Tree NUTS are dry fruits or kernels enclosed in woody shells or hard
husks, which in turn are generally covered by a thick, fleshy/fibrous
outer husk that is removed during harvest. Similar products, such as
groundnuts, sunflower seeds and melon seeds, although often used for
similar purposes, are included with oil-bearing crops (see Chapter
FAO includes in this group only dessert or table nuts. Nuts that are used mainly for flavouring beverages and masticatory and stimulant nuts should be excluded. An exception is made for areca nuts and kola nuts, which FAO considers to be inedible nuts, but which are included with the nut and derived products group to be consistent with international trade classifications. Nuts used mainly for the extraction of oil or butter, (e.g. sheanuts) as well as nuts contained in other fruits (e.g. peaches) are excluded.
It should be noted that some countries report certain nut crops (chestnuts, pignolia nuts) with forestry products.
Production data relate to the weight of nuts in the shell or husk, but without the outer husk. The weight of the kernel contained in the nut ranges from as low as 30 percent for cashew nuts to as high as 80 percent in the case of chestnuts. The edible portion of nut kernels is, with the major exception of chestnuts, very rich in fat content at between 50 percent and 65 percent. Protein content makes up 15-20 percent and carbohydrate content is between 10 percent and 15 percent. Starch and saccharose are the main components of dry chestnuts, accounting for about 75 percent.
FAO covers ten primary nut crops. Each is listed below along with its code, its botanical name, or names, and a short description.
NUT PRODUCTS include shelled nuts, whole or split, and further processed products, including roasted nuts, meal/flour, paste, oil, etc.
Nut oils are not separately identified in the FAO classification; instead they are included under the heading "oil of vegetable origin nes" (see Chapter .). The most commonly marketed oils are almon oil and cashew nut oil and its derivative cardol.
|COMMODITY||DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS|
|0216||BRAZIL NUTS Brazil, Para or cream nut (Bertholletia excelsa)|
|0229||Brazil Nuts, Shelled||Around 55% of the weight in shell.|
|0217||CASHEW NUTS Anacardium occidentale||Produced mainly in East Africa, India and Brazil.|
|0230||Cashew Nuts, Shelled||Around 25% of the weight in shell.|
|0220||CHESTNUTS Castanea spp.: C. vesca; C. vulgaris; C. sativa||Produced mainly in Europe and Asia.|
|0221||ALMONDS Prunus amygdalus; P. communis; Amygdalus communis||Produced mainly in Mediterranean countries, the United States and Asia.|
|0231||Almonds, Shelled||Around 55% of the weight in shell.|
|0222||WALNUTS Jugland spp.: J. regia||Produced in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in the United States.|
|0232||Walnuts, Shelled||Around 53% of the weight in shell.|
|0223||PISTACHIOS Pistacia vera||Produced mainly in the Near East and the United States.|
|0224||KOLA NUTS kola, cola, Sudan cola nut (Cola nitida; C. vera; C. acuminata)||Produced mainly in Africa. Kola nuts, containing 2.4 to 2.6% caffeine, are commonly chewed by the local population. Much used in Europe and America in the production of beverages.|
|0225||HAZELNUTS (FILBERTS) Corylus avellana||Produced mainly in Mediterranean countries and the United States.|
|0233||Hazelnuts, Shelled||Around 50% of the weight in shell.|
|0226||ARECA NUTS areca, betel nut (Areca catechu)||Produced mainly in the Far East. Areca nuts are used mainly as masticatory. These nuts contain alkaloids (arecoline and arecaidine).|
|0234||NUTS NES Including inter alia: pecan nut (Carya illinoensis); butter or swarri nut (Caryocar nuciferum); pili nut, Java almond, Chinese olives (Canarium spp.); paradise or sapucaia nut (Lecythis zabucajo); Queensland, macadamia nut (Macadamia ternifolia); pignolia nut (Pinus pinea)||Other nuts that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report nuts under this heading that are classified individually by FAO.|
|0235||Prepared Nuts||Mainly roasted, whether or not containing vegetable oils, salt, flavours, spices or other additives. Excludes prepared groundnuts, except when mixed with other nuts.|