FAOLEX Database

Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
Date of original text: 13 December 1990 (2019)
Date of original text: 16 June 2005 (2019)
Date of original text: 13 December 1996 (2014)

Constitutional provisions

Date of text: 17 April 1982

Right to water: No provisions regarding the right to water.

Natural resources: All Lands, Mines, Minerals, and Royalties belonging to the several Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick at the Union, and all Sums then due or payable for such Lands, Mines, Minerals, or Royalties, shall belong to the several Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick in which the same are situate or arise, subject to any Trusts existing in respect thereof, and to any Interest other than that of the Province in the same. In each province, the legislature may exclusively make laws in relation to (a) exploration for non-renewable natural resources in the province; (b) development, conservation and management of non-renewable natural resources and forestry resources in the province, including laws in relation to the rate of primary production therefrom; and (c) development, conservation and management of sites and facilities in the province for the generation and production of electrical energy. The Third Schedule to the Constitution lays down the list of provincial public works and property to be the property of Canda; this includes: canals, with land and water power connected therewith; public harbours; rivers and lake improvements.

Agriculture

Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage
Date of original text: 13 December 1985 (2014)

Governance

The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of original text: 13 December 1985 (2014)
Date of original text: 18 June 1998 (2017)

Infrastructure

Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
Date of original text: 13 December 1985 (2017)
Date of original text: 13 December 1985 (2017)
Date of original text: 13 December 1985 (2011)

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of original text: 13 December 2019 (2019)
Date of original text: 18 June 1998 (2017)
Date of original text: 13 December 1985 (2014)

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment
Date of original text: 13 December 1985 (2014)
Date of original text: 14 January 1988 (2007)

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of original text: 29 June 2012 (2015)

Groundwater

Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology
Date of original text: 19 October 2006 (2019)
Date of original text: 30 November 1939 (2016)

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system