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  塔吉克斯坦

Agricultural land in Tajikistan covers about 4.6 million hectares (ha), which has potential of 1.573 Million hectare land to be irrigated, but in fact due to higher location of lands only 50% - 749,656 ha of irrigable area and 203,785 ha of rain fed arable land. Tajikistan is the poorest country in Central Asia, with 49% of its rural population living below the poverty line. Approximately 73.6% of the country’s population of 8.55 million lives in rural areas, where paid jobs are scarce and the average amount of arable land held per person is 0.08 hectares. Due to climatic conditions agriculture in Tajikistan is subsequently dependent on irrigation, which is in some regions highly energy intensive due to the high-lift pumping schemes. While 46.5% of the overall population is employed in agriculture, productivity in the sector is low and represents only 21% of national GDP. Irrigated arable lands at the disposal of public and dehkhan farms totals about 458.3 thousand ha. Public, dehkhan farms and population use approximately 17.0%, 60.0% and 23.3% of arable lands, respectively, and their share in the gross agricultural production is 6.0%, 30.6% and 63.4%, respectively.

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The agrarian sector of the country, according to its share in the GDP, level of food security, industry’s access to raw materials and the employed population, remains one of the strategically important sectors of the economy of the Republic of Tajikistan. The contribution of agriculture to GDP growth amounts to 23.3%. Almost 2/3 of the operational industrial enterprises of the Republic of Tajikistan are agribusinesses. Today, 65.8% of the population is engaged in the agricultural sector. Cotton, fresh and dry fruits, vegetables and onions are the main exports of the country's agriculture. During 2011-2015 cotton export accounted for 15% of the country's total export earnings, whereas dried fruits and onions accounted for about 80% of the food products export.

Currently, more than 20 sectoral medium- and long-term programs are being implemented in agricultural sector, lots of decisions, proposals and regulations have been adopted. A preliminary review of the implementation of the National Development Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period up to 2015 indicates that the Government of Tajikistan achieved its objectives with regard to many of the strategy’s priorities. The Agriculture Reform Program of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012-2020, the Food Security Program of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period up to 2015, the Agrarian Policy Concept of the Republic of Tajikistan are being implemented in the country. In Tajikistan are implementing   eight sector specific programmes:  

  • apiculture improvement (2011-2016) 
  • potato improvement (2012-2016)
  • livestock biotechnology improvement (2013-2017)
  • establishment and reconstruction of warehouse and refrigerators ( 2015-2019)
  • pasture improvement ( 2016-2020)
  • livestock breed improvement (2016-2020)
  • establishment of orchard and vineyards (2016-2020)
  • horse raising  (2009-2016)

Laws of the Republic of Tajikistan on “Introduction of amendments to the Land Code”, “Dehqan frams”, “Pastures”, “Livestock breeding”, “Fish farming, fishery and protection of fish resources”, “Cooperatives”, “Veterinary”, “Mortgage services” are  assisting to strengthening family farming;

The Programme on Agricultural Reform of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012-2020 was approved on August 1, 2012 and consists of 70 points and 22 items of the activities, which focuses on implementation of mainly the following 5 priorities:

•    diversification of sector, Dehkan Farms Reform, Development of Cooperatives, Institutional reform, Establishment of information and advisory service centers;

•    development of economical evaluation mechanisms of land and real estate market ;

•    Financial stability achievement and introduction of new mechanism on financing of agriculture sector;

•    Improvement of access to irrigation of Basin Water Resources Management,

•    Social security.

 

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