Table 12a. Suggested feed quality norms (% "as fed" unless otherwise specified)  for Penaeus monodon
Feed class Larvae (Z-M) Postlarvae Starter Grower Finisher
Crude protein % (mean) 45–52 (47) 40–50 (45) 38–42 (40)1 35–42 (38) 35–40 (36)
Non–protein nitrogen (%)   <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2
Crude lipid % (mean)  6–12 (7.5) 6–10 (7.5)  5.7–8 (6.7) 3.5–8 (6.7) 3.5–8 (6)
Crude fibre % <3 <3 <4 <4 <5
Moisture % <11 <11 <12 <12 <12
Carbohydrate % 10–15 10–15 10–15 15–25 20–30
Energy (kcal/100 g of feed) 340–380 340–380 320–370 300–370 280–340
Ash (%) <14 <14 <14 <16 <16
Phosphorus (%)   1.2–1.5 1.2–1.5 1.2–1.5 1.2–1.5
Calcium (%)   <2.3 <2.3 <2.3 <2.3
Potassium (%) 0.7–0.9 0.7–0.9 0.7–0.9 0.7–0.9 0.7–0.9
Essential fatty acid (%) 
Linoleic acid + Linolenic acid (min) 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 1 >0.8 >0.6 >0.5 >0.5
Phospholipids (lecithin) (%) 1 1 0.4–1 0.4–1 0.4–1
Cholesterol2 (%) 0.5 0.4–0.5 0.2–0.5 0.2–0.5 0.2–0.5
Astaxanthin (ppm)   200 – – 50–200
Essential amino acid (%)
  
Arginine 2.7 2.7 2.5–3.1 2.5–3.1 2.5–3.1
Isoleucine     1.33–1.67 1.33–1.67 1.33–1.67
Methionine 1.1 1.1 0.72–1.24 0.72–1.24 0.72–1.24
Methionine + Cystine 1.6 1.6 >1.37 >1.37 >1.37
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine     1.62–2.16 1.62–2.16 1.62–2.16
Phenylalanine     1.50–1.70 1.50–1.70 1.50–1.70
Tryptophan     0.4–0.55 0.4–0.55 0.4–0.55
Histidine     0.63–1.00 0.63–1.00 0.63–1.00
Lysine 2.4 2.4 2.1–3.0 2.0–3.0 2.0–3.0
Threonine 1.6 1.6 1.37–1.7 1.37–1.7 1.37–1.7
Valine     1.52–2.1 1.52–2.1 1.52–2.1
Leucine     2.0–2.62 2.0–2.62 2.0–2.62
Target shrimp size (g)   <0.5 0.5–5      5–30       >30      
Feed type   Powders Crumble, short–cut pellets Pellet Pellet
Feed size (mm)   various ΅m 0.4–2.0 mm 1.8–2.5D x    2.0–5L 1.8–2.5D x     2.0–5L
Typical market prices US$ (CIF)3   $10 807–1 067 807–956 807–911
Pathogenic bacterium (Salmonella)   Not permitted
Aspergillus   Not permitted
Aflatoxin   <10 ppb
Adapted from Akiyama, Dominy and Lawrence, 1991; Ahamad Ali, 1999, 2001; CIBA, 2000, 2003 (http://www.ciba.tn.nic.in/ (accessed March 2009);  Conklin, 2003; FAO, 2007b;  Glencross and Smith, 1999, 2001a,b; Gonzαlez-Fιlixa et al., 2004; Perez-Velazquez, Gonzαlez-Fιlix and  Lawrence, 2004; Lovell (1989);Penaflorida, 1999.
1Assuming a good level of natural production contributing to the diet, the protein level of the starter can be lower.
2Cholesterol in raw materials should be accounted for and may supply all cholesterol needs (0.25 %) for grower  
pellets (W.G. Dominy, personal communication, 1999).        
3Cost including freight to port of destination; FOB price quoted in 2007: US$ 650/tonne, 42 % protein (Sanfeng Feed, China).