FAOLEX Database

Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply

Constitutional provisions

Date of original text: 27 September 1991 (2016)

Natural resources: Article 112 of Chapter IX defining the directive principles of the state policy states that ‘the State shall promote sustenance, development and public awareness of the need to manage the land, air and water resources in a balanced and suitable manner for the present and future generation’(Art.112/ i). See also new article 255 inserted in 2016.


Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage


The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of original text: 19 October 1971 (2021)


Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
Date of original text: 27 September 1993 (2021)

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of original text: 27 September 2021 (2021)
Date of original text: 27 September 1994 (2021)

Water and Environment

Date of text: 14 August 2015

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of original text: 20 February 1997 (2021)
Date of original text: 27 September 2021 (2021)


Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system
No legislation available

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers
Date of original text: 25 September 1987 (2021)


Date of text: 01 September 2018
Date of text: 01 September 2018
Date of text: 27 September 2021