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INFORMATION ON FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

January 2001



LOCATION AND MAIN LANDING PLACES

Fish catches are landed around almost the entire South African Coast. Total catches are however dominated by landings in the main commercial ports and harbours. Percentages landed at each location can vary considerably, the main reason being the variability in the commercial pelagic catches. South Africa's pelagic fishery targeting the cape anchovy Engraulis capensis and the pilchard Sardinops sagax has a dynamic management procedure that adjusts the total commercial take of each species inter-annually, depending on the scientific assessment of the status of the stocks. Total pelagic catches have for example being as low as 100 000 t and as high as 600 000 tons. This fishery is concentrated on the South African west coast in the Cape Town to Lamberts Bay area. By contrast, the next largest fishery (relative to the total catch) is the demersal sector (deep-water trawl) targeting cape hakes Merluccius paradoxus (deep-water hake) and M. capensis (shallow water cape hake). This sector has a fairly stable annual landing comprising hake (about 155 000 t) and bycatch of about 40-60 000 t. Demersal landings occur mostly in Cape Town and Saldanha Bay. Clearly the West coast dominates commercial fish landings with respect to volume. However fishing is a common activity around the South African coast comprising many smaller fisheries including the west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) fishery the "inshore" bottom-trawl fishery in Mossel Bay on the south coast targeting sole (Austroglossus pectoralis) and hake, the deep-water south coast rock lobster (Palinurus gilchristi) fishery, the abalone fishery in the western cape area (Haliotus midae) and the extensive handline fishery. This latter fishery operates not only from the major harbours and ports but also from beaches, estuaries and river mouths targeting many different species of which the main ones are snoek (Thyrsites atun), geelbek (Atractoscion aequidens), Kob (Argyrosomus sp) and in recent years shallow-water hake. Although the landings of this sector are low relative to the main industrial fisheries, the activity and the profile of the fishery is high. The table below lists the main fishing harbours only and gives the main species / target fisheries by area. Catch figures are approximate only and should only be used to give a general indication of volumes landed in the main commercial harbours.

Table 1. Main South African fishing harbours and approximate annual landings in each with main target species listed in order of priority

Landing sites (from North West to South and East)

Annual landings

Main fisheries/species

Approx. Tons

%

Port Nolloth

1 200

0.2

Rock lobster/linefish/demersal

Lamberts Bay

31500

5.8

Pelagic fishery/some rock lobster

St Helena Bay

153 000

28.3

Pelagic fishery anchovy and pilchard

Saldanha Bay

120 000

22.2

Pelagic & demersal some line and rock lobster.

Cape Town

115000

21.3

Demersal - some rock lobster and linefish

Hout Bay

48 000

8.9

Pelagic/demersal/rock lobster/tuna/linefish

Kalk Bay

2 300

0.4

Pilchard/Linefish, rock lobster

Hermanus

2 000

0.4

Abalone/linefish/rock lobster/shark

Gansbaai

23000

4.3

Pelagic/demersal/shark

Mossel Bay

22 000

4.1

Demersal/sole/handline/pilchard

Port St Francis

7 000

1.3

Squid and linefish

Port Elizabeth

11 000

2.0

Demersal/squid/handline/pilchard

East London

1 000

0.2

Linefish

Durban

1 000

0.7

Linefish

Total

538 000

100

All fisheries

 

Figure 1. (after Branch et al 1994) - South African coastline showing main fishing harbours listed in Table 1 and oceanographic features illustrated by sea surface temperature profile eg. Westward-flowing warm Agulhas Current on south coast and cool upwelled waters of the Benguela system close to the western coastline where the main commercial fisheries predominate.

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

Economic overview

The South African fisheries sector plays a small part in the economy of the country. With regard to GDP it contributes less than 1%. However, regionally fisheries play a major role in the economy. The Western Cape is the centre of the industrial fisheries and in areas such as Saldanha Bay and St Helena Bay, is the dominant employer. Other major centres where fisheries-related employment and income generation is important includes Cape Town, Mossel Bay and Port Elizabeth.

Traditionally fisheries have contributed significantly to the livelihoods of coastal communities, extending from the Port Nolloth on the West Coast to the Kwazulu-Natal coastline. Many folk harvest for example mussels and oysters and other marine fauna in the inter-tidal regions.

In addition to the main industrial fisheries, the recreational line fishery with its boats and some 600 000 individuals contributes significantly to the economy both directly and indirectly through the many related industries. This contribution is however difficult to quantify.

Investment and subsidies

The fishing industry in South Africa has never been subsidised. However structures have been put in place to assist with the acquisition of capital for investment in the fisheries sector. In the 1970's the Fisheries Corporation provided state subsidised finance for the development of infrastructure (harbours mostly), purchase of boats and houses. The Small Business Development Corporation (SBDC) financed many fishers through joint ventures, mostly for the purchase of boats and was, for example responsible for the financing and development of a large portion of the existing tuna-poling fleet. Many of these fishers still have outstanding loans with this group.

With the advent of transformation in the fishing industry, fishers have been able to source loan capital with beneficial interest rates through Business Partners (formerly SBDC) and also the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC). Although these are not direct subsidies they do provide much needed source capital for new entrants in South African fisheries wishing to purchase boats etc. Certain Fuel taxes are also reduced for bona fide commercial boat operators (as is done in other parts of the world), although this does not constitute subsidisation.

Broad objectives and strategy

The following is extracted from South Africa's FISHERIES POLICY which formed the basis for the current Marine Living Resources Act No 18 of 1998. The long-term vision for a democratic South Africa (as stated in the Macro-Economic Strategy presented by the Department of Finance) is:

  • a competitive, fast-growing economy which creates sufficient jobs for all work-seekers;
  • a redistribution of income and opportunities in favour of the poor;
  • a society in which sound health, education and other services are available to all;
  • an environment in which homes are secure and places of work are productive.

It is the objective of the marine fisheries policy to improve the overall contribution from the fishing industry to this long-term vision. Since fisheries are a relatively small sector within the national economy, its contribution will remain modest when measured in terms of macro-economic significance. Expansion of the sector's total activity is limited by the natural productive capacity of the living marine resources from which the activities derive, and the necessity to limit and control the total harvesting pressure according to what the resources can sustain on a long-term basis. In spite of these constraints, the fisheries sector is of great importance to the economy in several coastal regions, and for the livelihood of many communities. This perspective permeates all proposals put forward in this White Paper. The fisheries policy is founded on the belief that all natural marine living resources of South Africa, as well as the environment in which they exist and in which mariculture activities may occur, are a national asset and the heritage of all its people, and should be managed and developed for the benefit of present and future generations in the country as a whole.

Broad management objectives and systems

All fisheries management has as its point of departure a range of more or less clearly defined policy objectives aimed at achieving the best possible use of its living marine resources. As the primary concern of fisheries management is to ensure sustainable use, it is clearly apparent that, in almost all cases, regional management could not guarantee sustainability of the resource as a whole. Therefore, management and control on a national basis is crucial. The role of fisheries research is to produce the knowledge base needed by government when it is to conduct fisheries management and to produce a conducive environment for fisheries development. Multidisciplinary inputs of knowledge are needed, both concerning the resource base of the fisheries and the social, economic and cultural contexts of fisheries and fisheries development.

Long-term management plans, which include operational management procedures, are being developed to ensure optimal utilization of all significant marine resources. These plans are being developed through a cooperative process involving all interested parties and include appropriate and cost-effective monitoring and control programmes and strict enforcement of fishing regulations as well as considering the socio-economic implications of altered levels of utilization (e.g. the effect of a reduced TAC on employment). These Operational management procedures are based on scientific principles recognizing the inherent variability of resources and the interdependence of the components of marine ecosystems.

Management tools and fisheries regulations

Integrated environmental management (IEM) principles are being applied to South African fisheries management, within the context of CONNEPP. In principle, the harvesting of any one species must not endanger the continued existence, or cause the substantial depletion of, any other species such as destructive methods of harvesting which are detrimental to species or any resources (living or non-living). A further management objective is the designation of Marine protected areas (MPA's) for the purposes of scientific study, experimental fishing or conservation. Certain species or populations thereof may be fully protected.

SECTOR-SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Management responsibility of South Africa's fisheries is entirely vested in the Authority of the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. The Directorate responsible for Fisheries Management is Marine and Coastal Management (M&CM). Marine and Coastal Management is however still undergoing change. Two major management components are identified as:

  • Coastal and Inshore Resource Management;
  • and Offshore Resource Management.

Essentially these two components comprise Research, Monitoring and Control, assessment and technical services. More specifically however, Coastal and Inshore are responsible for the management of Coastal resources such as the resources found in the intertidal zones, recreational and subsistence fisheries, and other near-shore resources such as Abalone and rock lobster. The Offshore Resource group are responsible for the main industrial fisheries including the main trawl fisheries and the Pelagic purse seine sector.

Resources managed by the coastal and inshore resource group

The legislation controlling all fisheries in South Africa

Marine Living Resources Act, 1998 (Act No. 18 OF 1998)

Regulations in Terms of the Marine Living Resources Act, 1998

Specific permit conditions applied per fishery sector

West coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii)

This is a highly valuable fishery targeting west coast rock lobster in an area extending along the west coast (from Port Nolloth) southwards to Cape Point and then eastwards towards Hermanus (refer to Figure 1). The fishery comprises mostly of many small boats operating daily, setting traps and hoops in a broad area including the kelp beds, offshore reefs and deeper (gear can be set up to 80 m depth). Product is either frozen whole (tailed) or fresh (live) for export.

The Total Allowable Catch (TAC) has in recent years being systematically reduced and the commercial take now approximates 1 700 t. Individual allocations vary from about 1000 kg (small single boat operator) to 106 t (larger company structure). In the 1999/2000 season a commercial quota of 1 700 t was issued. A further quantum is allocated to accommodate recreational catches (approximately 300-400 t). Poaching is a major problem and has also had to be accounted for in recent years in the annual stock assessment and TAC estimates.

Management measures:

  • Area restriction and sub-divisions;
  • Output control (TAC);
  • Size limitation (carapace length of 75 mm);
  • Season (closed from 1 June to 15 November);
  • No females to be landed in berry;
  • Land-based landing sites with inspectors (catches tallied).

25-Year supply and demand projection:

Directed at supplying a lucrative overseas market with increasing demand. Supply is unlikely to increase and stock projections are generally pessimistic with a steadily declining Total Allowable Catch.

Representative Body: SA West Coast Rock Lobster Association.

Abalone (Haliotus midae)

Also a small but highly profitable fishery (diving only) comprising about 40-50 rights holders with allocations between 2000 kg and 87 t (single rights holders and co-ops). The TAC has been systematically reduced in recent years due to sharp declines in the stock and rampant poaching. As with rock lobster the fishery has area and season restrictions and also has to accommodate both a recreational and poaching component (estimates only). In the 1999/2000 season some 464.4 t was allocated and 35.6 t "reserve" retained to accommodate possible reallocations, poaching and recreational fishing. Product is in several forms including fresh whole (out of shell), frozen and dried (mostly for the far east market).

Management measures:

  • Area restrictions and sub-divisions;
  • Output control (TAC);
  • Size limitation (Shell width of 114 mm);
  • Season (closed from 1August to 31 October);
  • Land-based landing sites with inspectors (catches tallied).

25-Year supply and demand projection:

Directed at supplying a lucrative eastern market with insatiable demand. Poaching and illegal fishing is problematic. Stock projections are pessimistic with a sharply decreasing TAC. The development of numerous abalone farms are expected to augment future supplies.

Representative Body: Abalone Farmers Association of SA.

South coast rock lobster (Palinurus gilchristi)

This is a small fishery that has operated since the 1970's for deep-water rock lobster found predominantly on the Agulhas Bank and on the south and east coasts in depths up to 250 m. It is capital-intensive requiring large boats capable of carrying large numbers of pots (traps) that are set with longlines. Product is in two types - frozen (tails only) or whole fresh (live export). Presently there are 14 rights-holders with allocations varying between 20-145 t each. The TAC approximates 400 t tail weight or 800 t whole fish weight.

Management measures:

  • No major restrictions except on trap configuration and output (TAC) control;'
  • Catches monitored and weighed on landing;
  • Daily logbook records;

25-Year supply and demand projection:

High demand for a wetfish (live) and frozen (tails) overseas market. Stock assessment suggests the stock has declined and catch rates are decreasing. The TAC is relatively stable although it is unlikely to sustain the present volumes - expect supply to gradually decrease over time.

Representative Body: SA South Coast Rock Lobster Association.

Linefish fishery

This is a complex sector involving many species and is presently under major review. Historically the sector has been divided into three groups - Commercial ("A" permits), Semi-commercial ("B" permits) and recreational fishers. However the sector has been poorly controlled with expansion of the semi-commercial component into full "commercial" operators. Further the recreational component has also merged with the commercial sector. Drastic declines in the stocks exploited have led to the development of the hake-directed handline fishery (as an alternative resource). Since 1998 a moratorium on the issuing and transfer of permits has been enforced. In December 2000 a "crisis" in the sector was declared with a view to transforming the fishery. Proposed measures include rationalisation of effort (from about 3 500 to 350 boats in the linefish sector), the establishment of a hake handline sector (130 units) and a tuna-directed group (200 units). These plans are however still at an early stage and are expected to be the subject of much debate in the forthcoming year.

Management measures (numerous):

  • Closed areas and reserves;
  • Bag and size limits (species-specific);
  • Input control - Boat / effort limitation (restriction on number of fishers);
  • Seasonal restriction for some species;
  • Sub-sector splits e.g. "A" and "B" permits;
  • Daily log book records submitted monthly.

25-Year supply and demand projection:

Mostly local demand - increasing. Assessment of the stocks suggests most are highly overexploited. Supply projections are pessimistic with severely restricted catch limits. New management strategies hope to assist resource recovery and stabilise long-term supply.

Representative Body: SA Marine Linefish Management Association (SAMLMA)

Tuna pole and longline (including swordfish)

A substantial fishery on the West Coast of South Africa mostly for the longfin tuna Thunnus allalunga deploying the poling method. Up to 200 boats are partly or directly involved in this form of fishing. There are no catch restrictions except that operators must carry a valid commercial linefish permit (presently under review - see "Linefish" above). South Africa is a member of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). ICCAT have set catch limitations on longlfin and other tunas (country-specific) and this is expected to impact on the fishery from 2001. Catches from year to year have varied from as low as 2 000 t up to 12000 t.

A second fishery targeting a broader spectrum of tunas and billfishes (including swordfish Xiphias gladius) with pelagic longlines, operates on both the West Coast and Agulhas Bank (activity extends up the east coast of Natal as well). This fishery comprises predominantly foreign longline vessels which in recent years have been systematically reduced from 130 permits to 69. Involvement of South African fishers has also been increased (30 permits in 2000). Swordfish-directed fishing remains problematical - ICCAT allocations for inside the South African EEZ have been introduced and a comprehensive set of experimental permit conditions established.

South Africa has bilateral agreements with Japan and the Republic of China - permits and fees are negotiated annually.

Management measures:

  • Input Control (effort limitation - No. of boats, fishers);
  • o Likely catch limitation in future;
  • Gear restrictions - either longline or pole.

25-Year supply and demand projection:

Stock status is relatively uncertain - mostly highly migratory species. Supply is optimistic for Tunas with high demand both locally and overseas (frozen and wetfish markets). Demand for swordfish is high (USA market mostly) but supply is expected to decline in a similar way to stocks in other areas of the world. Prospects pessimistic.

Representative Body: SA Tuna Association (SATA) and SA Tuna Longline Association (SATLA).

Other inter-tidal resources

Many other "Coastal and Inshore" resources too numerous to mention here are managed by the Inshore Resource Group including oysters, mussel, crab and many other intertidal and near-shore species. Each has specific management controls including size and bag limits.

RESOURCES MANAGED BY THE OFFSHORE RESOURCE GROUP

Hakes Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis

A TAC of 155 000 t has been granted in recent years. This has however been increased in 2001 to approximately 166 000 t. Assessment of this resource (the most valuable South African fishery) combines both the deep and shallow-water species. However recent developments have necessitated the assessment of both stocks separately.

Hake-directed demersal trawl (offshore) - historically this fishery has targeted the deepwater hake using stern trawlers and factory vessels on the West Coast (about 60 vessels). Proportions taken on the West and South Coasts (split at 200E) have been in the ratio 2:1. The sector has historically been fished by a few large operators, however with recent transformation the number of participants in the fishery have increased significantly with allocations from 500 - 1500 t tranches. Pioneer companies still hold allocations upwards of 2000 t. Products are mostly frozen and value-added and landed both wet (on ice) and frozen.

Management measures:

  • Minimum mesh size 110 mm on West Coast;
  • Minimum mesh size on East Coast 75 mm;
  • Fishing shallower than 110 m east of 200E not permitted.

There are no bycatch limitations although other bottom-dwelling species are targeted from time to time including monk Lophius vomerinus, kingklip Genypterus capensis and snoek (bycatch comprises approximately 30% of the hake landed).

Inshore trawl (hake and sole) - historically this fishery has been directed at both sole and shallow-water hake on the Agulhas Bank operating from Mossel Bay and Port Elizabeth. Effort is controlled by boat size and power and comprises older side trawlers and newer small stern trawlers (up to 40 boats). Fishing occurs mostly under 200 m water depth with an annual proportion of the hake TAC of 9 -10 000 t and a sole TAC of 872 t.

Management measures:

  • Minimum mesh size 75 mm;
  • Both Output (TAC) and input (boat limitation) control

There are no bycatch limitations. Diversity is higher than in the deep-water trawl and bycatch is often higher than 30% of the hake landed).

Hake longline - a fishery fraught with problems from initiation (experimental) for kingklip from 1983-1989 and then for hake from 1994-1996 (experimentally). Recent attempts to establish the fishery with the allocation of rights have resulted in litigation and a "stop - start" fishery. Target species are both hakes with a kingklip bycatch. Many vessels are geared for the fishery with from 50 - 200 permits being issued in recent years. Annual take of hake with demersal longline has varied from 4 - 8 000 t. Impact on the resource is uncertain. The fishery is fresh-fish directed for a lucrative overseas market.

Management:

  • Area limitations (East or West Coast);
  • 10% kingklip bycatch limit;
  • 10% other species bycatch limit.

Hake handline - started in about 1994 and has grown rapidly accommodating many small-boat operators from the linefish sector. No controls as most fishers use open ski and deck boats with extensions based on the linefish permits (refer to "A" and "B" permits). Upwards of 250 boats now targeting fresh hake for export on the South Coast in the Mossel Bay, Plettenberg Bay and Still Bay areas. Annual catch approximates 4 - 5 000 t. This has developed rapidly into a major hake-directed sector. Recent developments suggest management initiatives in 2001 by M&CM.

Management measures:

  • Linefish regulations apply although the fishery in terms of the most recent legislation is illegal;
  • Input control - not yet established but likely in the near future;
  • Output control - none but hake catches are accommodated within the hake TAC.

Hake - 25-Year supply and demand projection:

Hake stocks have been well managed since the declaration of the 200' EEZ with indications of stock recovery and increasing catch rates. Supply is expected to be maintained and possibly increased. Demand is high for frozen and wet products (mostly export markets). Supply of whole fresh fish to Europe is an expanding market (handline and longline-caught hake) assisted mostly by demand in Spain.

Representative bodies:

  • SA Deepsea Trawling Industry Association
  • Association of Small Hake Quota Industries
  • South East Coast Inshore Fishing Association
  • South Coast Hake Handline Industrial Association

Midwater trawl

This a small group of fishers targeting horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis. About 4-6 boats target the stocks on the South African East Coast. Stock status is uncertain and the fishery is granted an annual "Upper Catch Limit" that has ranged between 24 - 58 000 t. The fishery is capital-intensive requiring large powerful stern trawlers capable of deploying large mid-water nets. The fishery is economically marginal.

Management measures

  • Minimum mesh size of 75 mm;
  • Fishing restricted to east of Danger Point and deeper than 110 m;
  • Daily logbook records and landings inspected (tallied);
  • Hake bycatch limitation.

25-Year supply and demand projection:

Demand varies - product is economically marginal and South Africa competes with Namibia for an "African" market comprising cheap products (frozen and dried). Stock status is uncertain but is believed to be resilient. Long-term predictions for supply are positive with increasing regional demand.

Representative Body: Mid-Water Trawling Association.

Pelagic (purse seine)

A major fishery producing the largest volumes of all the commercial fisheries in South Africa targeting small pelagic species of which Anchovy and pilchard are TAC-controlled.

Anchovy-directed - comprises 50-60 boats operating mostly on the West Coast from Lamberts Bay and southwards to Gansbaai. Vessels use purse-seine nets and land catches at strategically positioned factories for fishmeal processing. About 50 rights holders with allocations as low as 277 t and others with 24 000 t. Annual TAC varies and can be as high as 600 000 t (depending on the status of the stock).

Pilchard-directed - comprises 10-20 boats that switch between anchovy and pilchard. Specialised vessels target pilchard for canning - others process pilchard for bait. Catches have increased in recent years and in 2000 a TAC of 106 000 t was granted.

Other species caught in the fishery include the red-eye pilchard (Etrumeus whiteheadi), Lanternfish (Lampanyctodes hectoris), lightfish (Maurolicus muelleri) and juvenile horse mackerel.

Management measures:

  • Minimum mesh size of 28 mm;
  • Pilchard bycatch limitation (anchovy-directed operations);
  • Closed season from 1 November to 14 January;
  • Landings monitored and estimated at factory landing sites.

25-Year supply and demand projection:

High demand from a local market for fishmeal and oil products as well as for bait (pilchard) and canned pilchard. Supply fluctuates as the allowable catches can vary from year to year. Future supply is optimistic due to a generally well-managed fishery.

Representative Body: SA Pelagic Fishing Industry Association.

Chokka squid fishery

Regionally (Eastern Cape) an important fishery targeting squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii and landing 6-10 000 t annually. Approximately 170 rights holders and up to 200 boats in the sector. The fishery targets spawning aggregations using jigs.

Management measures:

  • Jigs only;
  • Input controlled - boat and fisher limitations imposed;
  • Closed season for one month (normally mid October to mid November);
  • Landings monitored and estimated at factory landing sites.

25-Year supply and demand projection:

Demand is high (but competitive) for a lucrative international market. Supply is highly variable from year to year (environmental effects). Long-term supply is optimistic. As the fishery is input-controlled (effort) annual catches are difficult to predict - expect supply to average out from year to year and to be maintained in the medium-term.

Representative Body: SA Squid Management Industrial Association.

Shark-directed longline

Twenty permits issued in 1999 / 2000. Sector is small and economically marginal. Fishers deploy similar pelagic longline gear to tuna longlines. Controls and management measures presently under review.

25-Year Supply and Demand Projection:

Demand increasing - supply is pessimistic and unlikely to be sustained.

Representative Body: Shark Longline Association.

Patagonian toothfish longline

This is a small fishery targeting Patagonian Toothfish Dissostichus sp. that has being severely impacted by poaching. Five permits are issued annually with allocations to fish in South African waters around the Prince Edward Islands. This area falls within the control of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). South Africa is a full member of CCAMLR and also has rights to target toothfish in several CCAMLR sub-areas.

Management measures:

  • Longline effort only;
  • Output control (TAC);
  • Closed seasons for CCAMLR areas (vary by area);
  • CCAMLR conservation measures strictly followed;
  • Observers deployed on all vessels;
  • Landings monitored and estimated at factory landing sites.

25-Year supply and demand projection:

Demand exceeds supply. Stocks grossly depleted through poaching. Fishery in South African waters is expected to remain economically marginal and supply from South Africa unlikely to be sustained.

Representative Body: None

Experimental deepwater trawl

This fishery has operated inconsistently since initiation in 1994 due to permit problems and allocation delays. Target species are the deep water dories (Oreos) and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus. Up to four permits have been issued annually. An interesting development is the establishment of a deepwater fishery targeting orange roughy in the South Indian Ocean outside of the South African EEZ. This is an international fishery and landings in South African ports have increased sharply.

All foreign-flagged vessels landing in South Africa require "gear permits" and also permits to land "Prohibited Deepwater Species". Further, South African flagged operators fishing international waters require "High Sea Permits". South Africa is a member (coastal state) of SEAFO (South East Atlantic Fishing Organisation), the formation of which is in its final stages (for the control of high seas fishing on straddling stocks).

Other minor fisheries

A small prawn-directed trawl fishery operates from Durban on the Natal coast with annual catches approximating 400 t. Seaweed harvesting concessions are also granted annually - most harvesting is done on the West Coast and to a lesser extent on the South and East Coasts.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE NATIONAL FISHERIES AUTHORITY

The organisational structure of the state fisheries management authority in South Africa has undergone numerous changes in recent years. These changes have mostly being associated with transformation of the state management authority as well as of the administrative and compliance function. It is therefore difficult at this stage to define a concise structure. The most recent structure presented by the state management authority is given below. Note that fisheries in South Africa fall under the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and that the fisheries component is now referred to as Marine and Coastal Management (M&CM) and was formerly called the Department of Sea Fisheries. The research component was formerly known as the Sea Fisheries Research Institute. The research and management function of M&CM is now integrated and have been absorbed into the general structure of the department as indicated in the organogram below. Similarly the compliance function (referred to as the "inspectorate") has also being absorbed in the overall structure of M&CM with specific subdivisions eg. Offshore and Inshore.

Figure 2. Organisational structure of the state fisheries management authority
in South Africa.


Figure 3. Organisational structure of main academic and non-governmental organisations responsible for Marine Research, monitoring and control in South Africa separated into the three coastal provinces. The fourth coastal province (North West Province) has no major academic or other bodies directly involved in marine matters.

INTERNET LINKS TO FISHERY INSTITUTIONS

Marine and Coastal Management http://www.environment.gov.za/mcm/index.html

Oceanographic Research Inst.
http://www.seaworld.org.za
Rhodes University http://www.ru.ac.za/academic/departments/difs/

Department of Oceanography (UCT) http://emna.sea.uct.ac.za

Centre for Marine Studies http://www.sea.uct.ac.za/cms/index.html

International Ocean Institute http://www.ioi.uwc.ac.za/ioisa/

White paper on biological diversity http://www.easd.org.za/sapol/diversity3.html

Supply-demand Survey in Fish and Fishing Products in South Africa http://www.intracen.org/iatp/surveys/fish/fishsa.html

Coastal Management Policy Programme http://www.cmpp.co.za/

Coastal Zone Management http://www.oneworld.org/saep/subject/coastal

South African Data Centre for Oceanography (SADCO) http://fred.csir.co.za.za/ematek/sadco/sadco.html

Institute for Coastal Resources http://www.upe.ac.za/icr/default.htm

National Research Foundation Annette@iafrica.com

Marine Information marinfo@iafrica.com

SA Inshore Fishing Association safish@new.co.za

South African Deep Sea Trawling
Industry Association (SADSTIA) deeps@iafrica.com

West Coast Rock Lobster Assoc. safish@new.co.za