implemented as a scoping study, aimed at raising and identifying key issues for further work rather than at providing definitive answers and policy recommendations.
|Baumann P., Bruno M., Cleary D., Dubois O. and Flores X., with contributions from Warren P., Maffei T. and Johnson J. (March 2004) Applying people centred development approaches within FAO: some practical lessons. FAO LSP WP 15, People Centred Approaches in Different Development Contexts Sub-Programme. Also available in Spanish and French.
Focuses on people-centred or livelihood-type approaches actually used within FAO and development approaches used in different cultural-linguistic regions. The work draws some lessons on the implementation of people centred approaches in FAO and, to some extent, different development contexts (cultural, linguistic, etc).
|Neely C., Sutherland K., and Johnson J. (October 2004) Do sustainable livelihoods approaches have a positive impact on the rural poor? – A look at twelve case studies. FAO LSP WP 16, Institutional Learning Sub-Programme. Also available in Spanish and French.
It focuses on the sustainable livelihood (SL) approach, which builds on principles of building assets and a livelihoods focus, also incorporates principles of reduced vulnerability and sustainability as critical to achieving lasting poverty reduction. Using a livelihoods perspective along with a good developmental tool kit and appropriate sequencing can enhance the quality of a wide range of approaches to improve the lives of the rural poor.
|Norfolk S. (2004) Examining access to natural resources and linkages to sustainable livelihoods: A case study of Mozambique FAO LSP WP 17, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Analyses, using a livelihoods approach, the extent to which the regulatory changes to natural resource access and management in Mozambique have had their intended effect and to identify and explore the critical issues that require further attention.
|Unruh J., (2004) Post-conflict land tenure: using a sustainable livelihoods approach. FAO LSP WP 18, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme
Addresses the application of sustainable livelihood approaches to access to land and land administration in post-conflict situations. The preparation of this paper is based in-part on the author’s land tenure project, policy and research experience in conflict and post-conflict settings, particularly in Somalia, Mozambique, East Timor, Uganda, and Ethiopia, complemented by additional land tenure work in Zambia, Madagascar, Saudi Arabia, and Peru.
|Eckman, C. (2005) Lessons Learned by the WIN Project on Livelihoods
Diversification and Enterprise Development: An Overview of WIN LDED-related Activities in Cambodia, Nepal and Zambia. FAO LSP WP 19. Livelihoods
Diversification and Enterprise Development Sub-Programme.
The pilot WIN project (Empowerment of Women in Irrigation and Water Resources Management for Household Food Security) was an operational research project implemented by FAO from 2000-2003. It reviews the processes which facilitated the emergence of livelihood diversification and enterprise development activities, outlining lessons on what did and did not work, with recommendations for the future.
|Warren, P. (2005) Between the Household and the Market: A livelihoods analysis of SPFS seed multiplication in Southern Guatemala. FAO LSP WP 20. Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development Sub-Programme
Describes the overall vulnerability context and the processes of change to which the participants and the indirect beneficiaries of seed multiplication are exposed in that particular location. The paper explores the economic and cultural logic that has facilitated the incorporation of this “good practice” into the participants’ livelihood strategies.
|Strele M., Holtge K., Fiebiger M., Were J, Schulmeister A, with contributions from Weingartner L, (2006) Participatory Livelihoods Monitoring : Linking Programmes and Poor People's Interests to Policies. Experiences from Cambodia. FAO LSP. WP 21, Participation, Policy and Local Governance Sub-Programme
Provides a simple and hands-on insight into the developed methodology and the suggested strategies to overcome the identified communication gaps. It should therefore serve as a guideline for practitioners who wish to apply a participatory and results-oriented monitoring methodology in their various project contexts.
|Unruh J. and Turray H. (2006). Land tenure, food security and investment in postwar Sierra Leone. FAO LSP WP 22. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Recommendations are then suggested, followed by areas for future research.
|Nielsen R., Hanstad T., and Rolfes L. Rural Development Institute (RDI). (2006). Implementing homestead plot programmes: Experience from India. FAO LSP WP 23. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Represents part of an area of work which examines ways in which the poor can use small amounts of land to establish homegardens to support their livelihoods. When land is scarce, access to even small plots can benefit families by improving nutrition, providing a source for additional household income, and enhancing the status of women. This paper builds on the LSP Working Paper 11: “Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor”; and LSP Working Paper 12: “Land and Livelihoods: Making land rights real for India’s rural poor”
|Quan, J. Natural Resources Institute University of Greenwich. (2006). Land access in the 21st century: Issues, trends, linkages and policy options FAO LSP WP 24. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Seeks to cover the key issues, trends, constraints, challenges, knowledge gaps and policy options on a range of dimensions of land access. These dimensions include food security and poverty alleviation, gender, broader natural resource access, indigenous peoples, the role of NGOs and civil society, comparative approaches to state intervention in promoting distributional land reform, the roles of land sales and lease markets, the role of small household plots and the implications of livelihood diversification, migration and remittances.
|Cotula L., Hesse C., Sylla O., Thébaud B., Vogt G., and Vogt K. International Institute for Environmentand Development (IIED). (2006.) Land and water rights in the Sahel: Tenure challenges of improving access to water for agriculture. FAO LSP WP 25. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
It focuses on the demographic and other changes are raising new challenges for water access in the Sahel. With rapid population growth, competition over water resources for agricultural uses is increasing. In many places, water points have been at the centre of tensions and even violent clashes between users. Climate change may exacerbate the scarce and erratic nature of rainfall in the region.
|Gomes N. (2006). Access to water, pastoral resource management and pastoralists’ livelihoods: Lessons learned from water development in selected areas of Eastern Africa (Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia). FAO LSP WP 26. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Represents part of an area of work which analyses the linkages between rights to land and water. An initial scoping paper explored the interface between land and water rights (LSP Working Paper 10: Hodgson, S. (2004). “Land and water – the rights interface”). It is complemented by two regional analyses: this Working Paper and LSP Working Paper 25: IIED. (2006). “Land and water rights in the Sahel: Tenure challenges of improving access to water for agriculture”.
|Tanner C., Baleira S., Norfolk S., Cau B. and Assulai J. (2006). Making rights a reality: Participation in practice and lessons learned in Mozambique. FAO LSP WP 27. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
It represents part of an area of work which analyses access to natural resources in Mozambique. An initial paper examined the extent to which Mozambique’s recent regulatory changes to natural resource access and management have had their intended effects (LSP Working Paper 17: Norfolk, S. (2004). “Examining access to natural resources and linkages to sustainable livelihoods: a case study of Mozambique”). This paper is complemented by LSP Working Paper 28: Tanner et al. (2006). “Mozambique’s legal framework for access to natural resources: The impact of new legal rights and community consultations on local livelihoods”.
|Tanner C. and Baleira S.with Afonso Â, Azevedo J. P., Bila J., Chichava C., Moisés A., Pedro C. and Santos J. (2006). Mozambique’s legal framework for access to natural resources: The impact of new legal rights and community consultations on local livelihoods. FAO LSP WP 28. Access to Natural Resources Sub- Programme.
Looks at one of the most important practical aspects of local participation in the Land Law and other natural resources legislation: the community consultation, through which outsiders – the State, new investors, timber companies, hotel groups – gain access to local land and resources with the approval of local people. In the consultation, the community is asked if the land required by the investor is occupied or not.
|Romano F. and Reeb D. (2006). Understanding forest tenure: What rights and for whom? Secure forest tenure for sustainable forest management and poverty alleviation: the case of South and Southeast Asia, with case studies of Orissa and Meghalaya, India and Nepal. FAO LSP WP 29. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Represents part of an area of work in support of enhancing access to forest resources in South and Southeast Asia. It is based on eleven case studies. The LSP Sub-programme 3.1 supported three case studies (Orissa and Meghalaya, India and Nepal); other countries covered were China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The full study, including all case studies, is published as: FAO. 2006. “Understanding Forest Tenure in South and Southeast Asia”. Forestry Policy and Institutions Working Paper No. 14. Rome. The aim of this study is to shape a clearer understanding of these trends and their impact on SFM and poverty alleviation (PA).
|Lindsay J., Wingard J. and Manaljav Z. (2006). Improving the legal framework for participatory forestry: Issues and options for Mongolia. FAO LSP WP 30. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Represents part of an area of work in support of enhancing access to land and forest resources in support of rural livelihoods in Mongolia. Information on the work is provided through LSP Working Papers number 30,31 and 32
|Schmidt S. with Altanchimeg C., Tungalagtuya K., Narangerel Y., Ganchimeg D., Erdenechimeg B., Dambayuren S. and Battogoo D. New Zealand Nature Institute - Initiative for People Centered Conservation. (2006). Depleting natural wealth – perpetuating poverty: Rural livelihoods and access to forest resources in Mongolia. FAO LSP WP 31. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Represents part of an area of work in support of enhancing access to land and forest resources in support of rural livelihoods in Mongolia. Information on the work is provided through LSP Working Papers number 30,31 and 32.
|Schmidt S. with Altanchimeg C., Tungalagtuya K., Narangerel Y., Ganchimeg D., Erdenechimeg B., Dambayuren S. and Battogoo D. New Zealand Nature Institute - Initiative for People Centered Conservation. (2006). Rural livelihoods and access to forest resources in Mongolia: Methodology and case studies of Tsenkher Soum, Ulaan Uul Soum, Binder Soum, Teshig Soum and Baynlig Soum. FAO LSP WP 32. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Represents part of an area of work in support of enhancing access to land and forest resources in support of rural livelihoods in Mongolia. Information on the work is provided through LSP Working Papers number 30,31 and 32. While extensive and systematic work has been undertaken on rangeland and livestock issues in Mongolia, a knowledge gap existed on the links between rural livelihoods and forest resources.
|Shimizu T. (2006) Assessing the access to forest resources for improving livelihoods in West and Central Asia countries. FAO LSP WP 33. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme
Provides an introduction to, and a synthesis of, a “package” of FOWECA documents that assess access to forest resources for improving livelihood, and urban / peri-urban forestry in the WECA region. It gives an overview of the work carried out by the LSP in support of FOWECA and identifies the lessons learned that could be of use in future forestry projects.
|Baumann P. (2006) Forest - poverty linkages in West and Central Asia: The outlook from a sustainable livelihoods perspective. FAO LSP WP 34. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Provides the basis for a training workshop on SLA in order to prepare national consultants for carrying out case studies in Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey (LSP Working Paper 35).
|Shimizu T., and Trudel M., with case studies by Asanbaeva A., Kananian M., Naseri Gh. and
Sülüşoğlu M. (2006). Methodology and case studies on linkages between poverty and
forestry: Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey. FAO LSP WP 35. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Presents the methodology used for case studies on the forest-poverty linkages in Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey. It represents part of an area of work on linkages between access to forest resources and poverty in West and Central Asia.
|Åkerlund U., in collaboration with Knuth L., Randrup T. and Schipperijn J. (2006). Urban and peri-urban forestry and greening in west and Central Asia: Experiences, constraints and prospects. FAO LSP WP 36. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Represents part of an area of work on linkages between access to forest resources and poverty in West and Central Asia
|Knuth L. (2006). Greening cities for improving urban livelihoods: Legal, policy and institutional aspects of urban and peri-urban forestry in West and Central Asia (with a case study of Armenia). FAO LSP WP 37. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme.
Presents part of an area of work on linkages between access to forest resources and poverty in West and Central Asia.This is a regional report but it should be kept in mind that the lessons learnt are relevant worldwide, considering the urban problems and the potential of urban green resources as a source of income for the urban poor and the improvement of their livelihoods (including provision of food and creation of employment).
|Edited by Lorenzo Cotula, contributing authors: Jean-Pierre Chauveau, Salmana Cissé, Jean-Philippe Colin, Lorenzo Cotula, Philippe Lavigne Delville, Nanete Neves, Julian Quan, Camilla Toulmin, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Changes in “customary” land tenure systems in Africa. FAO LSP WP38, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme
Explores changes in customary land tenure systems in Africa, identifying the factors driving such changes and analysing their livelihood implications. The central topic – changes in local systems of rules and institutions for the management of land rights – is at the very heart of legal anthropology, but also raises broader issues concerning the linkages between changes in local rules and institutions and broader changes in economies and societies.
|Laurel L. Rose Children’s property and inheritance rights and their livelihoods: The context of HIV and AIDS in Southern and East Africa. FAO LSP WP39, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme
Focuses on legal and institutional aspects of children’s property and inheritance rights in Southern and East Africa. It is focused on the wider problem of property-grabbing, the author argues that the legislation and policy of the countries in the region should guarantee orphaned children, the following property and inheritance rights: the right to own, acquire (through purchase, gift, or inheritance), and dispose of tangible and intangible property, including land, housing, money, livestock, and crops.
|Patricia Howard and Erin Smith, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Center, The Netherlands. Leaving two thirds out of development: Female headed households and common property resources in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia. FAO LSP WP40, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme
Contains the results of a study of gender and access to forest and tree resources, women and men’s use of common lands and botanical resources, and the importance of these resources for the livelihoods of people in highland Ethiopia.The results presented in this report reflect the findings and opinions only of the lead scientist and senior researcher, and not of the FAO.
|Christine Okali Linking livelihoods and gender analysis for achieving gender transformative change FAO LSP WP41, Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme
Seeks specifically to identify the links between the theme of gender and livelihoods perspectives that became popular in the late 1990s. The question being addressed is not whether gender has disappeared as livelihoods perspectives have moved into natural resources programmes, but rather whether this new paradigm has been able to advance gender interests and in what ways a closer alignment of the two might be beneficial to both.
|Ricardo Ramirez and Maria Fernandez, with contributions from Maria Guglielma da Passano, Tanith Bello, Jan Johnson and Karel Callens Framework perspective on local participation in policy: Views through FAO experience FAO LSP WP42, Participation, Policy and Local Governance Sub-Programme
The goal of this exercise is to identify some of the tools a development agent needs for achieving effective local participation in policy development. The case studies here were written with the aim of learning about the participatory policy development processes that took place around and within the contexts of a series of FAO projects that started with a technical orientation (e.g. food security) and over time began to appreciate the significance of the policy context as an area where the project could play a direct role.