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家庭农业知识平台

  缅 甸

Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for over 70 % of Myanmar population and considered as a driver for economic development. Enhancing agricultural production, productivity and rural livelihoods have been the main objective of the Government of Myanmar. It is a fundamental instrument to achieve food and nutrition security, reduce poverty, create rural and urban employment, and generate sustainable broad-based economic growth ensuring environmental sustainability. Noting the importance of agriculture sector, strong policies and programs are being laid out to enhance more investment particularly for smallholder farmers.

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For sustainable agricultural development, the Government of Myanmar recognizes that family farming system and smallholders play an important role to ensure food security and reduce malnutrition. It also encourages and supports integrated and multi-sectorial public policies, as appropriate, to raise the productivity and incomes, thereby, strengthening the resilience of rural community.
In Myanmar a total of 53 million acres of land are used for crop cultivation and 95% of the work is done by smallholder farmers. There is a huge amount of losses (that is 40 to 60 % of the crops produced seasonally have been lost) because of the lack of post-harvest technology and machineries such as dryer and harvester, and warehouses. As a consequence, farmers have to struggle very hard for their living.
Furthermore, the reality we are facing with deep regret is that ten percent of our people (about 5 million) leave their farms and properties, moving as migrant workers to other countries for indecent job. Because of that, supporting to and close cooperating with the smallholder family farmers are immediate and crucial task for all of us.

The followings are the points to be fulfilled for the sustainability and improvement of the livelihoods of small-scale holder farmers in Myanmar:
    a.    Adequate capital investment for family farming;
b.     Distribution of quality seeds and establishment of seed industry;
c.     Irrigation water and systematic water management for drinking and agriculture purpose;
d.     Pre -harvest and post-harvest technology;
e.     Agricultural machineries to be substituted for draught animals;
f.     Agricultural inputs (i.e., fertilizer and pesticide);
g.     Post-harvest facilities (Dryer, Packaging, Warehouse);
h.     Agro-based small and medium enterprises for value added production;
i.     Cold storage and warehouse facilities for perishable crops;
j.     Wholesale and retail markets for getting proper price and sustainable market;
k.     Stable transport facilities;
l.     Real time weather and market information.

As an effort to fulfill those requirements, the Law of Protection of the Farmer Rights and Enhancement of their Benefits, was enacted on 8th October 2013 to protect the needs and rights of smallholder farmers whose livelihood relied on family farming.
There are eight chapters and 29 articles in this law and objectives of the law are:
(a)    To support farmers by providing suitable loans and assistance for investment;
(b)    To manage for providing technology, input and production facility to farmers smoothly to improve production;
(c)    To assist farmers for getting reasonable price and market in selling agricultural produces;
(d)    To protect the rights of farmers possessing small plot and to enhance their benefits effectively; and
(e)    To provide aids as much as possible for loss and damage caused by any natural disaster.

According to the law, the rights of small holder farmers shall be shielded (a) to choose desired crops freely on their farm land without injuring paddy cultivation; (b) to get reasonable agricultural loan; (c)    to transport and sell agricultural produces freely; (d)to insure agricultural produces; (e) to establish farmer associations or organizations in accord with the existing laws.
As the family farming system occupies most area in Myanmar agriculture, enacting this law will, not only protect their rights and enhance their benefits but also promote the sustainable development of Myanmar agriculture.

 

This text is kindly provided by the authorities of this country

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