|INFORMATION ON FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK|
1. As one of the world’s major exporters of fish products, Denmark exported 1 132 866 tonnes of fish in 2002, valued at DKK 17.1 billion, and in 2003 exported 1 074 827 tonnes of fish valued at DKK 17.4 billion. Landings by the Danish fleet amounted to 1 455 301 tonnes in 2002, and 1 054 236 tonnes in 2003. As the processing industry also depends on raw materials from abroad, imports amounted to 1 304 077 tonnes in 2002, valued at DKK 11.0 billion, and in 2003 1 453 931 tonnes, valued at DKK 10.8 billion.
2. In December 2002 the European Council adopted a reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The new approach adopted by the Council concerning the management of fisheries inputs focuses on the limitation of fishing effort.
The Council fixes fishing effort limitations by way of management plans and recovery plans for those stocks outside safe biological limits. This may have as a consequence effort reductions aimed at managing fish stocks at a sustainable level. A series of fishing effort limitations are taking place currently in fisheries for depleted stocks. These plans will probably lead to reductions of the fleet.
However, Member States must also put in place measures to adjust the fishing capacity of their fleets in order to achieve a stable and enduring balance between fishing capacity and their fishing opportunities. Specific capacity reductions are no longer required, but are still supported financially and, once implemented, are permanent (the entry/exit system).
As to transparency, Member States are obliged to draw up an annual report on the fleet development in the preceding year to the Commission. The aim is to give a true picture of the balance between fishing capacity and the fishing opportunities available and the following elements are included:
3. Domestic legislation on fisheries and food was simplified and modernised in 1999, and national rules on capacity and recreational fishery have been amended.
NATIONAL AND LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
4. The fisheries sector in Denmark - excluding Greenland and the Faroe Islands - is managed within the framework of the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).
5. The responsible authority for monitoring and enforcing EU and national conservation policies is the Danish Directorate of Fisheries, which is a part of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. The Directorate carries out inspection at sea and landings, as well as verification of EU marketing standards. Inspection of veterinary standards is the responsibility of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, also part of the Ministry.
6. National legislation aims at utilising fishing opportunities while ensuring that Danish quotas are not exceeded. Technical rules are determined by the EU on the basis of scientific advice and are assessed regularly.
7. The 1999 Fisheries Act covers protection of fish stocks, regulations on commercial and recreational fisheries, first hand marketing and duties. Minor changes have been made in 2002.
8. The National Strategy for Fisheries Research has two main themes for the coming years: 1) to support sustainable, effective and quality-oriented utilisation of resources from fisheries and aquaculture and 2) development of improved management systems to safeguard resources.
Management of commercial fisheries
9. As of 1st January 2003, IQs were introduced in the Danish herring fishery in the North Sea, the Skagerrak and Kattegat. The individual quotas have been allocated to approx. 100 vessels, the owners of which are entitled to transfer the rights to fish the quotas of herring to other registered vessels. The IQ scheme will provisionally apply until the end of 2007.
10. For the largest fjord in Denmark – the Lime Fjord - a fishery management plan is in force with the aim of restoring fish stocks and versatile fish life in the fjord. The plan is the result of a joint working project between the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries and the Ministry of Environment together with the relevant regional authorities. A main consequence of the plan is to place further restrictions on mussel dredging in the fjord through reduction of the area where mussel fishery is allowed and gradually reducing the size of the fleet of mussel dredgers as fishermen leave the business.
Table 1. Landings by Danish, other EU and third country vessels 2002 and 2003 in Denmark and abroad
Quantity is landed weight in tonnes. Value is in DKK 1 000.
Management of recreational fisheries
11. The recreational fishery is regulated by means of restrictions
on the amount and kind of gear used. It is forbidden to sell fish
caught in the recreational fishery and there are no limits as to the
value of catch. Apart from these regulations, national measures include
the release of fish and research financed by fees charged for fishing
Monitoring and enforcement
12. As part of the EU cod-recovery plan, which i.a. includes certain
control elements, Denmark has introduced national legislation (Regulation
no. 64 of 1st February 2001 “om auktionspligt m.v. ved første
markedsføring af torsk”), which requires that the first
marketing of all cod either caught in the North Sea and Skagerrak,
or landed in Skagen or in any Danish port facing the North Sea and
Skagerrak is carried out at public auctions (in Denmark or abroad).
These rules apply to all landings of cod both from Danish and foreign
vessels as well as transit from another EU country or third country.
Production facilities, values and volumes
18. Aquaculture production in Denmark is mainly concentrated on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), farmed in freshwater ponds and in off-shore or land based marine aquaculture. In addition, eel is farmed in re-circulated freshwater tanks; mussels, oysters and crayfish are produced in small quantities. Turbot fry is produced mainly for export and further culture. A variety of other species are raised primarily for restocking.
19. The annual production in freshwater ponds is about 33 000 tonnes, virtually unchanged since 1990, while the number of freshwater fish farms has been reduced by more than 25 percent to about 360 farms. The total annual marine fish production from 39 farms is about 8 000 tonnes, also roughly unchanged for many years. After years of continued increase, the annual eel production has stagnated at 2 000 tonnes since 2000. The number of eel farms has been reduced by 50 percent to 15 farms since 1999. In recent years, the sale of juvenile fish for restocking purposes has represented an increasing share of total turnover. Up to now, Danish shellfish production from aquaculture has been of a limited size, but an increase is expected in the future, following the recommendations mentioned above.
Approximately 1 000 people are directly employed in Danish aquaculture,
mainly in traditional fish farming. A significant number of people
are also employed upstream and downstream or in associated industries
such as smokehouses.
A committee with members from the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and
Fisheries, from industries, research institutions, professional organisations,
other NGO’s and a number of specialists from universities etc.
has reported on the state of knowledge regarding the impact of the
environment on fishery resources. The work covered the impact of i.a.
top predators, habitat changes, climate and pollution. The report
of the committee has led to more focused research on the topics mentioned.
Denmark is at present seeking approval by the European Commission to amend this financing plan. The proposed amendment includes EUR 52.4 million under Axis 1 to be spent on a new support scheme for scrapping and EUR 30.6 million to collective measures under Axis 4, i.a. to analysis (mapping), research and development in relation to elaboration of environmentally friendly fishing methods, based on new technology. The budget for these increases will be taken from the Axis for renewal and modernisation of the fishing fleet and partly from the performance reserve.
National support schemes include financial assistance for young fishers,
experimental fisheries, fisheries consultants and the Innovation Law,
providing assistance for research and development within agriculture
3. Danish processing industry and trading firms in 2002 and 2003
grouping according to the Danish DB93 nomenclature and Danish DB03
nomenclature, which conforms to the EU classification NACE.
Denmark is a major exporter of fish products. The industry is becoming
increasingly dependent on imports of raw materials from abroad, which
is why import figures are high.