FAOLEX Database

Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
Date of original text: 12 July 2002 (2020)

Constitutional provisions

Date of original text: 23 December 1991 (2016)

Right to water: According to article 70, everyone has the right to drinking water. Water resources are public goods, held by the State administration; water resources will serve for priority and sustainable supply of drinking water (not as market good); supply of drinking water shall be provided by the State through local communities directly and as a non-profit service. These provisions were inserted through Law on the amendments to the Constitution, adopted on November 2016.

Natural resources: Article 70 concerns natural resources. National Assets and Natural Resources: Special rights to use national assets may be acquired, subject to conditions established by Law. The conditions under which natural resources may be exploited shall be established by Law. The Law may provide that natural resources may also be exploited by foreign persons and shall establish the conditions for such exploitation.


Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage
Date of original text: 01 March 2004 (2017)


The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations


Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
No legislation available

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of text: 18 July 2012
Date of text: 28 May 2008

Water and Environment

Date of text: 28 May 2008
Date of text: 28 February 2013

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of text: 18 July 2012
Date of text: 28 May 2008
Date of original text: 01 March 2004 (2017)


Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology
Date of text: 28 May 2008

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers