|INFORMATION ON FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND|
LOCATION OF MAIN LANDING PLACES
There are 59 registered fish landing places, fishing harbours and places with fishing harbour status on the Polish Baltic Sea coast. Approximately half are landing places on the beach, and they are often poorly equipped, with only a ramp or hoisting winch to haul boats onto the beach. There are ten fishing harbours of great importance for cutters (vessels of over 15-meter length):
Major harbours in terms of the amount of fish landed, the number of fishing
cutters handled and the equipment these places possess include Kołobrzeg, Darłowo, Ustka, Władysławowo and
Hel. There are also three large commercial
In 1999, out of a total of 128.1 thousand tons of fish caught by the Polish Baltic fishing fleet, 99.4 thousand tons (78%) were landed in domestic ports and 28.7 thousand tons (22%) were landed in foreign (Danish and Swedish) ports. The most important domestic ports are Wladyslawowo, Kolobrzeg and Hel, where 75% of total landings was discharged.
The following table indicates the landings made by the Polish Baltic fleet, broken down by main ports and fish species:
Landings made in the principal Polish fishing harbours, 1999 (tons)
*including foreign ports
The main goal of
Main management systems
Specific management strategies depend on the type of fisheries in question. The Polish fishing industry can be divided into three main sectors, or types of fisheries: a) cutter fishery, which is carried out on the Baltic Sea and to a lesser extent in the northeast Atlantic; b) boat fishery (coastal fishery), which is carried out within the boundaries of Poland's territorial seas and in the Vistula and Szczecin lagoons; c) deep-sea factory trawler fishery, which is carried out on fishing grounds beyond Poland's EEZ.
fishery (boats and cutters)
Main goals and objectives
The overall objectives for this sector are:
The general framework of the conservation policy with regard to Baltic fish resources has been elaborated by the International Baltic Sea Commission (IBSFC) and presented in the form of recommendations. These recommendations include: a provision regarding the total allowable catches (TACs) for the entire Baltic area and the national fishery zones (EEZ), technical conservation measures, catch reporting, etc. The IBSFC recommendations become obligatory once they have been implemented through national legislation. In many cases, the conservation measures established at the national level are more far-reaching than those set by the IBSFC.
The main instrument of fishery management and resource conservation in
Based upon the decisions that are annually made by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Polish TACs for cod and salmon are allocated to the fishing vessels' operators in the form of individual quotas (IQs). The allocation key is based on the size and type of vessel in question. The vessels' quotas are free of charge and are generally not transferable. However, if a company is operating more than one cutter, the quotas can be transferred from vessel to another.
Herring and sprats are not subject to the IQ system, inasmuch as the national quotas for these two species are not fully utilised.
Coast fishery, involving undecked vessels under 15 meters in length and hundreds of small fishing boats of this size, is granted a fixed percentage of the national TAC, without setting individual quotas for each boat.
The maximum amount of fishing activity permitted is determined for both coastal boats and cutter fisheries in terms of the number of vessels utilised. Registering a new vessel is prohibited, unless an old one of equal capacity is taken out of service. There are also time limitations with regard to the use of static gear, namely, cutters and fishing boats cannot leave their nets in the water for longer than 24 and 48 hours, respectively, without their skippers' supervision.
Various technical conservation measures such as closed areas and seasons, gear regulations, minimum mesh sizes, by-catch regulations, etc. are applied as part of fisheries management in the Baltic. Some are implemented on the basis of the IBSFC recommendations, while others have been independently established on the national level. Those measures are of a general nature and either refer to all the Polish maritime waters, or to a specific type of fishery. In addition, there are a number of technical conservation measures of a local nature which exclusively refer to particular, clearly defined areas. These measures have been established either by the Government, or by the regional maritime administration authorities (regional inspectorates).
The following direct or indirect aid is provided for the sector:
· cheaper fuel for fishermen (without VAT and excise taxes);
· preferential credits for the purchase and storage of fish;
the introduction of salmon and trout smolt
· overhaul and maintenance of the harbours.
Main goals and objectives
Management policy with regard to deep sea fishery is carried out by participating in various international fisheries commissions and conventions as well as in bilateral agreements dealing with access to fishing grounds. All technical conservation and other management measures concerning the deep sea fleet are in conformity with the recommendations of these organisations.
principal fishing activities of the Polish high seas fleet (Northwest
Pacific region) are based upon the bilateral agreement with
The Polish deep sea fleet also operates in fishing grounds that are under the management of international organisation such as:
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Living Resources (CCAMLR);
The Convention on the Conservation and Management of
Pollock in the
Subsidies for fish caught on Russian fishing grounds are granted by the Government to state-owned deep sea fishery enterprises.
The basic fishery rules for
Three new regulations concerning the conservation of fishery resources, the organisation of the markets in fishery and aquaculture products and structural assistance in the fisheries sector will come into force in the year 2001. These three laws will bring the national fisheries legislation closer to the European Union acquis communautaire.
SUPPLY AND DEMAND PROJECTIONS
According to the Central Statistical
Office, the total population in
It is obvious on the other hand that the supply of fish from the country's own catches will be disadvantaged due to the reduction in the number of deep sea fishing vessels. It can be predicted however that these fish supplies will be replaced by imported fish products.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF FISHERIES AUTHORITIES
Administration is organized as a two-level structure. The Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Development in