|INFORMATION ON FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT|
LOCATION OF MAIN LANDING PLACES
There are many unofficial landing sites in addition to the various legal sites for the various Egyptian fisheries (Figure 1).
The General Authority for Fish Resources Development (GAFRD) (Ministry of Agriculture) is the state agency responsible managing and controlling Egyptian fisheries.
central offices, for the western coastal provinces,
These local offices are responsible for issuing fishing vessel and fishermen licences, collecting catch statistics data, controlling aquaculture activities, managing and developing the inland water bodies, and appling the fisheries law with the support of the coast guard for marine fisheries and water bodies police in the inland fisheries.
The headquarters office is responsible for development projects, applied research, national and international agreements, and maintenance activities.
SECTOR OVERVIEW (OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY)
and economic decision-makers are becoming increasingly aware of the
fundamental economic role that fisheries and related activities play
The main goal of the government is to increase the catch to reach 1 362 000 tonnes in 2012.
Encourage fisheries products exports and increase domestic consumption of fishery products.
Enlarge and modernize offshore fishing in the Egyptian EEZ and international waters.
Pay greater attention to development of the northern lakes through a special committee for each lake comprising various stakeholders and representatives of government agencies. The committes willl be responsible for carrying out periodical clearing of lagoon inlets to prevent silting, controlling vegetation growth and opening deep channels crossing the water bodies.
and enhance the
Introduce new technology and support innovation in commercial activities.
Promote the assimilation of scientific and technical knowledge for the sustainable development of fisheries.
and enhance the environmental, economic and social integration of fisheries
development of artisanal fisheries can be
supported on fishing grounds which cannot be trawled, as is the case
in many areas in the coastal zone of the western
Develop the fishing fleet by providing, through fisheries cooperatives, soft loans to renew the high seas fishing fleet.
Some fishing gear can damage the seabed, e.g. bottom trawl, beach seine and purse seine operating in daytime near the shore, and benthic communities, including seagrass beds, rocky and coral bottom ecosystem, making it difficult for species to re-establish. It is advisable to protect inshore nursery areas from pollution and fishing through seasonal closures at the period of juvenile recruitment of the most important species.
Protect juveniles through the establishment of particular measures for fishing gear characteristics and their use (minimum mesh size, fishing gear size and shape, fishing gear selectivity, etc.) and by setting minimum capture size for each single species.
Retraining, upgrading and enhancing the Coast Guard, Navy and National Police to provide adequate tactical strength and fishery law enforcement.
Stock assessment studies have been performed for some economically important fish species, and show a generally overfished situation for most of the species studied.
of Sardinella aurita, Sardina pilchardus and Sardinalla maderensis off Alexandria city on the Mediterranean Sea
Coast were, using the virtual population analysis method, estimated
to be 3415.82, 3768.11 and 330.31 tonnes, respectively, during 1998
(Abdallah and El-Haweet, 2000). Many
studies have been conducted for Red Sea Fisheries. After study and estimation
of the Maximum Sustainable Yields (MSY) for different fishing gears
Oreochromis niloticus stock of the River Nile in the Cairo Sector has been studied and it was recommended that no additional fishery licences should be issued beyond the current level of effort (1 800 boats), and that the trammel net minimum mesh size be fixed at 7 cm (Tharwat, El Nady and Kamer, 1997).
In Wadi Al Raiyan Lakes, to achieve the MSY of 548.5 tonne in the first lake, the present level of fishing effort must be reduced by about 56.4 percent. For the second lake, the present level of fishing effort should be reduced by about 50.9 percent to obtain the MSY (135.3 tonne) (Ibrahim, 2002).
In Bardawil lagoon, it was recommended to reduce the fishing effort by about 22 percent to reach the MSY (2 252 tonne) (Breikaa, 1997).
A moratorium on new vessel licensing for any fishing ground for five years.
Prohibiting fishing closer than 1 km from the shore using any fishing method.
Prohibiting fishing of fry from the estuarine area for at least 2 km offshore.
Instuting a closed season in MayJune for fishing by trawl, purse seine and trammel net.
fishing in deeper water (>100 m) and in the western and eastern
regions of the Nile Delta (e.g.
Setting the minimum mesh size of bottom trawl cod ends at 40 mm, of purse seines at 38 mm, of trammel net at 63 mm and of gill net at 125 mm.
However, reducing overall fishing effort, particularly in inshore waters, remains the main priority for management action.
Traditionally, fishery management has involved technical measures applied to protect juveniles or the spawning season of important fishes. In general, fisheries management in marine waters is relatively undeveloped. Better arrangement are needed for fisheries and capture, implying a re-assessment of fishing and fleet licences. Mesh size regulations are usually set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and little effort limitation is apparent.
No. 124/83 of the Parliament arranges and manages the fisheries resources
prohibition of fishing activities through a closed season from May to
September has been applied successfully in the
1999, a closed season for trawlers in the
Limitation of fishing effort is applied in most of the marine fisheries; no licences are being issued for new boats except for those operating outside Egyptian territorial fisheries.
A complete ban on drifting gill net fisheries applies in all inland fisheries.
PROJECTION OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND
The Egyptian demand for fish in 2012 is forecast to reach 1 362 000 tonnes, and this amount is far from the present production level of 772 000 tonnes. Government policy aims to bridge this gap through managing the natural fisheries and developing aquaculture activities.
Abdallah, M. & El-Haweet, A. E. 2000. Stock assessment of sardine in the Egyptian
Mediterranean waters by virtual population analysis: case for the coast
Azab, A.M., El Hakim, N.F.A. & Younis,
T.M. 1998. Studies
on the fisheries of the
Breikaa, M.I. 1997. Fisheries management studies on the Bardawil Lagoon,
GAFRD [General Authority for Fish Resources
Development]. 19952001. Annual fishery statistics reports.
General Authority for Fish Resources Development,
K.A. 1994. Open
water fisheries development in
Ibrahim, E.A. 2002. Food production from freshwater ecosystem project. USAID report.
Kilada, R. & El
Ganainy, A. 1999. Stock assessment of the giant clam (Tridacna maxima) in the Egyptian Red Sea.
Mehanna, S.F. 1999. An assessment and management of the coral reef
fish stocks in the
Tharwat, A.A., El Nady, M.A. & Kamer, G.A. 1997. Fish stock assessment of Oreochromis niloticus (L) from the River Nile at Cairo