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Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
Date of original text: 01 January 2000 (2017)

Constitutional provisions

Date of text: 21 November 2017

Right to water: Article 77 states that every person has the right to safe, clean and potable water. The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.

Natural resources: Chapter 16 seth forths the principles to redress the unjust and unfair pattern of land ownership that was brought about by colonialism, and to bring about land reform and the equitable access by all Zimbabweans to the country’s natural resources, policies regarding agricultural land.

Agriculture

Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage
Date of original text: 01 January 2000 (2017)
Date of original text: 01 January 1924 (2017)

Governance

The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations
Date of original text: 01 October 1987 (2017)
Date of original text: 01 January 2000 (2017)
Date of original text: 15 January 1965 (1993)

Infrastructure

Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems
Date of original text: 01 January 2000 (2017)
Date of text: 21 November 2017
Date of original text: 15 January 1965 (1993)

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use
Date of original text: 01 October 1987 (2017)
Date of original text: 01 January 2000 (2017)
Date of original text: 21 November 1961 (2017)

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards
Date of original text: 21 November 2017 (2005)

Groundwater

Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system
No legislation available

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers