Increased urbanisation requires efficient solid waste management. Sustainable agriculture coincides closely with these requirements so that solid wastes are reused, either through composting or management of biosolids (treated sewage sludge). Composting of appropriate solid waste can supply urban and peri-urban farmers with much needed fertilizers that have removed potentially harmful bacteria. Composting is an effective tool to manage many food waste products.
Composting may be more efficient on a community/neighbourhood basis to ensure that there is sufficient material in the compost heap. Efficient composting also requires adequate supplies of oxygen and water for peak temperatures. Composting requires periodic management to turn the material ensuring complete organic breakdown, thus furthering the community nature of the process.
Management of human waste/sludge is required for health and wellness and can be used to add value to what is often seen as a waste product. Treated sewage sludge produces biosolids that are suitable for controlled application on croplands. Composting of biosolids can be utilised as a method further promote its usefulness and effectiveness for crop growth. Removal and treatment of human waste can help to prevent the spread of contamination into the food and water supplies.