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Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
No legislation available

Constitutional provisions

Date of text: 16 September 2015

Right to water: Article 35 on the right relating to health declares in paragraph (4) that every citizen shall have the right of access to clean drinking water and sanitation.

Natural resources: Article 51 concerning the policies of the State includes policies relating to the protection, promotion and use of natural resources. The objectives include: to protect, promote, and make environmental friendly and sustainable use of, natural resources available in the country, in consonance with national interest and adopting the concept of inter-generational equity, and make equitable distribution of fruits, according priority and preferential right to the local communities. The State shall pursue policies relating to protection, promotion and use of natural resources, including multi-purpose development of water resources; to develop sustainable and reliable irrigation by making control of water induced disasters, and river management.

Agriculture

Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture
Date of original text: 21 November 1982 (2010)
Date of text: 16 January 1999
Date of original text: 03 January 2000 (2004)

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage
Date of original text: 27 October 1989 (2010)
Date of text: 17 December 1992
Date of original text: 24 November 2006 (2007)

Governance

The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of original text: 27 October 1989 (2010)
Date of original text: 24 November 2006 (2007)

Infrastructure

Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
Date of original text: 21 November 1982 (2010)
Date of text: 16 January 1999
Date of original text: 03 January 2000 (2004)

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of text: 17 December 1992
Date of original text: 21 November 1982 (2010)
Date of text: 16 January 1993

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment
Date of original text: 21 November 1982 (2010)

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of text: 16 January 1999

Groundwater

Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology
Date of original text: 03 January 2000 (2004)

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system
No legislation available

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers