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抗菌素耐药性

抗菌素耐药性是对全球人类和动物健康的主要威胁,且越来越令人担忧。它还影响食品安全、粮食安全,以及数百万农户的经济福利。

食品在抗菌素耐药性的发展和传播中起着重要的作用。存在于农业生产系统和食物链中的抗菌素耐药性微生物是每个人潜在的暴露途径。农业生产中良好的卫生操作,是实现食品安全的基础,也是解决抗菌素耐药性的关键。

食品法典在抗菌素耐药性中的作用

食品中的微生物(细菌、寄生虫、病毒和真菌)是潜在的食品安全危害。在食品动物中使用抗菌素(可杀死微生物或阻止其生长的药剂)与食物链中耐药性微生物的出现之间的关系是一个令人关切的问题,已成为众多国家和国际磋商的主题。

在食品动物(包括水产养殖)、园艺或人类中使用抗菌药,对人类抗菌素耐药性微生物的影响,不同的微生物和不同的地区其程度不同。

当人类摄入食品中的抗菌素耐药性微生物时,某些种类的微生物可能会致病。这些和其他种类的微生物还可能成为其他微生物(包括人类病原体)的可转移抗性决定因素的来源。

在认识到需要更广泛和多学科的应对措施来应对抗菌素耐药性的情况下,2006年,食典委成立了第一个抗菌素耐药性工作组,以制定以下方面的科学指导:如何评估和管理食品和饲料(包括水产养殖)中存在以及通过食品和饲料传播的耐药微生物对人类健康造成的风险。为了应对全球越来越关注抗菌素耐药性对公共卫生的严重威胁,最近成立了第二个工作组,将会制定科学指导,以便协调一致地管理全食物链的抗菌素耐药性。

关于兽药及其残留物、食品卫生、动物饲料的其他食品法典文本,通过在食物链中防止抗菌素耐药性的发展和尽量减少抗菌素耐药性的传播,也有助于解决抗菌素耐药性。

相关食典文本

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CXC 61-2005Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Antimicrobial ResistanceCCRVDF2005
CXG 77-2011Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial ResistanceTFAMR2011

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关键事实

  • 每年大约有500 000人的死亡与抗菌素耐药性相关
  • 在动物中使用了27类不同的抗菌素。
  • 2011年全球动物卫生市场总值相当于220亿美元(经合组织)
  • 只有42个国家拥有家畜抗菌素使用情况的数据收集系统(世界动卫组织)
  • 尚没有关于全球家畜使用抗菌药物情况的标准化数据

Source FAO

食品供应链中的抗菌素耐药性

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