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Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
No legislation available

Constitutional provisions

Date of text: 16 December 1972

Right to water: No specific provisions regarding the right to water.

Natural resources: Article 18A states that the State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to preserve and safeguard the natural resources, biodiversity, wetlands, forests and wildlife for the present and future citizens.

Agriculture

Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture
Date of original text: 12 October 1939 (1986)
Date of original text: 07 January 1953 (1972)

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage

Governance

The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations

Infrastructure

Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
Date of original text: 12 October 1939 (1986)
Date of original text: 07 January 1953 (1972)

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of original text: 12 October 1939 (1986)
Date of original text: 07 January 1953 (1972)

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment
Date of original text: 07 January 1953 (1972)
Date of original text: 08 June 1864 (1973)

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards

Groundwater

Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology
Date of original text: 12 October 1939 (1986)

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system
Date of original text: 07 January 1953 (1972)

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers