FAOLEX Database

Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
No legislation available

Constitutional provisions

Date of text: 22 September 2021

Right to water: Section 36 defines the right to adequate food and water. The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to be free from hunger, to have adequate food of acceptable quality and to clean and safe water in adequate quantities. In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available.

Natural resources: All minerals in or under any land or water, are owned by the State, provided however, that the owners of any particular land (whether customary or freehold), or of any particular registered customary fishing rights shall be entitled to receive a fair share of royalties or other money paid to the State in respect of the grant by the State of rights to extract minerals from that land or the seabed in the area of those fishing rights. 2) A written law may determine the framework for calculating fair shares under subsection (1), taking into account all relevant factors, including the following— (a) any benefit that the owners received or may receive as a result of mineral exploration or exploitation; (b) the risk of environmental damage; (c) any legal obligation of the State to contribute to a fund to meet the cost of preventing, repairing or compensating for any environmental damage; (d) the cost to the State of administering exploration or exploitation rights; and (e) the appropriate contribution to the general revenue of the State to be made by any person granted exploration or exploitation rights (sec. 30).


Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture
Date of original text: 27 December 1973 (2005)
Date of original text: 11 March 1882 (1985)

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage


The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of original text: 27 December 1973 (2005)
Date of original text: 12 August 1961 (2005)


Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
Date of original text: 27 December 1973 (2005)
Date of original text: 12 August 1961 (2005)

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use

Water and Environment

Date of original text: 27 December 1973 (2005)
Date of original text: 12 August 1961 (2005)

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of original text: 22 September 1968 (2005)


Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers
No legislation available