English Feed ingredients and fertilizers for aquatic animals: sources and composition
   EnglishThe present technical paper presents an up-to-date overview of the major feed ingredient sources and feed additives commonly used within industrially compounded aquafeeds, including feed ingredient sources commonly used within farm-made aquafeeds, and major fertilizers and manures used in aquaculture for live food production. Information is provided concerning the proximate and essential amino acid composition of common feed ingredient sources, as well as recommended quality criteria and relative nutritional merits and limitations, together with a bibliography of published feeding studies for major feed ingredient sources by cultured species. The main body of the document deals with the nutritional composition and usage of major feed ingredient sources in compound aquafeeds, as well as the use of fertilizers and manures in aquaculture operations. Major feed ingredient and fertilizer groupings discussed include: animal protein sources, plant protein sources, single cell protein sources, lipid sources, other plant ingredients, feed additives, and fertilizers and manures. The concluding section of the document undertakes a comparative analysis of the essential amino acid profiles of the major reported feed ingredient sources for cultured finfish and crustaceans, and presents average reported dietary inclusion levels of major feed ingredient sources used within practical feeds, including their major attributes and limitations. Finally, the importance of feed safety, traceability, and use of good feed manufacturing practices is stressed, together with the importance of considering the long term sustainability of feed ingredient supplies.
Type of publicationBook
Publication year2009
Job numberI1142/E
Bibliographical referenceTacon, A.G.J.; Metian, M.; Hasan, M.R. Feed ingredients and fertilizers for farmed aquatic animals: sources and composition. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 540. Rome, FAO. 2009. 209p.
Data ownerFI /FIRA
Series titleFAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper  - T540
Agrovoc Aquaculture, Aquaculture techniques, Aquatic animals, Aquatic organisms, Crustacean culture, Feed additives, Feed cereals, Feed consumption, Feed conversion efficiency, Feed industry, Feed legumes, Feed processing, Feed production, Fertilizers, Fish feeding, Freshwater molluscs, Information dissemination, Inorganic fertilizers, Organic fertilizers, Polyculture (aquaculture), Shellfish
Categories Aquaculture production
Programme name Aquaculture Information Products
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