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FAOLEX Database

Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
Date of original text: 27 November 1992 (2016)

Constitutional provisions

Date of original text: 05 February 1917 (2018)

Right to water: Right to water is recognized under article 4: every person has the right to access to reliable, safe and affordable access to water and sanitation. The Federal State shall ensure the protection of this right and shall regulate the exploitation of water resources in a sustainable and equitative manner.

Natural resources: Article 27 concerns, among other things, issues related to land and water resources (including underground water extraction) and the management of natural resources. The Nation shall at all times have the right to impose on private property such limitations as the public interest may demand, as well as the right to regulate the utilization of natural resources which are susceptible of appropriation.


Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture
Date of original text: 13 November 2001 (2018)
Date of original text: 23 February 1992 (2018)

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage
Date of text: 01 January 1998


The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of text: 01 January 1998


Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of text: 01 January 1998

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment
Date of original text: 23 December 1987 (2018)

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of text: 01 January 1998


Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system