FAOLEX Database

Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
No legislation available

Constitutional provisions

Date of original text: 17 September 1996 (2021)

Right to water: Article 216 recognizes the right to water as a social objective and sets forth that the State shall endeavour to facilitate equal access to clean and safe water.

Natural resources: The rule of Section 22 regarding expropriation shall not apply to the taking or acquisition of property for work of soil conservation or the conservation of other resources or for agricultural development or improvement which the owner occupier of the land has been required and has without reasonable or lawful excuse refused or failed, to carry out.


Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture
No legislation available

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage
Date of text: 17 September 1979
Date of text: 24 December 2010


The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of text: 17 September 1979


Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
No legislation available

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of original text: 01 July 1954 (1963)

Water and Environment

Date of text: 17 September 1998

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of original text: 01 July 1954 (1963)


Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology
No legislation available

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system
No legislation available

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers