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Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
No legislation available

Constitutional provisions

Date of text: 18 February 2014

Right to water: Each citizen has the right to healthy and sufficient food and clean water. The State shall ensure food resources to all citizens. The State shall also ensure sustainable food sovereignty and maintain agricultural biological diversity and types of local plants in order to safeguard the rights of future generations (Art. 79). ‘Every citizen is guaranteed the right to enjoy the River Nile. It is prohibited to trespass the riverbank reserve or harm the riverine environment. The State shall guarantee eliminating any trespass against the River Nile as regulated by Law’(Art.45).

Natural resources: The Constitution of Egypt sets out specific provisions regarding the Suez Canal and the River Nile. The State shall protect and develop the Suez Canal and preserve it as an international waterway owned by the State. The State shall also develop the Canal sector as a distinguished economic center (Art. 43). The State shall protect the River Nile, preserve Egypt's historical rights thereto, rationalize and maximize its use, and refrain from wasting or polluting its water. The State shall also protect groundwater; adopt necessary means for ensuring water security; and support scientific research in that regard (Art. 44). Article 45 sets forth the protection of seas, shores, lakes, waterways. It is also stated in the article that the state is committed to protect and preserve plant, animal and fish resources and protect those under the threat of extinction or danger.

Agriculture

Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage

Governance

The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of text: 03 February 1994

Infrastructure

Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of text: 03 February 1994

Groundwater

Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system