AND MAIN LANDING PLACES
Kuwait has three main fishing fleets; the industrial shrimp fishing
fleet, the artisanal dhow fleet and the small speedboat fleet. The industrial
shrimp fleet is located at Ash Shu'aybah and at Doha Port and all shrimp
landings from this fleet are made there. The artisanal dhow and speedboat
fleet land their catch at a number of locations, including Failaka Island.
All fishing boats have easy access to ports at all times except Al-Kherafi
landing place, which can only be used during high tide. The number and
types of boats based at these landing places usually vary with the season.
Fig. 1 shows the locations of the ports and landing places. The main
landing places are:
Sief Harbor (Al-Sharq) (29° 23'04"N, 47° 58'42"E)
This harbor was established in 1997, and associated with the new fish
market at the Sief. All kind of artisanal fishing boats can land their
catches at Sief Harbor. The artisanal dhow shrimp fleet, finfish dhow
fleet and about 30 speedboats catching maid (small mullet) are based
at this harbor. The maximum capacity of the harbor is 70 to 100 dhow
Al-Kherafi landing place (29° 22'21"N, 47° 57'51"E)
This harbor is 280-m long and 110-m wide (approximately 30,800 m2).
Dhow boats fishing gargoor traps and speedboats using gill net to capture
maid (small mullet) use al-Kherafi. It also has a hull repair place
for dhow boats. The landed catches are transported to the Sief or other
main fish markets.
Doha Harbor (Ashairech) (29° 22'12"N, 47° 50'24"E)
Located about 32-km northwest of Kuwait City, Doha Harbor is used extensively
by about 375 drift gillnet speedboats. Zobaidy, suboor, and recently
crabs are the primary species landed.
Doha Port (29° 22'48"N, 47° 48'00"E)
The National Fishing Company industrial boats are based in this port.
It also serves as a landing site for fish imports, mainly by fishing
boats from Iran.
Fahaheel landing place (29° 04'48"N, 48° 08'30"E)
Located approximately 24 km south of Kuwait City, this landing place
is utilized by about 50 gargoor and about 120 drift gill net speedboats
(170 total). During shrimp season, about 20 dhow shrimp trawlers land
their catches at this harbor.
Shuaiba Port (29° 02"18"N, 48° 09'36"E)
The port is located approximately 32 km south of Kuwait City. The port
is only utilized by the 20 United Fisheries of Kuwait Company industrial
trawlers. All shrimp catches taken by this fleet are landed for processing
by the UFK plant also at this port.
imported catches by boats are landed at Doha port. Local catches are
landed at four main harbors: about 60% are landed at Sief and Al-Kherafi
harbors, 20% of Doha, and 10% of Fahaheel harbor. Just over 50% (1,200
t) of Kuwait's shrimp harvest is landed by artisanal vessels at Sief
harbor, and a little less than 50% (1 000 t) is landed at the industrial
boat harbors of Shuaiba and Doha.
POLICIES AND PLANS
The main objective of Kuwait's fishery policy is to promote the sustainable
productivity of local fish stocks in order to ensure a continuous fresh
fish supply. Another objective is to satisfy national demand by minimizing
the difference between the local fishery production and total fish consumption.
The overall development objectives of the government for the fisheries
produce fresh fish for local markets as part of national food security
develop sustainable and responsible fisheries management through
stock conservation measures;
improve the economic performance of different fishery sectors through
better utilization of the marine environment;
subsidize local fish production supplied from both capture fisheries
encourage and increase fish supply from aquaculture in order to
reduce fishing pressure on local stocks.
The specific objectives for the capture fisheries are:
support scientific research to establish measures for sustainable
use of the fishery stocks;
encourage consumption of under-utilized fish species;
develop gear technologies and methodologies to reduce shrimp by-catch
and/or increase fish catches, as well as to minimize gear damage
to the marine ecosystem.
objectives for aquaculture are:
support research for development of aquaculture methodologies such
as mass hatchery techniques, sea cage culture and integrated systems
of tilapia with agricultural production;
establish a fish hatchery and a fish food production factory to
supply fish farms;
provide financial aid and fish feed for the aquaculture sector to
enhance its development.
MEASURES IN USE
The subsidization of local fisheries remains an important part of Government
management measures. As part of this direct subsidization program, the
Government's response to declining level of fish catch has been to increase
the level of direct subsidies to the industry in an effort to retain
domestic prices at affordable levels and to support the profitability
of the operators.
Most other management measures in place are based on recommendations
by the Mariculture and Fisheries Department of the Kuwait Institute
for Scientific Research (KISR). Input controls are in place for the
industrial shrimp fishery where the number of vessels is limited, while
mesh size regulations, size limits and closed areas and seasons are
imposed on the artisanal sector. In particular, the important area of
Kuwait Bay is closed to trawling. However, enforcement of these regulations
is weak and illegal fishing is common. There are no controls on outputs
and no fishery is managed under a quota or ITQ system.
Legislation and related Regulations are introduced, enforced, and regulated
by the Fisheries Department of the Public Authority for Agriculture
and Fisheries (PAAF). PAAF has an enforcement office to control and
enforce the management measures.
The Central Statistical Office (CSO) of the Ministry of Planning collects
catch statistics from wholesales sections and retail shops in fish markets.
All local and imported quantities of fish and shrimp auctioned in fish
markets are documented with special forms provided by the CSO.
More detailed catch and effort data for selected fisheries is gathered
by KISR. In addition, statistical and biological data are collected
and analyzed by the fisheries research program in KISR, and management
recommendations are formulated through annual fisheries management workshops.
The management measures for the shrimp fishery is well developed and
implemented for optimal sustainable production. These measures are:
fishing season starts in February or March depending on the catch
rates during January. While the season has opened on 1st September
for many years, industry pressure because of declining catches resulted
in the season being opened on August 1 in 2002;
areas to protect spawning as well as recruitment of both shrimp
and finfish; these areas are Kuwait Bay and the three mile zone
from the coast;
limitation; entry to the fishery is limited by 35 industrial boats
and 28 artisanal dhow boats;
minimum mesh size of shrimp trawl net is 45 mm stretched.
management for finfish fishery is less developed. In addition to closed
areas, the management measures include the following:
marketable sizes for commercially important species;
mesh size of drift gillnets according to the targeted species.
Aquaculture management of the industry is under the PAAF authorization.
Presently the aquaculture activities include one company for marine
species, and tilapia culture integrated with private agricultural farms.
PAAF subsidizes the aquaculture industry only for fish food.
The investment in fisheries is totally controlled by the private sector.
The three companies are owned by public shareholders. The artisanal
fleet is owned by Kuwaiti citizens who invested in capital (boats and
gear), while the fishermen and the boat owners share the profits.
OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND
A 20-year fisheries strategic plan was prepared in 1988 and forecast
supply and demand over this period. This 1988 strategic plan forecast
that demand would outstrip supply and that imports would rise and shrimp
exports would decrease in the absence of significant aquaculture development
in the country. The aquaculture sector has not developed significantly
in Kuwait while fish landings have actually fallen. As a result, those
1988 forecasts of rapidly increasing imports to meet local demand have
occurred with 75% of 2002 fish supply of 23 300 t being imported. Given
the lack of aquaculture development and the declining catches from wild
stocks, it is likely that imports will continue to rise and supply an
increasing proportion of local fish demand.
The basic fisheries legislation contains several decrees and laws on
conservation of the fisheries resources. The following decrees regulate
the utilization of the marine fish resources in Kuwait's waters:
promulgating law No. 46 of 1980 on protecting of fisheries resources.
This is the basic fisheries law and includes regulations relating
to (a) The right of fishing and exploitation of marine resources
shall be determined by a decree. (b) no foreign vessels shall fish
without a license by the competent minister. (c) the fishing vessels
shall be owned by a citizen of Kuwait. (d) license should be issued
to fishermen operating licensed fishing boats. and (e) gears used
in fishing, and with cooperation of other departments to enforce
regulations and law;
No. 17 of 1980 on licenses for Kuwaiti fishing vessels;
No. 18 of 1980 on licenses for Kuwaiti fishing vessels' crew;
No. 19 of 1980 on foreign fishing vessels;
No. 20 of 1980 on licenses for intertidal stake nets (hadrahs);
No. 21 of 1980 on new fishing techniques and the farming of fish
and living aquatic organisms;
No. 22 of 1980 on prohibition of specific materials in Kuwaiti territorial
No. 23 of 1980 on minimum mesh sizes of shrimp fishing nets;
No. 24 of 1980 to authorize certain officials of the ministry of
Public Works to enforce law No. 46 of 1980;
No.7 of 1983 on the minimum measurement of mesh sizes to be used
in fishing vessels;
No.8 of 1983 on the minimum fish sizes to be caught in the territorial
waters of Kuwait and to be marketed in Kuwait;
No.11 of 1983 of prohibition on fishing within 3 miles from the
coasts of Kuwait;
No.13 of 1983 on prohibition of fishing in certain areas in territorial
waters of Kuwait;
between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the State of Kuwait concerning
the submerged area adjacent to the divided zone, 2 July 2000.
STRUCTURE OF THE NATIONAL FISHERIES AUTHORITY
fisheries management in Kuwait is under the responsibility of the Public
Authority for Agriculture and Fisheries (PAAF). The main task of the
Fisheries Department of the PAAF is boat licensing and registration
of fishing boats, regulation enforcement, aquaculture management, and
export licensing for marine products.
The following provides the organizational structure of PAAF: