|INFORMATION ON FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA|
Generally, fish landing places in Indonesia are classified into three categories, based on their capacity and facilities available. The first category is the Oceanic Fishing Harbour (Type A fishing harbour) that is able to provide daily shelter for at least 100 fishing vessels of more than 60 GRT each, especially those fishing in the waters of the Indonesian EEZ.
Additionally, Type A harbours are able to support annual landings of 18 000 to 120 000 t. The second category is the Nusantara Fishing Harbour (Type B fishing harbour), that are able to provide daily servicing of 75 fishing vessels of 15 - 60 GRT each, fishing in Indonesian home waters and the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The Type B harbours are able to support annual landings of 7 200 - 18 000 t. The third category is the Coastal Fishing Harbour (Type C fishing harbour), capable of daily harbouring 50 fishing vessels of 5 - 15 GRT and support annual landings of 3 000 - 7 200 t.
Harbour types A, B and C are managed by the Directorate General of Fisheries.
Additionally, there is a Type D, namely fish landing centres, that are under the management of Provincial governments.
Most of these fisheries harbours are in the western part of Indonesia (77%), with the rest in the eastern part (23%). Their location and the approximate quantity of fish landed in each are listed in Table 1:
As a maritime continent with 5.8 million km2 of marine waters, comprising 2.7 million km2 of territorial waters and 3.1 million km2 of EEZ, fisheries play a significant role in increasing export and foreign exchange earnings, providing employment opportunities, income for fishers as well as national income, and supplying fish and aquatic products to improve the nutritional standard of the nation.
Fisheries of Indonesia are more labour intensive than capital intensive. A huge number of fishers are engaged in the fisheries sector, namely 2.5 million in capture fisheries and 2.2 million in aquaculture (1996). Approximately 90% of the fisheries industry can be classified as small-scale industry.
The contribution of the fisheries sector to food security, employment, income and foreign exchange earning has played an influential role in the development plan of the country.
Maximising benefits by:
Management objectives, measures and institutional arrangements for major fisheries
Basically, the main objective of Indonesia's fisheries policy is the promotion of sustainable development in the fisheries sector through responsible fisheries. A rational balance between production, distribution and conservation of the resources and their environment is the management aim.
The overall development strategies of the Government of Indonesia are:
In general, the management objectives include: income distribution; regional development; rural as opposed to urban growth; employment; technology and scale of operation; and ownership.
Biological management aims
Biologically, the management of the fisheries resources is based on fish quotas, i.e., the total allowable catch (TAC) that is determined on the basis of up to 80% of the estimated potential yield, namely 6.2 million t/yr. Currently the fisheries resources are classified into several groups, namely: (1) large pelagics (skipjack, tunas, billfish, oceanic sharks and small tuna); (2) small pelagics (including scads, mackerels, sardinellas, trevallies, engraulid anchovy, etc.); (3) demersal and coral reef fishes (groupers, snappers, rabbitfish, slipmouth, etc.); and (4) prawn, shrimp, other crustaceans, etc.
Most of the fisheries resources in the western part of Indonesian waters have been exploited intensively, while most resources in the eastern part still have room for development.
Government agencies that are responsible for fisheries administration, development and management are the Directorate General of Fisheries (DGF) and Provincial and Regential Fisheries Services. Administration of local fisheries is the responsibility of the Governor at the provincial level, and Bupati (Head of District) or Mayor at district or municipal level.
These regional offices are under authority of the Department of Home Affairs, and implement the fisheries programme under the technical guidance of DGF.
Since the total catch of marine capture fisheries has moved close to their potential yield, aquaculture will play an important role in providing fisheries products, both for domestic as well as for foreign markets. The total area under aquaculture in Indonesia has tended to increase recently, from 526 092 ha in 1996 to 574 219 ha in 1997.
Within the period 1999 - 2003, the Indonesian Government plans to develop aquaculture through intensification on an existing area of 256 555 ha and extending to another 123 800 ha.
The species to be cultured are primarily penaeid shrimps, barramundi, groupers, pearl oyster and seaweed.
Investment in the fisheries sector can be estimated from the number of fishing vessels in the period 1994-1997, when there was an increase from 396 185 to 433 054 units, an increment of 3% per year.
In addition, increasing investment is also demonstrated by the growth in area under aquaculture in the same period, which reached 3% per year.
The potential yield of marine fish resources of Indonesia has been estimated to be 6.2 million t/yr, while total marine fish landings were 3.6 million t in 1997.
Based on the precautionary approach principle in fisheries management, it is advisable to catch only 80% of the potential yield as the TAC, i.e., 4.96 million t/yr.
Within three to four years this TAC is expected to be reached.
Indonesia's population is currently more than 200 million. If fish consumption per caput is 20 kg/yr, it will need more than 4 million t.
Assuming an annual population growth rate of 2-3%, Indonesia's population have doubled after 25 years. The demand for fish for national consumption will be as much as 8 million t/year, a quantity far beyond the potential yield of marine fish resources.
MAIN FISHERY REGULATIONS, INCLUDING FOREIGN FISHING
A number of laws and regulations currently control the sector, both for fisheries management and both domestic and foreign fishing in the Indonesian EEZ:
Two ministerial decrees are now in preparation concerning estimation of potential yield of Indonesian marine fisheries resources and concerning revision of the zonation of coastal fishing.
Laws and regulations on fisheries enacted prior to Act No. 9/1985 were:
The Directorate General of Fisheries (DGF) is the government agency responsible for administration, development, and management of fisheries in Indonesia is located in the Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries in Indonesia.