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Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
Date of text: 30 September 2009

Constitutional provisions

Date of text: 11 January 1982

Right to water: Article 145 recognizes the right to health. It has been amended in 2013 (Decree Nº 232-2012) in order to explicitly recognize the right to water: "The right to health protection shall be recognized. Everyone shall participate in the promotion and preservation of personal and community health. The State shall maintain an adequate environment to protect the health of people. Consequently, access to water and sanitation is a human right. Water and sanitation exploitation and utilization shall be equitable and preferably destined for human consumption." The same provision stipulates that the State shall be in charge of the preservation of water resources so as to protect life and human health.

Natural resources: The technical and rational exploitation of the natural resources of the nation is declared to be of public interest and need (Art. 354). The State reserves itself the power to establish or modify the demarcation of areas for the control and protection of natural resources in the national territory (Art. 354).

Agriculture

Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage
Date of text: 23 February 1990

Governance

The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations

Infrastructure

Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards

Groundwater

Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers